Home >> A-treatise-on-colour-manufacture >> Acids to Manufacture Of Zinc White
Loading

Acids
Acids Sulphuric Acid ; Mol. W., 98). This Acid Being The Most Important For Colour Manufacturing Purposes, Its Properties May Be Thoroughly Explained. In A Very Concentrated State Sulphuric Acid Forms A Thick, Liquid, Oily, Absolutely Colourless Mass Of Sp. Gr. P8384 (66° B.). The Trade Article Generally Appears More ...

Adjuncts Mixed Milk Lead
Adjuncts Mixed Milk Lead Chromates. The Chromes Are Put On The Market In A Pure State (termed " Chemically Pure") As Well As Mixed With White Adjuncts. As It Is Impossible To Obtain Sulphur And Pale Lemon Chromes Without A Certain Proportion Of Lead Sulphate, It Would Be Incorrect To ...

Advantageous Dis Position Of
Advantageous Dis Position Of Mineral Colour Works Plant. The Definition Of Natural Mineral Colours Has Already Been Elucidated In The Introduction (pp. 4 And 5), And In Accordance With That Definition We Include Under This Designation All Those Pigments Derived From Those Characteristically Coloured Minerals Occurring In A Ready-formed State ...

Alumina
Alumina. Aluminium Hydroxide Is The Most Important Carrier, And Is Nearly Always Present In The Best Lakes. It Is Used As Such, Or Produced At The Same Time As The Colouring Matter Is Precipitated. In A Nearly Pure State, Or At The Most Mixed With A Little Artificial Barytes—which Is ...

Aluminium Compounds
Aluminium Compounds. Alumina Salts. This Compound Is Found Native In Considerable Quantities As So-called Halotrichile And Ahoninile (websterite), The Latter With Only 9 Molecules Of Water Of Crystallisation. The Artificially Produced Pure Aluminium Sulphate Crystallises In Thin And Soft Nacreous Needles Or Leaves, And Does Not Change In The Air. ...

Amido Bases
Amido Bases. The Chief Amido Bases Now Used In Practice Include Paranitraniline, Nitrotoluidine, Benzidine, Tolidine, Dianisidine, And Alphanaphthylamine. Besides These Bodies, Amidobenzene, Producing A Very Bluish-red, And Amidoazotoluene, Giving Very Bright Maroon Tones, May Be Mentioned, Though The Lakes Obtained From Amidobenzene Are Much Less Fast To Light Than Paranitraniline ...

Antimony Salts
Antimony Salts. Antimony Sulphide Mol. W., 333). This Is The Most Widely Known Of All The Native Antimony Ores, And Is Named Antimonite (stibnite, Or Antimony Glance). It Generally Forms Long Crystals Of The Rhombic System, Or Foliaceous Masses With A Characteristic Metallic Lustre And Of A Leaden Or Steely ...

Archil
Archil. (orseille, Oriceho, Orchilla). Archil, Like Litmus, Is Obtained From The Algal Genera 'lamella, "'arialaria, And Lecanora. It Was First Recognised As A Dye-stuff At Florence In The Fourteenth Century, Where Archil Dyeing Was Practised As A Secret Process. The Consumption Of Archil—afterwards Made From Numberless Varieties Of The Above ...

Arsenic Compounds
Arsenic Compounds Arsenic (arsenious Acid Asp,; Mol. W., 198) Arsenic—viz., Arsenious Anhydride—occurs Naturally, Though Rarely, As So-called Arsenic Flowers. The Artificially Manufactured Arsenic Crystallises Generally In Brilliant Transparent Octahedra Of The Tesseral System, Some Times, However, In The Rhombic System, And Is Therefore Dimorphous. When Heated, Arsenic Volatilises, Without Previous ...

Arsenic Disease
Arsenic Disease. Arsenic Is The Strongest Mineral Poison Known. It Affects Not Only The Animal Organism, But Plant Life As Well. This Poisonous Action Is Not Confined To White Arsenic (arsenious Acid), But Extends To All Other Arsenic Compounds Also, And Is The Greater In Proportion To Their Solubility In ...

Artificial Organic Colouring Matters
Artificial Organic Colouring Matters. The Origin And Development Of The Coal-tar Colour Industry Represent One Of The Greatest Triumphs Of Modern Chemistry During The Last Century. In Spite Of The Short Period (half A Century) That Has Elapsed Since The Manu Facture Of These Products Was Commenced On Proper Lines, ...

