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Comparison Between The Architecture_p1
Comparison Between The Architecture Of The Greeks And Romans. It Has Been Already Intimated That Thepeculiar Of The Roman People Was An Aptitude To And Govern. Up To Their Time, The Conquerors In History Had Been Anything But Civilizers ; To Con Quer A Nation Had Been To And Enslave ...

Comparison Between The Architecture_p10
We Have Spoken Of The Geniu8 Of Nations In Relation To Art. Let Us Avoid Vague Words, Which May Lead To Equivocations ; Let Us Un Derstand Ourselves At Every Step. What Is This Genius Of Nations ? There Are Three Elements Which Constitute National Character : The Element Which ...

Comparison Between The Architecture_p2
Greek Art, Though It Did Not Always Develop With The Same Per Fection, Never Quitted The Path Of Progress ; It Was A Consistent Unit, While All The Other Expressions Of The Intelligence And Versatile Pas Sions Of This Singular People Were The Victims Of Chance And Change. The Romans, ...

Comparison Between The Architecture_p3
We Have Seen That The Art Of The Romans Was Merely One Of The Expressions Of A Great Political And Administrative System, Adapted To Their Times And Needs, But Entirely Exceptional In The History Of Europe. We Have Already Reviewed The Condition Of Public Affairs, In Their Relations To Art, ...

Comparison Between The Architecture_p4
But Not To Pause Longer Over Details, Let Us Proceed To The Con Sideration Of A Fact Which Is Of The Greatest Importance, And Which Merits All Our Attention. In Our Preceding Discourse, We Have Seen How The Greek Constructor Reasoned When He Built A Temple, Through What A Series ...

Comparison Between The Architecture_p5
Vitruvius, Who, Though Not A Great Philosopher, Was Imbued With The Greek Ideas About Art, Yet Who Saw Only Superficially, Like A True Roman, Began His Third Book On The Temples With A Chapter In Which He Undertook To Establish An Analogy Between The Proportions Of The Human Body And ...

Comparison Between The Architecture_p6
* From The Acropolis Of Selinus. T From The Parthenon. From The Temple Of Ceres At Eleusis. Pig. 12. If We Examine These Profiles Attentively, We Shall See That Son Of The Constructor And The Sentiment Of The Artist Proceed Together In Them. The Architrave, Bearing On The Capital A, ...

Comparison Between The Architecture_p7
We Have Observed That The Adoption Of The Orders Never Interfered With The Independence Of The Greek In Designing. He Never Wearied In His Search For Absolute Perfection. The Play Of Light And Shade Upon His Masses And Details, The Picturesqueness Of His Out Lines Against The Sky, All His ...

Comparison Between The Architecture_p8
But With The Greeks Every Workman Was An Artist. Do Not Expect From Them Constructions In Which Man Is But A Machine. There Was Hardly A Cubic Yard Of Mortar Or Concrete In Their Build Ings ; The Foundations Were Hastily Laid Up Of Dry Stones, And They Avoided This ...

Comparison Between The Architecture_p9
The Original Greek Architecture Presents Itself To Us In But A Few Scattered Religious Monuments Almost Totally Ruined ; Its Rare And Precious Remains Often Elude The Search Of The Critic ; In Our Admira Tion For These Shattered Remnants Of A Marvellous Art, We Must Eagerly Seek For Those ...

Concerning Primitive Methods Of_p1
Concerning Primitive Methods Of Construction As Practised In Greek Architecture. In The Preceding Discourse I Have Endeavored To What I Understand By Art, To Explain How It Is Developed, The Principles Of Its Progress, Its Different Expressions. We Must Now Limit Our Subject, And Occupy Ourselves More Especially With One ...

Concerning Primitive Methods Of_p10
If The Study Of Greek Art Is Necessary To Architects, The Study Of Roman Art, Though Differing Essentially In Principle, Is Not Less So. The Spirit Of The Romans Was Not That Of The Greeks. The Roman Was Peculiarly A Politician, An Administrator ; He Founded Modern Civilization ; But ...

