"Here is a detail of this framing (Fig. 57) : Let A be the wall-jamb of the doorway; a door-frame, B, is fixed by means of iron stays to this jamb. To it are fastened with screws the hinges, c, on which the door-leaves swing. D is the hanging-stile; E E, the meeting-stiles; F, the inter mediate munton; G, the panels, with their tongues in the grooves. The architraves, H, form a rebate around the hanging-stiles and the top rail. Moulded strips, I, are affixed along the rebate of the meeting-stiles, in order to strengthen the rebate; and to present to the hand a rounded edge that does not hurt the hand or fray the dress. At K is denoted the top rail, with its tenon, L, fitting into a mor tice, M, which should be cut right through the stile. At the juncture of the intermediate munton, N, the moulding, 0, is cut square off to make way for the head of the mun ton, whose tenon, P, goes into a mortice, R. At s you see the groove into which fits the tongues, T, of the panels; which are increased in thickness at a certain distance from the tongue, as you see at v, to about iths of an inch. You will ob serve that the chamfers, x, of the stiles stop beneath the joints, in order to leave these all the strength of the wood. Doors of these dimensions will require three hinges to each leaf.
"This explanation gives you the key to all good ordinary house joinery. The rule is a simple one : never to weaken the wood at the joints, always to make these square, and not to exceed the sizes of ordinary scantling.
"Our single-leaved doors will be made according to this system. We have lastly to con sider the window - casements. In these we shall follow the same principle, that is, we shall avoid the defective mitre joints, and have none but square joints. Here (Fig. 58) is one of these casements, which consists of a fixed frame, A, fastened into the rebate of the stonework, B, and of two folding casements. The wood of the casements shall be i in. thick, and the meeting-stiles shall lock one into the other. To lessen the difficulty of glazing, or to avoid the necessity of using plate-glass, we will divide the length by a small bar, C. You will require the details of these window casements. I give them to you drawn in Fig. 59.
• "At A I have marked the rebate of the window jamb; at B the fixed frame; at C one of the stiles which works into the frame, with the tongue to stop the passage of the air; at D and E, the right and left hand meeting-stiles, with their method of locking. On the projection, F, is
affixed the cremone, or fastener. The detail, G, gives you the section of the sill-rail of the frame, with its water-stop, intended to hinder the rain or snow from penetrating to the inside. But as it happens that in spite of this pre caution the driving rain sometimes finds its way into the rebate, a small channel, a, must be sunk in this rebate, with two escapes, that the water may not flow through, and down the inner surface of the sill, i. In order to cover the junction of the wood sill-rail and the stone sill, we shall affix the moulding, K. At L I denote for you the framing of the bottom rail of the casement and the stile; and at M that of the glazing-bar and the same stile. At 0 you will observe the outside rebates to re ceive the glass, and the chamfers, P, with stops on the inside to leave at the joints all the strength of the wood. Besides the three hinges necessary for each leaf, we must take into account the angle-plates at top and bottom to secure the casement from straining the joints and giving down in the middle, for the glass cannot serve like door panels, which stiffen the framing. On the contrary, the glass, by its weight, tends to put these casements out of shape.
"You are going to set to work at these details, Paul, and I will correct your drawings. Furnished with these designs, you will then go to Chateauroux and show them to the person who undertakes the work, and he will fix his prices. You will supplement the drawings by explanations, keeping clearly in mind what I have told you, and bring back his estimate. I will also give you an introduction to an engineering friend of mine at Chateauroux who will receive you as a relation, and who will be able to give you any further information you require." Madame de Gandelau at first objected to Paul's journey; but being assured that Eugene's friend would be at the station to receive the young architect, and that he would be entertained by a family who would be glad to receive him, his mother was satisfied. Besides, his absence would be for three or four days only, and Chateauroux is but fifty miles from M. de Gandelau's residence.