Barium Chromate Barium Yellow
Barium Yellow, Barium Chromate. Bacro, (yellow Ultramarine). Colour, Also Known As Steinballer Yellow, Is Prepared By Precipi Tating A Hot Solution Of Barium Chloride With Neutral Sodium Potassium Chromate, Barium Yellow Coming Down As A Sulphur-coloured Precipitate. After Washing It Forms In The Dry State A Delicate Sulphur-yellow Powder, Deficient ...

Barium Salts
Barium Salts. Barium Carbonate (baco,; Mol. W., 197) This Salt Occurs Native As The Mineral Witherite (see Earth Colours), Crystallises In Rhombic Columns, And Serves As A Raw Material In The Manufac Ture Of The Barium Salts. It Is Artificially Obtained As A White, Amorphous, Earthy, Tasteless, And Inodorous Powder ...

Barium Sulphide From Barytes
Barium Sulphide From Barytes. The Reduction Of Barytes To Barium Sulphide With Coal Is Best Effected In A Retort Furnace. The Retorts, Constructed Of Fireclay Tiles, Are Built Into A Furnace One Above Another, And Also Side By Side, In Such A Manner That They Are Uniformly Heated. The Openings ...

Barytes And Artificial Barytes
Barytes And Artificial Barytes. Though Artificial Barytes Is Nearly As Largely Used As Alumina For Lake-manu Facturing, Pigment Colours Rarely Contain Artificial Barytes Alone As A Carrier— In Fact, Only Those Prepared By The Simultaneous Precipitation Of The Colouring Matter With Barium Chloride And Glauber Salt, Whereby The Quantity And ...

Black Earth Colours
Black Earth Colours. A. Mineral Black (black Chalk, Oil Black, Slate Black, 4•c.) At Present Only Very Small Quantities Of This Product Are Sold, The So Called Mineral Black, A Clay Shale Containing Up To 30 Per Cent. And More Carbon. When Suitably Prepared It Forms A Fine, Soft, More ...

Black Pigments
Black Pigments. All The Natural Black Pigments Have A Special Modification Of Carbon— Namely, The Amorphous Form—as The Colouring Principle. Carbon Is Known In Three Allotropic Modifications: The Regular Crystalline, Perfectly Transparent Diamond; The Irregular, Foliaceous, Crystalline Form Of Metallic Appearance And Grey To Black Colour, Plumbago; And The Amorphous ...

Blue Cobalt Colours
Blue Cobalt Colours. The Members Of This Group Are But Very Little Used As Colours In The True Sense Of The Word, Having Been On The One Hand Entirely Displaced By Newer And More Intensive Colours, Whilst, On The Other, Their High Price Has Always Been A Serious Obstacle To ...

Blue Copper Colours
Blue Copper Colours. Bremen Blue. The Consumption Of Bremen Blue Seems To Have Decreased In The Course Of The Past Ten Years Very Considerably, A Circumstance That Can Be Suffi Ciently Explained By The Introduction Of Artificial Ultramarine And Numerous Blue Lakes From Coal-tar Dyes Which Are At Least Equal ...

Blue Ferrocyanide Colours
Blue Ferrocyanide Colours. Prussian Blues (berlin And Paris Blue). The Manufacture Of This Extremely Important Group Of Colours Is Be Coming More And More Restricted To Special Blue Works, Or The Very Largest General Colour Manufactories, On Account Of The Very Extensive Plant Required And The Fact That The Process ...

Blue Mineral Colours
Blue Mineral Colours. In Comparison With The White And Yellow Mineral Colours Described In The Preceding Pages The Number Of Blue Mineral Colours In Technical Use At The Present Time Is Small. They May Be Divided Into The Following Groups : A. Blue Copper Colours. 1. Bremen Blue, Consisting Essentially ...

Boron Compounds
Boron Compounds. Boric Acid (boracic Acid; Mol. W., 62). Boric Acid Is Found Native, Partly In The Free State And Partly In Combina Tion With Alkalies. In The Free State It Is Found In The Vapours And Gases Of Certain Volcanoes And Several Hot Springs, Especially In Italy, California, The ...

Brazil Wood Redwood
Redwood, Brazil Wood. (botha; Bois Rouge). Redwood Is A Collective Name Applied To A Large Number Of Various Species Of Wood, Belonging, Like Logwood, To The Family Leguminosfe, Genus Cwsalpinia, And Found In The East Indies, South And Central America, The Antilles, Africa, Jamaica, And The Bahama Islands The Following ...

Brown Earth Colours
Brown Earth Colours. Umber, Chestnut Brown (burnt Umber, Velvet Brown). True Umber Is Really Brown Ochre, But Gradually The Name Has Been Extended By Merchants And Manufacturers To Similarly Coloured Bodies Which Approxi Mate Physically To Lignite, Or Are Identical With That Substance, And The Term " Umber," Therefore, Is ...

