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Building Recommended-The Timber Work

"At L you see the gable which has to join the roof of the staircase; and do not forget that stone filletings M must be built into the walls against which roofs abut, form ing a weather-moulding above these roofs, to hinder the rain-water from getting in between the slating and the wall. Filletings are most commonly made with mortar or cement, on the roofing itself; but as that is subject to movement, these filletings break away and have to be constantly renewed. Built into the masonry above the slope of the roofing, they cover the junction of the slate or tile with the walls, and, being independent of the roof, they cannot suffer from any giving in the timbers.

"You will draw the roofs to a scale of a quarter of an inch to a foot; I will correct your drawings, and we will give them to the carpenter, in order that he may prepare his timbers as soon as possible. We will figure the scant lings of these timbers. Thus, the blades on the principal rafters should be 8 inches x 7 inches, the collar-clips 3/ inches x 7 inches, the king-posts 7 inches x 7 inches, the tie-beam the same, the main supports 8 inches x 8 inches, the rafters 3 inches x 4 inches, the purlins 8 inches x 8 inches, without sap or flaws." "What do you mean by flaws?" "Depressions; deficiencies of material apparent at the corners when timbers are squared which are rather crooked, and which thereby leave sap visible on these corners and even a hollow place, such as I mark here at A {Fig. 5o). You will be careful not to allow flaws in timbers which the carpenter may employ for the roofs and joists.

"In considering our floors, I see that for the billiard-room, the dining-room, and the drawing-room, we shall do well to have in each of these apartments two beams to take the joists, on account of the width of bearing, and the parti tions which come over these floors. You remember that we deferred this question, and that in the detail (Fig. 42), and in the section (Fig. 46), we have supposed the exist ence of these beams. The joists in these three rooms, instead of bearing from one side wall to the other, will bear from the gable walls on to the beams. But these beams, though cut from the best oak, invariably deflect sooner or later; which, to say the least, looks very bad. We will therefore make them each in two pieces, sawn through in the manner I showed you for lintels, and be tween the two pieces we will interpose a thin plate of iron. That will enable us to treat the beams like the wall bearers, and fit the joists into their sides, instead of laying them on the top, and consequently avoid a too great pro jection below the ceiling. Thus (Fig. 51), having two pieces of timber A, 12 inches x 6 inches, we will put be tween them a plate of iron ith of an inch thick. We will bolt the whole together at regular intervals as marked at ll, and, in the notches C, we will fix the ends of the joists E. A few iron straps will be nailed across to connect these ends one to another, and we shall obtain in this manner perfectly rigid floors. The beams will be supported in their bearings by corbels, and will not go more than six inches into the wall. This then is another detail to be got ready for the carpenter. Mind and see that the ends of the beams within the wall have a coat of red lead, and are enclosed in a box of sheet zinc, No. 14, to prevent the moisture of the wall from penetrating the grain of the wood. Well ! that is something done : draw it all out neatly. To-morrow, when I have looked over your draw ings, we will send for Jean Godard, and we will go and select the wood in your father's timber-yard." Next day Paul presented his drawings. Many cor rections were, indeed, necessary, still on the whole his cousin congratulated him on the result. Paul was taking pains, and was endeavouring to understand everything thoroughly; and though he could not always find the simplest and most natural solutions, he showed at least that he had reflected before putting anything on paper.

Jean Godard having been summoned, the drawings were presented to him. Some explanations were given him, after which Eugene asked him if he had any observations to make. Jean Godard was scratching his head, but said nothing.

"Is there anything in all this that you do not clearly understand, or that seems faulty?"said Eugene to him.

"No, sir; but yet these are floors that are out of the common way; it will be difficult - we are not accustomed - and you see - it isn't what we generally do in carpentry."

"Which means that you must be paid more than for floors made in your way." "Yes, to be sure - you understand - there is labour to be considered - all these timbers here must be sawn - planed, perhaps." "Consider well, Jean. The joists must be sawn on two faces only - the two faces that are seen; but all joists are sawn out. If we asked you to supply the wood, you might say that you would not find joists of this kind; but in this case you have to select from our wood. If you use small timber it will be enough to saw two faces thus (Fig. 52): you may, if you like, leave the faces A roughly squared and only cleared of sap. If you cut your joists out of large timber (Fig. 53) you will only have to run the saw-cuts as I have sketched here at B. But I prefer to use small timber, because it does not crook in drying, as timber which is quartered is sure to do; and I think we shall have enough of the former to prevent us from being obliged to employ this last method. We shall have, then, to pay you only for the sawing of the two faces, as for the joists you usually employ. As for the beams, they will be also sawn on two faces only, for if we cut them from a single trunk we shall put the two sawn faces outside (Fig. 54), and the plate of iron being interposed at D we shall put below a moulded board C, to cover the joining, and the flaws, should there be any. With regard to the triangular notchings to be made at E, they are less difficult to fashion than mortises, and as the joists bear in full they have no tenons. It is the same with the bearers which, along the walls, receive the ends of the joists, and take the place of cornices. - Well, what do you say about it?" "Why - still it isn't flooring such as we see everywhere." "What does that matter, if it gives you no more trouble to make? We shall take account of the time you spend, as we furnish the wood; consequently you are secured againt loss. Make a careful estimate, and if you like we will make a bargain. We will pay you by the cubic foot as for ordinary flooring, or take account of the time employed in working and pay you for that time. Make your choice !" Jean Godard twirled his cap about some time, looked at the drawings in every possible way, scratched his right ear again, then his left, and after a good half-hour declared that he consented to be paid for floors of this kind at the same rate as for ordinary floors according to measurement.

"And you are right,"said Eugene;"for if you manage your work well, if there is no bungling, you will gain more by this bargain than if we paid you according to time, because there is less work in flooring of this kind for the same quantity of material than in those you are accustomed to make, especially in this neighbourhood." Jean Godard,.however, asked for an additional con sideration for the bearers that were to be substituted for the rough fixing in the walls.

"Granted,"said Eugene;"we save plaster cornices, and it is right that we should make you an allowance on tha t account." It was therefore resolved that they should make a sepa rate payment for the labour on the bearers, that is, for their notches and chamfers.

Next day four pit-saws were at work, cutting up the timber that had been stored. The scene of labour had resumed all its activity. In the masonry department a design for a dormer-window remained to be furnished, but which was soon supplied (Fig. 55), and besides this the direction of the chimney flues.

Eugene on giving Paul the particulars of the dorMer windows, section A and exterior elevation B, drew his attention to their construction. Raised on a gutter-wall 20 inches thick, they were to consist of two jambs of three courses each. On the first two courses would be left a string-course c, designed to cover the slate of the roofing and to form a filleting. These two jambs would carry the lintel and two stones forming corbels. Two pieces on this lintel would receive the gable knees, and would form the jambs of the higher opening designed to ventilate the attics. The gable Would consist of two courses surmounted by a finial. The section indicated how the slopes of the coping would form a filleting on the small roofs of these dormer-windows behind, and a drip in front, to hinder the rain-water from running down the faces of the stonework.

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inches, joists, beams, fig and floors