Concerning Primitive Methods Of_p11
This Distinction Between Nationalities And Societies Must Be Under Stood, If We Would Know How The Arts Were Successfully Developed Among The Greeks, And How A Similar Development Is To Be Reached Under Our Own Different Civilization. Meanwhile It Is Worthy Of Observation That The Political Condition Of The Mediaeval ...

Concerning Primitive Methods Of_p12
Such Is The Infirmity Of Human Nature, That Art, Even When Devel Oping Individually And Independently, Free _ From Academic Pedantry And Exclusiveness, Is Apt To Fall From Originality Into Mere Correctness Or Eclecticism ; Common-sense Becomes Subtilty, And Reason, Sophistry, Unless The Artist Is Kept In The True Path ...

Concerning Primitive Methods Of_p13
At Selinus, Another Dorian Colony Of Sicily, The Temples Were Built On Two Plateaus, Between Which The Harbor Was Situated. The Relative Positions Of These Monuments Were Chosen With Rare Taste And Skill ; And To Isolate And Distinguish Them From The Private Houses Of The City, They Were Elevated ...

Concerning Primitive Methods Of_p2
But Let Us Come To Details : Let Us Suppose That A Man, Knowing Nothing About Construction, Wishes To Lay Pieces Of Wood Across The Tops Of Posts ; Let Us Suppose That This Man Is Intelligent, As Were Cer Tainly The Indigenous Or Aboriginal Peoples Of Greece ; And ...

Concerning Primitive Methods Of_p3
Such Are The Wooden Structures Which Were Imitated In Stone By The Nations Of Asia. What Remains To Us Of Their Monuments, Whether Built Or Excavated In The Rock, Demonstrates This Fact In The Most Striking Manner. If Still More Remarkable Examples Of This Fact Are Needed, Observe, In The ...

Concerning Primitive Methods Of_p4
He Now Requires Columns As Vertical Points Of Support In His Peri Style Or Porticos ; He Sees That, To Obtain A Condition Of Perfect Stability, These Isolated Piers Must Be Composed Of Blocks As Large As Possible. The Quarries And The Means Of Transport At Hand Rarely Enable Him ...

Concerning Primitive Methods Of_p5
The Abacus, Or Crowning Block, Of The Doric Capital Is Square In Plan ; Its Two Side Faces, By Reason Of Their Projection, Increase The Surface Of Support Under The Lintel Or Architrave, But Its Projecting Exterior And Interior Faces Carry No Weight. If The Doric Capital Were, As Is ...

Concerning Primitive Methods Of_p6
The Greek Architect Exhibits All The Qualities Of A Reasoner ; He Concerns Himself To Demonstrate To All Eyes That The Various Parts Of His Monument Have Each A Useful Necessary Function ; He Shrinks From The Accusation Of Having Sacrificed To Caprice ; It Is Not Sufficient That His ...

Concerning Primitive Methods Of_p7
The Greek Temples Really Are Monuments' In Stone, In Which The Principle Of The Lintel Has Been Intelligently And Elegantly Developed. Why Not Accept Them For What They Are, Instead Of Supposing That The Greeks, Who. Invented Logic, And Were Endowed With The Most Delicate Sentiment, Would Amuse Themselves With ...

Concerning Primitive Methods Of_p8
The Greek Doric Orders Are In The Hands Of All Those Who Occupy Themselves With Architecture, And Each One Can Readily Verify For Him Self The Exactness Of The Observation Of The Greek Architect. For Him The Sun Is Evidently The Generating Principle Of Exterior Forms. He Perceives, For Instance, ...

Concerning Primitive Methods Of_p9
Let Us Therefore Suppose The Erectheum Finished And The Rubbish Of The Workmen Removed ; From The Crowd Of Curious Spectators, Argumentative, Impressionable, Apt At Epigrams And Sarcasm, Like All Athenians, A Critic Steps Forth And Says To The Architect : " What Caprice Is This ? Why These Three ...

Some Of The Principles_p1
Some Of The Principles Of Architectural Composition. As Architecture Is Almost As Much A Science As An Art, Reason And Calculation Entering Largely Into Its Conceptions, It Follows That Architectural Compo Sition Is Not Only A Labor Of Imagination, But Is Subject To Certain Fixed Rules Which Must Be Methodically ...