Brown Mineral Colours
Brown Mineral Colours. Owing To The Abundance Of Powerful Brown Minerals Of Such Soft Texture That They Can Be Easily Prepared By Mechanical Treatment For Painter's, Artist's, Paper Stainer's, And Litho Printer's Colours, The Manufacture Of Artificial Brown Mineral Colours Is Unprofitable And Superfluous. Greater Importance Attaches To The Manufacture ...

Cadmium Compounds Cadmium
Cadmium Compounds Cadmium. Sulphate (cdso, 4fi,0 ; Mol. W., 280). Is The Only Salt Used In Colour-making. The Method Of Manufacture Has Already Been Described On P. 152. The Salt Forms Large, Hard, Colourless, Transparent Crystals, Readily Soluble In Water. The Cadmium Compounds Give With Hydrogen Sulphide A Yellow Pre ...

Cadmium Yellow
Cadmium Yellow. (cadmiumgelb, Jaime De Cadmium). The Different Yellow Pigments Met With In Commerce Under This Name Are All, Without Exception, The Same Compound Of The Metal Cadmium With Sulphur, Cadmium Monosulphide,.cds, Which Differs In Shade According To Its Physical Condition. There Are Four To Six Shades Of Cadmium Yellow, ...

Calcination And Calcining Furnaces
Calcination And Calcining Furnaces. Calcination Is The Treatment Of Chemical Compounds At High Temperatures, Either By Themselves Or In Admixture With Other Bodies Capable Of Producing An Oxidising Or Reducing Effect. In Calcination The Substance Undergoes A Change Which May Be Both Chemical And Physical. Thus The Immediate Consequence Of ...

Calcining The Mixture Of
Calcining The Mixture Of Barium Sulphate And Zinc Sulphide. The Crude Raw Lithopone Is Calcined In Hermetically Closed Retorts. For This Operation The Furnaces Used For The Reduction Of Barytes In The Manufacture Of Barium Sulphide Can Be Employed. Each Retort Is Provided At The Top With A Sliding Fire-brick ...

Calcining Ultramarine Mixtures And
Calcining Ultramarine Mixtures And Green Ultramarine. This Operation Is Performed In Cylindrical Or Tapered Fireclay Crucibles, Placed One Upon Another In A Kind Of Muffle Furnace Similar To Those Used In Porcelain Works, And Exposed To A Temperature Between Red And White Heat For Seven To Ten Hours. The Tapered ...

Calcium Compounds Calcium Chloride
Calcium Compounds Calcium Chloride. Mol. W., 219). In The Calcined (anhydrous) State Calcium Chloride Is A White, Porous, Pumice-like Mass, With A Sharp, Bitter Taste. When Strongly Heated In The Air It Melts, And Parts With Chlorine, The Resulting Solution Then Having An Alkaline Reaction. Calcium Chloride Is Very Hygroscopic ...

Carbon Blacks
Carbon Blacks. The Modern Method Of Producing Carbon Blacks Is By The So-called Dry Distillation. When Volatile Organic Bodies—alcohol, Benzene, Ether, &c. Are Heated To The Boiling-point They Volatilise Without Decomposition, And Can Be Collected Again In Exactly The Same State As Before By Suitable Means. This Is Called The ...

Carmine Colouring Principles Of
Colouring Principles Of Animal Origin, Carmine. 1. Carmine The Coccus Cacti, An Insect Living Preferably On The Nopal Plant, On Which It Is Also Reared In Other Places, Is Indigenous To Mexico And Central America. The Females Of This Insect Are Collected Shortly Before The Laying Season, And Are Killed ...

Carriers For Lake Pigments
Carriers For Lake Pigments. In View Of The Diversified Application Of Lake Colours, The Choice Of The Suitable Bodies To Form The Base (or Carrier) Of The Lake Is Often More Impor Tant Than That Of The Colouring Matter—considered Merely As A Colouring Principle—since One And The Same Lake Will ...

Cassel Yellow
Cassel Yellow. (mineral Yellow, Veronese Yellow Has Gone Out Of Technical Use Since The Introduction Of The Far Brighter Chrome Yellows, And Is Probably Not To Be Found In Commerce At All Now. It Can Be Prepared In Several Ways—for Example, By Melting Together Ten Parts Of Litharge And One ...

Centrifugal Mills Or Disintergators
Centrifugal Mills Or Disintergators. These Consist Of Two Or More Concentrically Mounted Plates Or Drums (cages) Of Wrought Iron, Carrying On Their Periphery A Number Of Steel Rods Or Pins, And Revolving At High Speed In Opposite Directions. This Motion Is Produced By Two Separate Strong Shafts Carrying The Drums ...

