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The Architecture Of The_p8_2
To These Cupolas, Thus Suspended On Four Isolated Piers, Dimensions Until Then Unknown. Justinian, To Whom Is Attributed The Construc Tion Of This Colossal Church, Was Much Interested In The Work And Visited It Daily. This Cupola, Which Fell At The Moment Of Its Com Pletion, Was Finally Seated Upon ...

The Architecture Of The_p8_3
It Does Not Require Any Acquaintance With Architecture To Compre Hend Such Plain Reasoning As This, And By Applying It To Classic, Me Diaeval, And Modern Styles, We May Readily Arrive At Their Real Respec Tive Values. We Shall Find That., While Greek Architecture Can Stand The Test, That Of ...

The Architecture Of The_p9
If We Examine The Elevations And Sections Of The Baths Of Caracalla, We Shall Find In Their Outer Walls Enormous Apertures, Formerly Fur Nished With Bronze Frames, Containing Plates Of Glass Or Translucent Alabaster, Or Simply Open To The Outer Atmosphere ; But We Shall Also Discover That These Apertures ...

The Architecture Of The_p9_2
But It Is Useless To Dwell Longer Upon A Question Which, Though Decided In The Negative Many Years Ago By The Strongest Evidence, Has For Some Unexplained Reason Been Lately Revived. In Political History, The Most Important Events — Those Which Have Exercised The Greatest Influence Upon Nations — Are ...

The Architecture Of The_p9_3
To Know The Nature Of The Materials We Are To Employ Is Not Only To Know The Strength And Texture Of Stone, The Pliability And Toughness Of Forged Iron, The Rigidity And Brittleness Of Cast-iron, Etc., But It Is To Be Able To Anticipate The Effects These Materials Are Capable ...

The Domestic Architecture Of_p1
The Domestic Architecture Of The Ancients. When Undertake To Explore The Course Of A River, We Do Not Start From Its Sources, But From Its Mouth ; We Advance Against Its Current And Examine Its Gradually Contracting Banks. We Include All Its Tributaries In Our Researches, We Study Their Shores, ...

The Domestic Architecture Of_p10
The Romans Spent The Greater Part Of Their Time In Public. In The Morning The Considerable Citizens Received Their Dependants, Who At That Time Were Accustomed To Attend The Levee Of Their Patron, In The Hall (atrium) Of His House. They Formed His Suite When He Walked Abroad ; For ...

The Domestic Architecture Of_p11
The Consul Pliny Had Not Only His Villa At Ostium On The Sea Shore, But A Very Beautiful Country-seat In Tuscany, Surrounded By Delicious Gardens ; He Described It To His Friend Apollinarius. Each Of These Two Establishments Had Its Peculiarities, Differing From The Other By Reason Of The Different ...

The Domestic Architecture Of_p12
In Fact, Pliny Was Not So Foolish As To Trouble Himself About Symmetry In All This, And To Inconvenience Himself In Order To Exhibit Regular Facades To The Passers-by. All The Buildings Of The Villa Were Placed Where They Belonged, They Were Built Of Convenient Size And Arranged Some At ...

The Domestic Architecture Of_p13
We Can Now Understand How Men, Habituated To This Large, Tran Quil, And Regular Country Life, Would Desire To Avoid The Restraints Of A Residence In The City As Far As Possible. Indeed, No Roman Citizen, Who Could Afford To Build A Villa, Would Live In Rome, Unless Com Pelled ...

The Domestic Architecture Of_p14
Thus The West, From The Time Of Constantine, Was Subjected To A Long Succession Of Devastations Finally Consummated By The Barbarians. During This Sad Period, Art Took Refuge In The East At Byzantium ; There It Was Revived Among Greek Traditions, It Borrowed From Asi Atic Civilizations And Was Transformed. ...

The Domestic Architecture Of_p2
When Archaeological Knowledge Was Less Extended And Minute Than At Present, The Methods Of Architecture Were Comparatively Sim Ple, For All Education In The Arts Was. Necessarily Circumscribed By The Limits Of This Knowledge, And Fewer Side Issues Were Presented To Em Barrass The Student. Thus, For Example, It Is ...

The Domestic Architecture Of_p3
Let It Not Be Understood That I Am Protesting Against All Un Professional Criticism. We Ought To Listen To Public Opinion, For I Aim Not To Make Of The Body Of Architects An Exclusive Sect, Interdict Ing All Outside Examination Or Criticism Of Its Doctrines Or Its Works. I Desire ...

The Domestic Architecture Of_p4
To Conclude, I Will Add, Then : First, That The Time Has Come When To Direct Exclusive Attention To Any Particular Period Of Art Is No Longer Permissible ; To Insist Upon That Which We Take For Good And Wise Doctrine, Is To Try To Circumscribe The Spirit Of Youth ...