Some Of The Principles_p10
I Refrain From Treating Here Of The Edifices Of The Middle Ages, Because I Have Elsewhere Explained The Manner And Theory Of Their Development.* But I Propose To Consider The Condition Of Art At The Moment When It Entered Upon What We Understand As Its Modern Era, And When The ...

Some Of The Principles_p11
North, Precipitated Themselves Upon The Corpse Of The Roman Body Politic, That Great Political And Administrative Organization Fell, And With It Fell The Whole System Of Roman Art, Because It Was Nothing More Than A Branch Of That Organization. Now This Great Irruption, Which The Colleges Call Barbarian, But Which, ...

Some Of The Principles_p12
The First Step Towards A Return To Latin Arts Was Made By The Great Revolution At The End Of The Twelfth Century, When, As Related In The Preceding Discourse, The Domain Of The Arts Passed Into The Hands Of The Lay Architects, That Is, Into The Hands Of Gallo-roman Races, ...

Some Of The Principles_p13
Retained Their Own Individuality. Still Inspired By The Natural Prac Tical Spirit Of The Nation, They Continued To Attach Great Importance To The Material And Means At Their Disposal, To The Exigencies Of Contem Porary Custom, To Traditions, To The Influences Of Climate, And To The Convenience Of Those For ...

Some Of The Principles_p14
But We Should Not Deceive Ourselves With Respect To The Effect Of This Uniformity Of Details In Antique Architecture ; It Is Much Less Grand And Imposing Than We Are Led To Suppose. We Should Not Place Too Implicit Faith In The Designs For The Restoration Of Ancient Monuments ; ...

Some Of The Principles_p15
The Conception Of The Italian Artist, If He Had Occupied, In This Work, The Position Which M. De Laborde Calls That Of The Builder,* Of Whose Craft He Probably Was Entirely Ignorant ; But The Merest Glance At The Plans And Elevations Of The Château Of Boulogne Proves That The ...

Some Of The Principles_p16
In The Château Of Madrid, Therefore, We Find The Perfect Fulfilment Of The Following Essential Conditions Of A Royal Lodge Of That Period : First, An Excellent Disposition Of The Building With Regard To The Points Of The Compass ; Second, A Large Number Of Suites Of Apartments Grouped As ...

Some Of The Principles_p17
The First Floor Was Raised Upon A Basement Which Was Occupied By The Domestic Offices Of The Establishment. The Entrance Of The Château Was At A, To Which Access Was Obtained By A Little Bridge Thrown Over The Moat. On Each Side Of The Passage B Was A Staircase, With ...

Some Of The Principles_p18
Let Us Glance At This Composition. The Principal Entrance Of The Palace Was To Have Faced The City At D, Very Near Where The Trium Phal Arch Now Stands, Built By Percier And Fontaine. We Find In The Plan A Great Court Of Honor E, Bordered, In This Story, On ...

Some Of The Principles_p19
Between The Two Galleries Of This Facade Was The Grand Double Winding Staircase, Which Was Regarded As One Of The Wonders Of The Renaissance. It Was Crowned By An Elegant Cupola, Flanked By Four Turrets Or Barbicans. The Two Extremities Of The Galleries Were To Have Been Terminated, As Indicated ...

Some Of The Principles_p2
Now, If This Is A Good Method Of Instruction, We Have No Reason To Regret The Result ; But If The Result Is Really Unsatisfactory, Let Us Modify The Method. It Is True That, Outside Of These Strict Limits Of The Imperial School Of Fine Arts, There Is Perfect Liberty ...

Some Of The Principles_p20
But In A Work Published By Jacques Androuet Du Cerceau, In 1615, There Is A Collection Of Designs For Country-houses, In Which The Rational Principles Laid Down By Philibert De L'orme Are Scru Pulously Observed.t. This Collection, Embracing Designs Ranging From The Most Modest Dwellings To Mansions Of Oonsiderable Preten ...

Some Of The Principles_p21
The Architects Of The Renaissance, Unlike Their More Modern Breth Ren, Made No Pretension To High Social Position, Nor Did They Form Exclusive And Pedantic Coteries, As Ours Do, Disposed To Regard As Barbarians Everybody Outside Of Their Circle Of The Initiated ; But, If They Did Not Assume The ...