Centrifugal Sifting Machine
Centrifugal Sifting Machine. This Machine Is Met With In Practice In A Great Variety Of Forms, All, However, Based On The Same Principle—namely, That The Material To Be Sifted Is Passed Through A Long Round Or Hexagonal Linder Covered With Some Kind Of Metal Or Silk Fabric. By Means Of ...

Chemical Constitution And Its
Chemical Constitution And Its Relation To Tinctorial Power. The Tar Colouring Matters Are Sold In The State Of Powder Or Crystals, Rarely As A Watery Paste. In This Latter Case They Are Not Soluble In Water, Though As A Rule They Are Readily Soluble In Hot Water. The Shade Of ...

Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll. Chlorophyll Is The Green Colouring Matter Of The Leaves And Stalks Of Plants, In Which It Occurs In The Shape Of Small, Lenticular, Flattened Globules. Though It Is The Most Generally Distributed Vegetable Colouring Matter, Its Chemical Nature Is Not Fully Known. It Seems To Consist Of Two Colouring ...

Chrome Oxide Greens
Chrome Oxide Greens. In View Of The Superior Qualities Of Chromic Oxide, Its Perfect Fastness To Light And Indifference To Chemical And Thermal Influences Of All Kinds, This Compound Might Be Regarded As One Of The Most Ideal Colours For Technical Purposes. Unfortunately, However, It Fulfils To Only A Limited ...

Chromium Compounds
Chromium Compounds. Chromium Salts. Besides Potassium And Sodium Biehromates, The Preparation Of Which Has Been Thoroughly Described In The Manufacture Of The Lead Chromates (see P. 135), Use Is Sometimes Made In Colour Making Of The Chromium Sulphate And Chrome Alum, Which May Therefore Be Briefly Described. Chromium Sulphate ; ...

Clcium Phosphate
Clcium Phosphate (bone Earth). Neutral Calcium Phosphate Occurs Native As Hexagonal Crystals Of Apatite, Which Also Contains Variable Quantities Of Calcium Fluoride And Calcium Chloride. Under The Names Of Phosphorite And Osteolite It Is Found In The Amorphous, Earthy, Or Crypto-crystalline State, The Latter Especially Near Limburg And Amberg. The ...

Coal Tar Its Manufacture
Coal Tar Its Manufacture And Treatment And The Recovery Of Intermediate Products. It Has Already Been Mentioned That The Coal-tar Colour Industry Was Not Founded In Germany, But In England And France ; And It Was Especially Pointed Out That The Proper Investigation Of The Derivatives Suitable For Dyeing Pur ...

Coal Tar Precipitated By
Coal Tar Precipitated By Tanic Acid. The Very Large Class Of Basic Coal-tar Colours Especially Have The Property Of Forming Tannates, Which Are Insoluble In Water. This Method Of Precipi Tation Is One Of The Most Important Used, Though It Is Not Suitable For All Basic Coal-tar Colours, Sonic Of ...

Cobalt Blue
Cobalt Blue. (cobalt Ultramarine, Cobalt Blue, Thcnrard Or Leyden Blue, King's Blue). With Regard To Its Chemical Composition, This Colour Is A Compound Of Cobaltous Oxide And Alumina, Or Of Both, With Variable Quantities Of Zinc Oxide. Whether The Latter Enters Into Combination Entirely Or Whether Only A Portion Of ...

Colouring Matters Of Vegetable
Colouring Matters Of Vegetable Origin. The Colouring Matters Of Vegetable Origin Are Of Greater Importance Than The Animal Colours, Both In Quantity And Technical Value, Even Though They Are Much Less Employed Than Was The Case Before The Discovery Of The Artificial Coal-tar Colours. We Can Therefore Deal With Most ...

Colouring Ultramarine By Roasting
Colouring Ultramarine By Roasting. The Roasting Of The Crude Ultramarine Green To Convert It Into The Blue Modification Has Undergone More Changes Than Any Other Stage Of The Manu Facturing Process, As The Result Of Constant Search For Improvement And Simplifi Cation, Though, Of Course, Not Always With The Desired ...

Colours Direct Method
Colours Direct Method. As Already Mentioned, Only A Few Prussian Blues Are Made By Direct Precipitation Of Soluble Ferric Salts With Potassium Ferrocyanide, And These Are Much Inferior In Brightness To Those Produced By The Indirect Method. The Diffetence With Regard To The Characteristic Metallic Copperlike Lustre Is Especially Striking, ...

Combined Lake Pigments
Combined Lake Pigments. Before Discussing Other Matters Of Precipitation It Will Be Advisable To Acquaint The Reader With The Most Important Combinations Obtainable By The Methods Already Described. Though The Subject Is Too Broad To Be Treated Thoroughly, A Few Typical Examples May Be Given, Which, If Properly Arranged And ...