The Domestic Architecture Of_p5
His Description Of This Basilica Runs As Follows, And It Is Well To Observe That, In Speaking Of The Covering (te8tudo), It Is Certain From The Sequel That He Referred, Not To A Vault Of Brick Or Rubble, But To A Roof Of Timber : " The Length Of The ...

The Domestic Architecture Of_p6
Plate Viii., Which Gives The Plan, And Plate Ix., Which Gives The Section Of The Basilica Of Fano, Are Drawn Faithfully According To The Definite Descriptions And Dimensions Left Us By Its Author. In Order That The Arrangement Of The Pilasters Against The Backs Of The Columns May Be Understood, ...

The Domestic Architecture Of_p7
From The Remains Of The Ancient Basilicas, And From The Description Of The Edifice At Fano, We Are Justified In Drawing Another Proof Of The Great Liberty Enjoyed By Architects In The Time Of Augustus In The Construction Of These Public Monuments. The Greek Monuments Of The Basilica Type, Though ...

The Domestic Architecture Of_p8
But Our Art Is Concerned Not Only With Public Works. If We Have But A Vague Idea Of The Domestic Architecture Of The Greeks, That Of The Romans Is Sufficiently Familiar To Us To Prove That Here Also There Is A Wide Field Open For Our Instruction. It Cannot Be ...

The Domestic Architecture Of_p9
The Great Advantage To Be Obtained By The Student Of Architecture From The Study Of Antiquity Is The Elevation Of His Mind. In Order To Obtain This Result His Observation, Unlike That Of His Predecessors For The Last Two Hundred Years, Must Extend Beneath The Mere Superficial Forms Of The ...

The Principles And Information_p1
The Principles And Information Necessary To Architects. If, In Modern Times, We Occasionally See At Paris And In Some Of The Larger Cities Of France Public And Private Structures Well And Intelligently Built, And In A Fair Style Of Art, It Must Be Confessed That, In The Prov Inces And ...

The Principles And Information_p2
Now The Architecture Of To-day Is Subject To A Species Of Intellectual Government Much More Strict Even Than That Established Under Louis Xiv. ; It Did Not Share In The Revolution Of 1789. Isolated, Indefi Nite, A Secret Science, It Has Changed The Yoke Of Lebrun —a Yoke Which Was ...

The Principles And Information_p3
Amateurs Can Never Obtain A True Standard Of Criticism Except By Contact With Artists ; But To Form The Taste Of Men Of The World, Who May Be In A Position To Exercise An Influence Over Art, It Is Necessary That Architects Should Know How To Explain Themselves, And To ...

The Principles And Information_p4
What Would Be Thought Of A Military School So Organized As To Form Only Marshals Of France, Leaving It To Chance To Supply The Country With Captains And Lieutenants ? This Is The Reason Why The Remoter Districts Of France Are Deprived Of Capable Architects And, Consequently, Of A Respectable ...

The Principles And Information_p5
_ It Is Not Enough For The Architect, In, Designing, Simply To Accumu J/ Late The Results Of His Sketches And Drawings ; He Must Use Reason And Common-sense. It Is Well For Him Carefully To Study A Building Whose Aspect Has Fascinated Him, But It Is Better For Him ...

The Principles And Information_p6
The Obscurity Into Which We Have Been Plunged By The Irrational But Absolute Maxims Of The Age Of Louis Xiv. Has Lately Received Considerable Light From The Researches Of Certain Learned Germans • It Is Evident That A Rectangular Triangle With A Base Of 4 Parts, The Square Of Which ...

The Principles And Information_p7
B Tamed For The Facade Of A Basilica, That Is To Say, A Building Composed Of A Nave, Flanked By Two Aisles, One On Either Side, By Inscribing It In An Equilateral Triangle In The Manner Shown In Fig. 83 ; And The Apertures Pierced In This Façade Will Be ...

The Principles And Information_p8
But Of All Architectural Structures, Those Which Are Isolated, And Have Not So Much A Character Of Utility As Of Absolute Art, Such As The Triumphal Arches, Of Which The Romans Were So Prodigal, Should Most Emphatically Express, In Their Lines And Masses, A Perfect Har Mony, The Result Of ...

The Principles And Information_p9
If Now We Set Off On The Vertical Line D 0, Prolonged, The Distance D E = A 0, And Draw E A And E B, These Lines Will Exactly Represent The Geometrical Elevation Of The Great Pyramid Of Cheops, A B Being The Length Of One Side, D E ...

The Principles Of Western_p1
The Principles Of Western Architecture In The Middle Ages. The Architecture Of The Ancients Was For A Long Time Studied Without Any Regard For The Effects Whichthey Produced By The Application Of Color To Form, Whether This Color Was Obtained By Incrustations And Slabs Of Marble Or By Paintings On ...