Some Of The Principles_p22
As Soon As The Wholesome Impulses Of Truth And Common-sense Were Made Subordinate To Absolute Formulas Regarding The Proportions And Use Of The Ancient Orders, To The Artificial Requirements Of Sym Metry, And To The Authority Of Classic Precedent As Interpreted By Aca Demical Rules, Architecture Fell Into Its Decline. ...

Some Of The Principles_p23
But In The Court-yard Facade Of The Same Building, Which Appears To Have Been Built Up To A Certain Height, The Architect Of Charleval Not Only Emphasized The Grand Order More Frankly, But Entirely Con Cealed The Presence Of The Floor Between The First And Second Stories ; These Conditions, ...

Some Of The Principles_p24
But If Architecture, Because Proceeding From False Principles, Went Astray, It At Least, At The Close Of The Reign Of Louis Xiv., Erred With Grandeur. The Monuments Of That Period Were The Characteristic Expressions Of A People Still Having A Powerful Art-language Of Their Own. If Their Exterior Architecture Indicated ...

Some Of The Principles_p25
From Roman Art. The Savage Has Put On A Coat, But He Is Still Bare Legged. But The Idea Of Building Up A Construction In Masses, A Construction Planted Like A Block, And Then Afterwards, Or Even As The Building Was Going On, To Face It With A Decoration Of ...

Some Of The Principles_p26
Gradually That School Of Sculptors, Which Had Been So Brilliant During The Middle Ages And Again Through The First Half Of The Six Teenth Century, Lost Its Power, Lost Its Sentiment Of Monumental Art, And Became A Mere Trade. The Types, Inspired By Antique Art And French Traditions, So Graceful ...

Some Of The Principles_p3
But The Manager Of A Theatre, On The Other Hand, Cannot Afford To Disregard Public Opinion, Because With Him It Is A Question Of Receipts ; And If The Pit Hisses The New Comedy It Is Withdrawn, Although It May Have Received The Applause Of The Most Select Com Mittee ...

Some Of The Principles_p4
It Is A Commonly Received Idea That Artists Are Not Positive In Char Acter, But Are Apt To Be Led Away By Illusions. I Should Not Think It Worth While To Dispute This Prejudice, Were It Not That Its Existence Places The Reciprocal Relation Between The Artists And The Enlight ...

Some Of The Principles_p5
Among All Civilized Nations, Of Whatever Age, The Practical Require Ments Of The Same Class Of Buildings Have Been, On The Whole, Nearly Identical ; But These Requirements Have Been Subject To Especial Archi Tectural Interpretations According To The Climate, Traditions, Manners, Customs, Tastes, And Other Local Conditions In Each ...

Some Of The Principles_p6
In Previous Discourses I Have Dwelt Upon The Fundamental Differ Ences Which Made Of Greek And Roman Architecture Two Distinct Arts, Especially As Regards Construction. The Difference Between The Two Architectures Is No Less Marked In Regard To Composition. The Greek Concerned Himself Little About What We Call The Plan ...

Some Of The Principles_p7
It Is Very Natural That Architecture Should Be Simple Or Compli Cated As The Requirements To Be Satisfied By The Architect Are Simple Or Complicated. There Is No More Remarkable Characteristic In The Architecture Of The Greeks Than The Evidence Existing In Their Plans Of The Extreme Simplicity Of Their ...

Some Of The Principles_p8
Certainly We Have The Means And Elements Of Progress In Pro Fusion ; But One Thing Is Wanting, True, Large, And Liberal Method Of Instruction ; A Method Based, Not Upon Certain Corrupted Forms, But Upon Principles ; A Method Which Will Teach Us To See Aright And To Profit ...

Some Of The Principles_p9
The Architects Of The Sixteenth Century, Who Admired The Remains Of Roman Antiquity, And, In Good Faith, Believed Themselves To Be Inspired With A True Sympathy For Antique Forms, Used Them, By Habit And By Tradition, With A Liberty So Complete, And Knew So Well How To Submit Them To ...

The Architecture Of The_p1
The Architecture Of The Romans. The General Principles Of Roman Architecture, Briefly Referred To In Preceding Discourses, Should Be Carefully Analyzed ; For, However Simple A Style Of Architecture May Be, It Is Composed Of Ele Ments Too Varied, It Results From Requirements Too Different And Necessities Too Imperious, To ...