Compounding The Colours
Compounding The Colours. Having Learned The Preparation Of The Different Solutions, The Next Step Is The Actual Manufacture Of The Colours. This Is Always Based On A Combination Of Those Solutions In Accordance With Fixed Rules. The Decisive Factor Is The Order In Which Several Solutions Are Employed ; And ...

Copper Compounds
Copper Compounds. Copper Sulphate 5h,0 ; Mol. W., 249.5). Is Found Native In Considerable Quantities As A Secondary Product Of The Gradual Oxidation Of Copper Ores, Especially In Old Mines. In Mines Con Taining Copper Sulphide Ores Sulphate Of Copper Is Formed By The Oxidation Of These Ores In The ...

Coulours For Graphic Purposes
Coulours For Graphic Purposes. Besides Lead Pencils And Coloured Crayons Already Mentioned, This Class Includes Writing Inks, Drawing Inks, Stamping Inks, And Printing Inks Of All Kinds. The Pigments Used Are Derived From All Classes Of Organic And Inorganic Substances. Writing Ink Is Manufactured In A Great Variety Of Ways. ...

Crushing Machines Edge Runner
Crushing Machines Edge Runner. It Is Impossible To Mention All The Different Constructions Of These Highly Productive Machines, And Therefore Only Two Varieties Will Now Be Fully Described, In Order To Give A Sufficient Insight Into Their Methods Of Working. The Principle Of These Mills Is That Of A Pair ...

Curcuma Turmeric
Turmeric, Curcuma. The Root Of The Curcuma Longs And C. Rotunda, Plants Growing In Asia, Are Brought On The Market In Lumps Or As A Yellow Powder, And Contain A Yellow Colouring Matter, Curcumine. It Can Be Extracted By Means Of Alcohol, Ether, And Alkalies, But Less Readily With Water. ...

Cutch
Cutch. (japan Earth, Katechn, Cachou). In Bombay A Hard, Dark Brown, Astringent Extract, The True Catechu Or Cutch, Is Obtained By Boiling The Wood Of A 16-ft. To 25-ft. Tree, The Acacia Catechu. Another Kind Of Cutch Is Obtained In Bengal By Boiling The Fruit (betel Nut) Of The Areca ...

Dragons Blood
Dragon's Blood. This Is A Collective Name Applied To A Series Of Very Similar Deep Brown Red Shaded Resins From Certain Tropical Trees, Especially Palms, Species Of Calamus, Found In India, Sumatra, And The Moluccas. The Resin Is Excreted As Granules On The Fruits, Or Exudes From The Bark Of ...

Drum Or Ball Mills
Drum Or Ball Mills. In These Mills The Crushing Of The Material Is Effected By A Number Of Forged, Very Hard Steel Balls Of Different Sizes, Which Are Kept Rolling By Slowly Rotating The Drum, And Thus Gradually Crush The Material Introduced Between Them. According To The Nature Of The ...

Dry Method
Dry Method. The Manufacture Of Vermilion In The Dry Way Rests Upon The Property Of Mercury For Combining Chemically With Sulphur By Simple Mixing. At First A Powdered Black Mass Is Obtained, The Amorphous Black Sulphide Of Mercury, Forming The Raw Material For The Manufacture Of Crystalline Mercury Sulphide, The ...

Drying Natural Mineral Colours
Drying Natural Mineral Colours And Drying Plants. Drying-plants May Be Divided Into Two Classes, One Serving For Drying The Raw Materials And The Other For Drying The Levigated Colours. Whereas For The Former Purpose Very Simple Arrangements Generally Suffice, By Reason Of The Low Content Of Moisture In The Raw ...

Dyeing
Dyeing. In Contrast To Painting, In Which, As We Have Seen, Merely A Superficial Application Of Colour Takes Place, Either Over A Part Or The Whole Of The Surface To Be Coloured, The Process Of Dyeing Generally Implies The Impreg Nation Of The Whole Mass Of The Fabric Or Substance ...

Dying The Colours
Dying The Colours. Of No Less Importance Than The Chemical Compositicn Of The Artificial Mineral Colours Is The Method Of Drying Employed, Most Colours, As Already Mentioned, Being Liable To A Variety Of Changes Even In The Course Of The Drying Process. These Changes May Go So Far As To ...

Establishment Of A Colour
Establishment Of A Colour Works. For Colour Works, As In All Chemical Factories, An Ample Supply Of Pure Soft Water Is A Very Important Factor, Since The Purity And Softness Of The Water Greatly Influence The Brilliance And The Other Qualities Determining The Utility And Selling Value Of The Resulting ...

