"We have leisure to consider the details of our building thoroughly, since the frost obliges us to suspend the works. Construction, my dear fellow, is an art requiring foresight. The good builder is he who leaves nothing to chance, who does not put off the solution of any problem, and who knows how to give each function its place and value with respect to the whole, and that at the right moment. We have drawn plans for the several stories; we have given the details necessary for constructing the lower parts of the house; now we must draw the working elevations. The first thing is to make an exact section of the front walls giving the height of the floors, the levels of the tie-bars, and the base of the roof." Eugene, who, as we may suppose, had previously realized to himself, if not drawn, all the parts of the building, had soon sketched out this section for Paul, who did not cease to wonder at the promptitude with which his master suc ceeded in drawing on paper any detail required. He could not help remarking it again.
"How do you manage to indicate the arrangement of all these parts of the building without hesitating a moment?"said he.
"Because I have thought about them, and have repre sented to myself all these parts while drawing or setting you to draw their combinations. If they are not on the paper they are in my head; and when I have to render them intelligible to those who are commissioned to exe rt cute them, I have only to write, so to speak, what I know by heart already. And thus it is always de sirable to proceed. Look at this section, and these few details (Fig. 42); let us examine the drawing together; you will soon observe that you have already seen all that the sheet of paper contains, and that with a little atten tion you would be able to arrange these different parts in their due order. You see the thickness of the wall on the ground floor figured, and with its central line dotted; the height of the window sill, A, and its support; the arrangement of the window casing and its lintel; the height of the floor and its thickness. The string-course, B, had to be determined; it should have the thickness of this floor; it indicates it externally. Then, reducing the outside walls to i foot 8 inches on the first floor, we put a set-off course at c; window sills like those of the ground floor. The height of the first story from floor to floor has already been settled. The under member, D, of the cornice indicates the thickness of the second floor; lastly comes the cornice table of hard stone which receives the eaves gutter. As regards the first floor windows, they are formed like those of the ground floor, excepting that the inside reveal is less deep by 4 inches, since the wall is 4 inches less in thickness. Their lintels are similar, as well as the
casing which has to take the sheet-iron jalousies, and the tie-bars come underneath these lintels. As we have gables, the cornices cannot return, and must stop against a projection, E, which, rising above the roof, receives the coping, F, which will have a projecting fillet to cover the junction of the slating with the gable. At G, then, I draw the angle of the building with this projection, E, and the coping we have spoken of. As I foresee that the joists will have too long a bearing in some places, I suppose the intermediate beams, H, to carry them and the corbels, 1, for the support of these joists.
"At K I have drawn the string-course of the first floor, with the projections figured from the centre of the wall, and the set-off course above; also at L, the cornice and its table-course. You will observe that this table-course slopes towards the outer edge, beneath the gutter, so that, in the event of an over-flow, the water may run off outside, and not find its way into the wall. This table course has a throat, a, as well as the string-course, to prevent the water from running down the wall. These mouldings will have to be drawn to their full size for the stone-mason. On the course, NI, behind the gutter, will stand the dormer gables, which will admit light to the second floor in the roof. As to the roofing, of which I merely indicate here the base, I will show you what it is to be. Take these sketches, then, and make from them figured drawings to a scale of half an inch to a foot, so that they may be worked from.
"In the meantime, I am going to make a perspective sketch of the projecting bays or loges of the billiard-room and dining-room, with the aid of which you may draw out these details. We shall see how you acquit yourself.
"The English in their country-houses are fond of employing this kind of projecting window. They call them bay or oriel windows, and often construct them on corbelling. Stay - here I have a sketch in my note-book of such a window in a house at Lincoln, dating from the sixteenth century (Fig. 43). This projecting oriel, sup ported by a bracket, is terminated by a small terrace forming a balcony on the first story. Observe, by the by, how well-devised this construction is. This part of England possesses stone, but that material is less common than brick. The builder has used the dearer material only for the oriel window, which he could scarcely erect in brick, and for the jambs and lintels of the windows. The rest of the structure is built of brick.