The Architecture Of The_p10
This Large And Simple Disposition Divided The Entire Weight Of The Vault Among The Piers Or Buttresses, Which Were Very Often Adorned, Each On The Inner Face, With A Column, Receiving The Foot Of The Cross Vaulting, As Indicated In Fig. 16. This Column, As It Was Always Monolithic, The ...

The Architecture Of The_p10_2
I Have Endeavored Briefly To Explain How Greek Art Influenced The First Mediaeval Centuries. It Is Now Necessary To Explain How This Influence Acted In The West, And How Modern Arts Were Thence De Veloped. I Have Lately Said That The Byzantine Greeks, After The Establishment Of The Empire Among ...

The Architecture Of The_p10_3
" The Following Day, Then, Found All Three At The Trianon. The Question Of The Window Was Raised, And Louvois Disputed As Before ; Le Notre Said Not A Word. The King Therefore Ordered Him To Take A Line And Measure, And To Report The Result. While He Was Thus ...

The Architecture Of The_p11
The Largest Amphitheatre Constructed Was That Known At Rome As The Coliseum ; It Could Contain One Hundred And Twenty Thousand Spectators. But It Is A Singular Fact That This Edifice Was Begun And Finished By The Two Most Humane And Enlightened Of All The Roman Emperors, Vespasian And Titus, ...

The Architecture Of The_p11_2
Let Us Now See Among What Populations And Under What Circum Stances The Arts Of The East Came To Exercise Their Influence In The West. When The Goths, The Franks, And The Burgundians Succes Sively Invaded The Gallic Soil From The Mouths Of The Rhine To The Shores Of The ...

The Architecture Of The_p11_3
" This Principle Of Unity And Harmony In The Expression Of The Various Requirements Indicated By A Programme " Is, Therefore, Neither Symmetry Nor Uniformity, Still Less An Undigested Mixture Of Various Styles And Forms Which Is Unintelligible And Unsatisfactory, However Skilfully Made ; But It Is, In The First ...

The Architecture Of The_p12
That Which First Strikes Us In The Roman Amphitheatres Is The Ellip Tical Form Of Their Arenas And Encircling Ranges Of Seats. There Must Have Been Some Good Reason For This, As It Would Have Been Much Simpler Both In Design And Execution To Adopt A Circular Plan. To Make ...

The Architecture Of The_p12_2
It Is Undeniable That The Institutions Of The Middle Ages Left Sad Traces On The Political History Of France ; But The Native Artists Of That Era Were The First Apostles Of The Enfranchisement Of The Op Pressed Classes ; They Were The First Who Were Elevated By Intelligent Labor ...

The Architecture Of The_p12_3
To Undertake To Conciliate These Two Systems Of Ornamentation In Architectural Composition, Or, In Other Words, To Decorate One Part Of A Design With Embroidery And Another With Attached Ornaments, One Part With Sunken Arabesques, And Another With Ornaments In Re Lief, Is To Cancel The Good Effects Of Both ...

The Architecture Of The_p13
No Sooner Was Western Art Disengaged From Barbarism, Than It Manifested Tendencies Opposed To The Fundamental Principles Of Roman Art. This Movement Began Where The Arts Were Practised After The Revival Attempted By Charlemagne, — In The Cloisters, And Especially In The Eleventh Century, When The Monks Of Cluny Had ...

The Architecture Of The_p13_2
Let Us, Then, Examine Our Methods And The Habitual Forms Of Our Architecture, Let Us Compare Them With Those Of Antique Architecture, Let Us See If We Have Not Lost Our Way And Have Not To Retrace Our Steps, In Order, At Last, To Find That New Style So Loudly ...

The Architecture Of The_p14
Many Of Their Edifices, Such As Theatres, Amphitheatres, And Palaces, Engaged The Orders In The Building Itself, That Is To Say, They Built The Columns Up In The Walls And Used Them As Buttresses To Give Greater Area Of Plan To Those Parts Resisting Thrusts, Thus Obtaining At The Same ...