Excelsior Mills
Excelsior Mills. About Thirty Years Ago There Was Introduced Under This Name A Class Of Crushing-machine Which Has Become Widely Appreciated On Account Of Its Suitability For A Variety Of Purposes. Though Simple In Principle And Having Relatively Small Grinding Surfaces, These Mills Have A High Capacity In The Case ...

Filtering And Preasing
Filtering And Preasing. After It Has Been Ascertained That All The Salts Adhering To The Precipitates Have Been Eliminated By Washing As Described Above, The Next Step Is To Free The Colours, As Much As Possible, From The Final Traces Of Contained Water. This Can Be Done To A Certain ...

Finishing Process
Finishing Process. In The State In Which It Leaves The Corroding Plant The White Lead, No Matter Whether Made By The Dutch, Klagenfurt, Or German Process, Is Not In Marketable Condition, And Therefore Has To Be Subjected To Several Finishing Operations To Impart To It The Required Shape Or Fineness. ...

Frankfort Black
Frankfort Black. In Its Purest Form This Pigment Is Obtained From Spent Wine Yeast. Grape Husks, Vine Twigs, Vine Wood, And Other Similar Materials Also Give Products Of Good Appearance And Fairly Good Covering Power—the Cheaper Commercial Brands. Various Intermediate Qualities, At Corresponding Prices, Are Obtained From Mixtures Of Frankfort ...

Fustet
Fustet. Fustet Wood Is Produced By A Tannin-containing Tree (rhos Cotinus) Growing In The South Of Europe (italy, Spain, Turkey, Hungary, Dalmatia), In The Levant And Jamaica, Partly Wild, Partly As An Ornamental Bush. The Colouring Matter, Fisetin, Which Is Only Found In The Heart Of The Wood, Was Intimately ...

Fustic
Fustic. (brazil Wood, Yellow Wood). Fustic Is Sold In The Form Of Logs (from Which The Bark Has Been Removed), Sawn Smooth On Both Sides, From The Stems Of Morns Iincloria, Growing In The East Indies, Central And South America, And The Antilles, Where It Attains A Height Of About ...

Gamboge
Gamboge. (gumigutt, Guth). This Substance Is The Resin Of Garcinia Morella, A Plant Found Chiefly In The East Indies And Ceylon. On Incising The Bark A Milky Liquor Which Gradually Sets Hard Is Obtained. It Is Collected And Stored In Bamboo Canes. On Removing The Cane The Hard Resin Is ...

German Or Wet Process
German Or Wet Process. For The Manufacture Of The Vermilion In The Wet Way Various Methods Are Used, All Of Them Furnishing A Product Of A Much Brighter Appearance And Purer Shade Than That From The Sublimation Process, And Scarcely Inferior To The True Chinese Vermilion, Prepared By A Secret ...

Green Copper Colours
Green Copper Colours. Verdigris (copper Acetate) Cannot Be Considered A Colour In The True Sense, Being A Crystallised Salt Largely Soluble In Water. Nevertheless Its Different Varieties, When Pulverised And Ground With Varnish, Are Extensively Applied In Many Countries For Painting On Metals, E G., Sheet Iron, Which It Protects ...

Green Earth
Green Earth. Bohemian Or Veronese Earth (tyrolean Green, Cyprian Green, Seladon Green, Stone Green). The Minerals Called " Green Earth " In The Colour Trade Occur Native As Augites, Which Vary Considerably In Composition And Are Widely Distributed. The True Green Earth, However, So Long Used As A Green Painter's ...

Green Mineral Colours
Green Mineral Colours. According To The Raw Materials Used In Making The Green Mineral Colours, These Can Be Divided Into Three Classes: Copper, Chrome, And Ultramarine Green Colours. With Regard To The First Of These, Copper Sulphate Is Now The Sole Raw Material Used In Their Production. To Prepare The ...

Grey Earth Colours
Grey Earth Colours. Although Various Minerals Found Native In Considerable Quantities Could Serve As Grey Painter's Colours After Suitable Preparation, They Are Very Seldom Used, Because It Is Easier To Mix White Natural Or Artificial Mineral Colours With Blacks In Order To Obtain Cheap Grey Pigments Of A Pure Grey ...

Grinding The Dried Colours
Grinding The Dried Colours. The Dry Colours Are Now Sold In The Form Of A Fine Powder, This Being The Best For Most Purposes, And Since The Fineness Of The Powder Depends On The Method Of Applying The Colours, The Conversion Into This Form Is A Very Important Part Of ...

