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Building a House - Respecting Art and How They Were Modified

"Here, then, we see the simplest way of roofing our building; and when roofing is in question, the simplest methods are always the best. Now, in order that our two stairs may give access to the third story, it is necessary that their walls should rise above the cornice of the build ing and form for them alone an additional story. We will then raise these stair-walls and will give them roofs of their own. One - that of the principal stairs - shall be pyramidal; and the other - that of the small stairs - conical.

"There is no reason why we should not erect upon the two walls g z, s t, of the bay windows, small gables, always with the same inclination of 6o°, and cover these pro jections with two small roofs abutting against the great gables a c, b d. As to the building appropriated on the ground floor to the kitchen and on the first floor to the linen-room, we will follow the same method, and, erecting a gable on the wall u v, we shall have upon this wing a triangular roof, which will also abut against the great gable b d, We shall then have a meeting of two slopes at the bottom of the roof of the bay window s t, and of that of the linen-room wing. We shall form a lean-to (so as to do without inner gutters,) which will penetrate these two roofs and discharge the water at t. The horizontal projec tion, therefore, of this assemblage of roofs, will be as the drawing shows in Fig. 3. The chimney-stacks will pass through these roofs, as I indicate to you; and in order to prevent the chimneys from smoking, these stacks should rise at least to the level of the ridge, that is, a little above the topmost crest of the highest roof. With regard to the roofs of the outbuildings, as they are lower - being only one story in height - we need not trouble ourselves about them just now.

"Observe that, as these gables rise perpendicularly, we are enabled to get in the roof a third story, affording some very convenient bedrooms for guests, besides the servants' rooms (in the attics), which we must provide, and light by means of dormer windows; while we shall be able to pro vide for the bedrooms in the gables handsome windows with balconies, if we wish.

"That settled, in principle, it will be as well to arrange the divisions of this story in the roof. Lay a piece -of tracing-paper upon the plan of the first floor. Good : now

trace all the thick walls which must of necessity be carried up under the roof, since they contain fireplaces. Draw 3 feet 3 inches within the eave walls - i.e. those which do not carry gables - a line that indicates the space rendered useless by the slope of the roof; thus you will get the space of which you are able to make use. The principal stairs reach to this floor, as well as the servants' stairs. To the left of the thick division wall, which, from the prin cipal staircase, goes to join the angle of the main building towards the south-east - the desirable aspect - we are going to dispose the bedrooms for guests, which will thus form a separate quarter communicating with the chief apartments D 2 by the principal stairs. We can in this part get two good bedrooms, A and B, with their dressing-rooms a and b; and two smaller bedrooms C and D, all having fireplaces. We must not forget the water-closet for these rooms, at w. On the other side, in immediate communication with the servants' stairs, we can easily get four servants' bedrooms, E, F, G, H, a lumber-room I, and a water-closet L, for the servants. (Fig. 4.) "In the upper part of the coach-house and stable build ing and over the wash-house, we shall also be able in the roofs to arrange three or four bedrooms for the coachman, groom, &c.

"And now for the elevations.

"We will raise the ground floor 4 feet above the exterior ground level, in order to give air to our cellars, and to pre serve the ground floor from the moisture of the earth. We will give the lower rooms a height of 14 feet to the ceiling. Draw at this level a horizontal string course 12 inches deep, which will be the thickness of the floor. To the rooms of the first floor, which are smaller than those of the ground floor, we will give a height of I2 feet in the clear. Now, mark the thickness of the cornice, with its tabling, i foot 9 inches. Then will begin the roofs, whose height will be fixed by that of the gables. Taking the entrance front we project the angles of the building, the doors and the windows from the plan. Here, then, we have the outline of the facade arranged." Eugene then took the board and sketched the facade. (Fig. 5).

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floor, roofs, bedrooms, stairs and roof