The Architecture Of The_p14_2
In Fact, We Must See That The Principal Value Of Roman Architecture Consists In Its Judicious Employment Of Materials ; Power And Sagacity Are Its Prevailing Expressions, And If It Is Imposing In Its Ruins, It Is Not Only On Account Of Its Own Inherent Qualities, But By Reason Of ...

The Architecture Of The_p15
When Rome Began To Be Of Consequence In Italy, The People Of Etruria Already Possessed A Well-developed Art They Understood The Vault, — Not The Vault Of Concrete Formed Over A Wooden Model And Hardened, But The Arch Made Of Hewn Stones Fitted Together In Vous Soirs ; They Constructed ...

The Architecture Of The_p15_2
If We Would Really Have An Architecture Of The Nineteenth Century, We Must, As A Primary Consideration, Have A Care That It Is Indeed Our • Own, Taking Its Form And Characteristics, Not From Precedent, But From Ourselves. We Should Get A Thorough Knowledge Of The Formation Of Anterior Styles, ...

The Architecture Of The_p16
But It May Be Objected That To Base An Entire System Or Theory Upon A Fragment Of Such Slight Importance — Upon Two Or Three Courses Of Stone, In Fact — Is At Least Hazardous. It May Be So ; But This Fragment Is Not The Only One ; Almost ...

The Architecture Of The_p16_2
Proceed To Provide For The Ample Lighting Of My Hall By Windows, And So To Treat The Angles D Of The Facade Opposite The Tower That They Shall Present Features Of Weight And Solidity To Oppose The Thrusts Of The Large Discharging Arches Which I Find It Necessary To Throw ...

The Architecture Of The_p17
•• • I 111 • 11;:i • Ii!;1).',x0 Tt ;ci I Hi I N • I • • 1%1 -•; If There Is Anywhere In The World A Style Of Sculpture Which Has Any Relations With This, It Is Evidently The Byzantine Sculpture Of The Fourth, Fifth, And Sixth Centuries. ...

The Architecture Of The_p17_2
In Fact, Balance May Be Defined As The Art Of Giving An Effect Of Completeness Without The Aid Of Symmetry ; But When The Archi Tect's Resources Are Such As To Afford Him No Other Means Of Ob Taining This Effect But Symmetry, His Art Becomes Like One Of Those ...

The Architecture Of The_p18
In Fact It Is Not Rash To Assert That The Greeks, Disgusted At The Degradation Of Art At The Close Of The Roman Empire, Finding Them Selves In Constant Communication With The People Of Syria, And In Spired By The True Greek Spirit, Which Forbade Them From Retrograd Ing To ...

The Architecture Of The_p18_2
Enormous Rooms From Thirty To Sixty Feet High Lighted By Several Ranges Of Windows So As On The Exterior To Have The Effect Of Being Divided Into Several Stories ; We See Wood Painted In Imitation Of Stone Or Marble, And Stone To Appear Like Wood ; In The Interior ...

The Architecture Of The_p19
Thus We Turn In The Same Circle, And Are Compelled To Recognize That In Syria There Was, At The Phoenician Judaic Epoch, An Indige Nous Art, Which Was Not The Art Of The Assyrians, Nor Of The Persians, Nor Yet The Primitive Art Of The Greeks. It Is True That ...

The Architecture Of The_p19_2
This Discourse, Then, Is Intended To Embrace The Conditions Under Which The True Architect Is Developed ; These Conditions Include, As We Have Seen, Method In The Study Of Architectural Precedents, And The 33 Submission Of The Results Of This Study To The Chastisement Of Reason ; They Include Certain ...

The Architecture Of The_p1_2
The Architecture Of The West Since The Establishment Of Christianity. The Question Which Now Naturally Presents Itself Is Concerning Christian Art : Whether There Is Such A Thing, Properly Speaking ; Whether Christianity , Has On The Whole Been Favorable To The Develop Ment Of Art ; And Whether, Without ...

The Architecture Of The_p1_3
The Architecture Of The Nineteenth Century. It Must Needs Be Confessed That Modern Architects, As They Are By Prejudices And Traditions, And Embarrassed By An Habitual Confusion In Respect Totheir Art, Are Neither Inspired By Original Ideas Nor Guided By Definite And Well-understood Principles ; A Fact The More Plainly ...