Guignets Green True Chrome
True Chrome Green, Guignets Green. (smaragd De Guignet). On Account Of Its Superior Qualities, The Chromium Tetrahydroxide, Of The Formula Cr,o(oh)„ Has A Larger Technical Application As A Pigment Than Any Of The Others. Its Preparation From Potassium Bichromate And Crystal Lised Boric Acid, Although Already Known For A Long ...

Horizontal Stones
Horizontal Stones. An Ordinary Machine Of This Class Comprises Two Stones—a Fixed Nether Stone A And A Rotary Upper Or Grinding Stone B. By Means Of A Crosshead C The Upper Stone Is Supported By A Vertical Shaft Or Spindle D. This Shaft Passes Through An Opening Or Eye In ...

Indian Yellow And Cobalt
Indian Yellow And Cobalt Yellow. (aureolin, Jaune Indian). This Colour Too, Which Probably Has The Formula Co(no,),+ 3k No„ Is Only Used As An Artist's Colour, On Account Of Its High Price. For Its Pro Duction An Acetified Solution Of Cobaltous Nitrate Is Treated With A Solution Of Potassium Nitrite, ...

Indigo
Indigo. Indigo Is One Of The Oldest And Most Extensively Used Blue Dolours. Even In The Earliest Times It Was Used As A Dye-stuff In The Orient, And Its Importance For This Purpose Is Still Based Upon Its Great Permanency, Which Is Not Surpassed By Any Other Colour, Although The ...

Indirect Methods Of Making
Indirect Methods Of Making Prussian Blue. The First Operation To Be Performed In This Process Is The Formation Of The White Precipitate Of Ferrous Ferrocyanide, In A Perfectly Pure State, I.e., In An Unoxidised Condition, Since Otherwise, As Experience Has Shown, It Is Impossible To Obtain A Perfect Product. Now, ...

Insoluble Azo And Diazo
Insoluble Azo And Diazo Colours. The First Attempts At Producing Insoluble Azo Colouring Matters Direct On The Fibre Was Made By R. Holliday At Huddersfield And Fr. Graessler At Cannstadt, But Their Methods Were Too Difficult To Use In Practice. Horace Kocklin (the Well-known Alsatian Chemist) Showed At The Paris ...

Iron Compounds
Iron Compounds. The Various Iron Oxides Are Thoroughly Described Under Earth Colours ; Therefore The Ferrous Salts Only Need To Be Dealt With Here. Ferrous Sulphate (" Green Vitriol" ; Feso, + 7h,0 ; Mol. W., 278) This Salt, Mostly Used In Colour Manufacture For Producing Prussian Blues, Forms, In ...

Lakes From Green Acid
Lakes From Green Acid. The Few Green Acid Colouring Matters—acid Green And Naphthol Green—are The Most Difficult To Precipitate Of All The Acid Colouring Matters. Most Of The Barium Chloride Precipitation Methods Either Fail To Give Complete Fixation Of The Colouring Matter, Or Require The Adoption Of Special Artifices To ...

Lead Compounds
Lead Compounds. Neutral Lead Carbonate. This Compound Is Found Native As Cerussite, Mostly In The Form Of White Transparent, Well-defined Rhombic Crystals. It Is Artifically Obtained By Pre Cipitating Soluble Lead Salts With Alkali Carbonates, And Forms Then A Dense White Powder Insoluble In Water. It Is Very Easily Decomposed ...

Lead Sulphate Non Poisonous
Lead Sulphate Non Poisonous White Lead Muhlhausen. This Colour Is Of Dazzling Whiteness, But Has Less Covering Power Than The Basic Carbonate On Account Of Its More Crystalline Nature. It Is Made By Precipitating A Soluble Lead Salt (acetate, Nitrate In Dilute Solution) With Dilute Sulphuric Acid, The Dilute Acetic ...

Litmus
Litmus. (lacmus, Tournesol). Certain Algae (species Of Roccella And Lecanora) Found In The East Indies, South And Central America, And On The Canary Islands Furnish A Blue Colouring Matter, Litmus (azolitmine, Lanai), Containing Various Colouring Principles, When Treated With Ammonia, Alkali Carbonates, And Lime, And Left To Ferment. In The ...

Lixiviating And Finishing The
Lixiviating And Finishing The Ultramarine. As Has Been Seen In The Explanation Of The Formative Process Of Ultra Marine Blue, The Impurities To Be Removed By Lixiviation After Calcination Consist Of A Larger Or Smaller Quantity Of Glauber Salt. The Manner Of Effecting This Operation Is, However, By No Means ...

Madder
Madder. (krapp, Garance). Madder Dyeing Was Practised From The Earliest Times, And Retained Its Great Importance Up To The Second Half Of The Nineteenth Century. Madder Is Used For Producing The Famous Turkey Red. Whereas In And About 1860 Approximately 70,000 Tons Of Madder, Worth About Two And A Quarter ...

Magnesium Compounds
Magnesium Compounds. Magnesium Oxide (magnesia; Mgo ; Mol. W., 40). This Oxide Forms A Fine White, Voluminous, Inodorous, And Tasteless Powder, Nearly Insoluble In Water. It Melts Only At A Very High Temperature. Magnesium Oxide Is Easily Dissolved By Most Mineral Acids, And Their Solu Tions Yield The Corresponding Salts. ...

Mane Facture Of Permanent
Mane Facture Of Permanent White From Witherite. Baco2 From A Technical Standpoint There Is Little Difference Between This Process And That Of Making Artificial Barium Sulphate From Barytes, Apart From The Reduction Of The Latter Into Barium Sulphide, The Apparatus And Manipulations Being The Same In Both Cases. There Is, ...

Manufacture Of Blanc Fire
Manufacture Of Blanc Fire. (artificial Barytes). According To Its Chemical Composition,-blanc Fixe Is Pure Barium Sulphate With The Chemical Formula It Is Manufactured In Considerable Quantities By Precipitating A Solution Of Barium Chloride With Sulphuric Acid Or Cheap Sulphates Such As Glauber Salt, Magnesium Sulphate, &c. For The Production Of ...

Manufacture Of Chrome Red
Manufacture Of Chrome Red From White Lead. This Process, By Reason Of Its Simplicity And Reliability, Is The One Mostly Used At Present. On A Small Scale, For Trial Purposes, It May Be Carried Out In The Following Manner. A Small Quantity Of White Lead In The State Of Paste ...

Manufacture Of Chrome Red_2
Manufacture Of Chrome Red From Basic Lead Chloride. (manufacture Of Chromes From Basic Lead Chloride) It Was Stated That The Formation Of Free Caustic Soda In This Process Enables Basic Lead To Be Made Direct. This Is Now Often Done On Account Of The Bright Shades Obtainable. The Potassium Bichromate ...

Manufacture Of Dark Lemon
Manufacture Of Dark Lemon Chromes. If 100 Parts Of Sugar Of Lead Be Precipitated According To The Table (p. 138) With Parts Of Potassium Bichromate Under The Conditions Required For The Production Of First Class Chromes, A Chrome Yellow Of Intermediate Shade Between The Pale And Dark Lemon Lead Chromates ...

Manufacture Of Lake Pigments
Manufacture Of Lake Pigments. The Theory Of The Formation Of Lake Pigments Has Not Yet Been Clearly Enunciated. Only In A Few Cases Can Lake Pigments Be Regarded As Chemical Combinations In The True Sense Of The Term, Since There Is No Com Bination Of The Colouring Matter, Base, And ...

Manufacture Of Lithopone
Manufacture Of Lithopone White Pigment Recently Introduced Into Commerce Under The Name " Lithopone " Is A Mixture Of Artificial Barytes And Zinc Sulphide, And Is Claimed Not Only To Replace The White Lead Hitherto Used In All Respects, But Also To Be Superior Thereto. Even Though The Expectations Of ...

Manufacture Of Nitric Acid
Manufacture Of Nitric Acid. Nitric Acid Is Manufactured On The Large Scale By Decomposing Chile Salt Petre With Sulphuric Acid : + H,s0, = Nahso, + H No,, Or At A Higher Temperature : 2nano, + H,s0, = Na,s0, + H No,. Horizontal Cast-iron Cylinders Are Now Used For This ...

Manufacture Of The Sulphur
Manufacture Of The Sulphur Yellow And Pale Lemon Chromes. In Laying Down The General Rules To Be-observed In The Manufacture Of The Paler Coloured Chromes Reference Was Made To The Fact That The Pre Cipitation Of Potassium Bichromate With Soluble Lead Salts Will Not Furnish The Very Light Shades, Viz., ...

Manufacture Of White Lead
Manufacture Of White Lead. White Lead Is One Of The Most Important Artificial Pigments Made, And Its Technical Application, Especially For Painting In Varnish, Is Far More Extensive Than Is The Case With Any Other Mineral Colour. Although The Use Of This Pigment Has Been Restricted Considerably In Some Countries ...

Manufacture Of Zinc White
Manufacture Of Zinc White. Zinc White Is Zinc Oxide, A Compound Of Metallic Zinc With Oxygen, Having The Chemical Formula Zno. It Is Prepared In Large Quantities From The Metal Itself, As Well As Directly From Ores. The Manufacturing Process Is Based On A Remarkable Property Of Zinc, Namely, That ...