The Architecture Of The_p2
In Speaking Thus Of The Greek Orders As Imported And Modified By The Romans, Not To Gratify A Cultivated Taste, But To Serve The Pur Poses Of A Wealthy Ostentation, I Do Not Pretend To Pass These Orders And Their Proportions, More Or Less Absolute, In Review, Nor To Repeat ...

The Architecture Of The_p20
Latin By Virtue Of Its Ancient Traditions, Gaul, As I Have Already Said, Was Hardly Latin In The Nature Of Its Genius. It Was Seduced By Byzantine Types, And Was Attracted By The Arabs To The Study Of The Mathematical Sciences. As Early As The Tenth Century Its Architecture Manifested ...

The Architecture Of The_p20_2
But The Great Question Of This Nineteenth Century, That Which Daily Assumes Increased Importance And Must In The End Predominate Over All Others, Is The Matter Of Expense, The Financial Question. The More Prosperous Society Becomes And The More Abundant The Wealth Of Nations, The Stronger Is The Tendency Of ...

The Architecture Of The_p21
Mass ;' But If Their Mortars Had Less Cohesion, We Can Readily See That The Supported Wall Would Slide Down The Sloping Upper Surfaces, E F, Of The Arches, And Thus Bear Upon The Acute Angle, F, Like A .wedge. For These Reasons, The Romanesque Builder Designed His Pier, As ...

The Architecture Of The_p22
It Was Not Until The End Of The Twelfth Century That A Real National Spirit Began To Make Itself Felt In Various Efforts, Attended With More Or Less Success, Towards The Enfranchisement Of The Commons, In Scho Lastic Discussions, In The Study Of Ancient Philosophy, And In The Pro Gress ...

The Architecture Of The_p23
But At The Close Of The Fifteenth Century, The Nobility, On Their Re Turn From The Italian Wars, Began To Pride Themselves On Their Ac Quaintance With, And Appreciation Of, The Fine Arts ; They Professed An Extravagant Fondness For Italian Works, And Thus The Body Of Amateurs, Which, Ever ...

The Architecture Of The_p24
After The Middle Of The Sixteenth Century French Art Was Evidently Bewildered ; Its History Was A Perpetual Contradiction ; It Lost Its Way. Under Catherine De Medicis, Both People And Artists Had A Natural Aversion For Everything From Italy, And Yet They Imitated Italian Arts. Under Henry Iv. And ...

The Architecture Of The_p2_2
The Art Of Architectural Design Rests Upon Two Perfectly Distinct Elements,—necessity And Imagination. Necessity Imposes The Pro Gramme ; It Says, " I Want A House With Air And Light " ; But What Is Imagination ? It Is The Faculty Given To Man To Reunite And Com Bine In ...

The Architecture Of The_p2_3
The Arts Are Sick ; Notwithstanding The Energy Of Our Vital Princi Ples, Architecture Seems To Be Dying In The Very Bosom Of Prosperity, Dying Of Excess And The Results Of The Debilitating Regime Under Which Its Growth Has So Long Been Stunted. This Malady Is Not A Thing Of ...

The Architecture Of The_p3
We Shall Presently Take Occasion To Recur To This Subject Of Ar Chitectural Decoration, The Frankness And Beauty Of Its Execution, At First Among The Greeks, And Then In The Last Days Of The Roman Republic And The First Of The Empire. Our Immediate Business Is To Consider That Part ...

The Architecture Of The_p3_2
There Are Times When Man Has Need Of The Barbarous Element Just As The Earth Requires Manure ; For The Brain, To Be Productive, Must Be Disturbed By A Moral Fermentation, The Result Of Contrasts And Con Flicts Between The Reality And The Conception. The Epochs Most Fertile In Works ...

The Architecture Of The_p3_3
" The Second Is To Divide The Subject I Am Investigating Into As Many Heads As It Is Capable Of, To The End That Its Difficulties May Be The More Readily Resolved. " The Third, So To Order My Thoughts That, Beginning With The Most Simple And Comprehensible Objects, I ...

The Architecture Of The_p4
If The Taste Of The Greek Belonged To His Function As Poet And Artist, That Of The Roman Was In Harmony With His As Ruler And Legis Lator ; It Was Based On A Profound Knowledge Of Men And Their Distin Guishing Characteristics ; He Understood The Division Of Labor, ...

The Architecture Of The_p4_2
• Eyes Are Strangely Fascinated By Her. Even Though Unaccustomed To Habits Of Philosophic Observation, You Scion Can Analyze The Cause Of The Mysterious Attraction. At First View It Is, Perhaps, A Distin Guished Elegance Of Line, A Harmony Between The Bony And Muscular Systems ; The Combination May Be ...

The Architecture Of The_p4_3
Applying The First Precept Of Descartes, Therefore, To The Study Of Anterior Arts, It Is Clear That I Must Not Admit Any Stone Imitation Of Structures Originally Contrived For Other Materials, And Must Conse Quently Reject, As Based Upon A False Principle; Every Art Which, Blindly Yielding To Tradition, Allowed ...

The Architecture Of The_p5
A, In Plate Iii., Exhibits The Plan Of This Rotunda Of Agrippa Without Its Interior Casings And Marble Columns, Which Are Indicated In Plan B. It Is Easy To See, On Comparing These, That The Marble Decoration Is Quite Distinct From The Structure, That It Is Composed Of A Mere ...

The Architecture Of The_p5_2
I Am Very Ready To Admit That Beauty Is A Positive Quality ; That, To Use The Language Of A Modern Author Regarding Architecture, " The Good Is The Essential Basis Of The Beautiful." But The Question Is, What Is The Good ? For Most People, It Is Good To ...

The Architecture Of The_p5_3
Thus, By Bringing To Bear Upon My Studies Of Ancient Monuments A Methodical Spirit, I Learn That, When The Conditions Are Different, The Application Of Identical Principles Must Produce Results Different In Appearance; And That, In Order To Arrive At These Different Results, Man, His Genius Being One, Has Used ...

The Architecture Of The_p6
It Was In Such Conceptions, Expressing His Peculiar Genius, And Demanding No Foreign Artist To Execute Them, That The Roman Was Truly Grand. But When He Would Build A Temple Like The Greeks, And Accepted Richness Of Detail And .material For A Sign Of Grandeur, He Fell Far Below The ...

The Architecture Of The_p6_2
To-day Style Has Fled From The Fine Arts And Taken Refuge In The Industrial ; But, To Restore It, We Need Only A Little Of The Same Good Sense Applied To Our Study And Appreciation Of The Fine Arts That We Apply Daily To The Affairs Of Material Life. But, ...

The Architecture Of The_p6_3
If We Turn To The Philosophic Side Of The Question, We Shall Observe That The Greeks, Divided, As They Were, Into Little Republics, Chose That Species Of Architecture Which Best Suited Their Social State. Rela Tively Insignificant In Point Of Population, Considering Themselves Superior To The Rest Of Mankind, Forming ...

The Architecture Of The_p7
Let Us First Analyze This Programme : There Must Be A Great En Trance Hall So Arranged As To Admit The Freest Ingress And Egress ; Opening From It Must Be Cells For Those Desiring To Bathe For The Sake Of Health Without Mingling With The Crowd, And Apartments For ...

The Architecture Of The_p7_2
In Like Manner When An Architect Has An Edifice To Construct, A Hos Pital, Perhaps, A Public Office, Or A Palace, His First Task Is To Deduce Some Order From The Programme Which Is Given Him, As This, Like All Written Programmes, Is Apt To Be Confused And Contradictory. He ...

The Architecture Of The_p7_3
" Experimental Science Does Not Receive Truth From The Hands Of ? " Compendium Philosophise," Cap. I. Any Superior Sciences ; It Is She Who Is The Mistress, And They Who Are Her Servants. " Indeed, She Has The Right To Conunand All The Sciences, Since She Alone Certifies And ...

The Architecture Of The_p8
On Either Side Of The Xystum Were The Gymnasiums Z, With The Academical Apartments A, And Those Reserved For Debates At B ; At C Was The Portico For The Masters Of The Gymnasiums. At An Isolated And Tranquil Point Were The Rooms D, In Which The Philosophers Or Lecturers ...