The Principles Of Western_p10
Without Altering Its Essential Elements ;. It Is A Cross-vault On A Square Plan, And Cannot Be Anything Else ; While From The System Of Con Struction Presented In The Section (fig. 47) Can Be Deduced Conse Quences Without Number, Because The Equilibrium Of Balanced Forces Enables Us To Indulge ...

The Principles Of Western_p11
We Are Very Apt To Judge Of These Buildings According To Their Present Appearance, Regardless Of The Fact That, During The Lapse Of Seven Centuries, They Have Submitted To Many Changes And Mutila Tions ; And To Blame Their Original Architects For Faults And Marks • As In Certain Monuments ...

The Principles Of Western_p12
There Is Still Another Quality, Which, Although Shared By Our Mediae Val Architects With The Greeks, We Have Almost Entirely Lost, Since We Have Imagined That We Were Romans ; I Refer To The Sentiment Of Form. Our Lay Schools Of The Twelfth And Thirteenth Centu Ries Possessed This Sentiment ...

The Principles Of Western_p13
At The Beginning Of The Twelfth Century, The Cistercian Building Did Not Resemble The Clunisian, The Architecture Of Poitiers Had No Analogy With That Of Normandy, And This Differed Essentially From The Architecture Of The Ile-de-france, Which, In Its Turn, Was Distinct From That Of Auvergne And Limousin ; The ...

The Principles Of Western_p14
While The Romanesque Architecture Of Burgundy Was Robust, Bold, And Full Of Life, While That Of Normandy Was Grand And Compara Tively Scientific, While That Of The Ancient Celtic Populations Of The West Was Elegant, Delicate, And Refined, That Of The Ile-de-france, At The Beginning Of The Twelfth Century, Was ...

The Principles Of Western_p15
The Architects Of The Lay School Of The Middle Ages, Notwithstand Ing The Tendency Which Has At All Times Been Manifested By Our Countrymen For Show, Always Caused The Form, The Appearance, To Be Modified By The Materials And Methods They Employed. They Never, Moreover, Gave To The Saloon Of ...

The Principles Of Western_p16
A Few Examples Will Suffice, I Hope, To Make It Intelligible To All That The Lay School Of The Twelfth Century Was Made Up Of Men Who Were Not Only Subtle Reasoners And Skilful Geometers, But Were Emi Nently Endowed With Those Delicate Qualities Which We All Recognize Among Greek ...

The Principles Of Western_p17
On Account Of The Principle Of Elasticity Which Constitutes My Con Struction, The Column Can Even Be Moved Aside From The Vertical Line, Without Any Inconvenient Results, Precisely Because It Has Been Re Duced To A Safe Minimum Of Bearing Surface, So That Any Slight Oblique Movement, Which Might Take ...

The Principles Of Western_p18
We Have Seen With What Care The Greeks Managed Effect, How Thoroughly They Comprehended What We Call Le _picturesque, And How, By Refinement Of Conception And Delicacy Of Execution, They Reached The Very Summit Of Art ; We Have Seen What A Feeling They Had For Lines, And How This ...

The Principles Of Western_p19
While The Architects Of The Renaissance And Those Of Louis Xiv., Although They Pretended To Draw All Their Inspiration From The An Tique, Never Suspected The Existence Of These Great Rules Of Art, Estab Lished As They Were On A Well-reasoned Sentiment Of Truth, We Can Find These Rules Habitually ...

The Principles Of Western_p2
In Antiquity, Therefore, And In The Earlier Part Of The Middle Ages, An Edifice Was Regarded As Finished Only When Color Assisted Form. But After The Thirteenth Century In France, Form Had No Further Need Of This Assistance, As It Was The Result Of A Construction All Of Whose Effects ...

The Principles Of Western_p20
This Expedient For Obtaining Stability Was Adopted, But Timidly, 20 In The Architecture Of The Lower Empire And Byzantium. But It Is Due To The Western Architects That It Was Finally Erected Into A System. Thus, In Cathedral Towers, Like Those Of Laon Or Senlis, We Can See That The ...

The Principles Of Western_p21
Above This Basement, Which, Notwithstanding The Profusion Of Sculpture Lavished Under Its Archways, Maintains A Grave And Solid Aspect, An Open Gallery Or Portico Extends Along The Entire Width Of The Facade, Composed Of A• Range Of Monostyle Columns With Large Capitals Supporting Lintels Cut In The Form Of Open ...

The Principles Of Western_p22
In Conception, Romanesque Art Was Far From Attaining The Magis * The Right Door Is Mainly Made Up Of Fragments Of Sculpture Belonging To The Twelfth Cen Tury. It Would Seem That, In Rebuilding The Facade Of Notre Dame, The Architect Wished To Preserve In The New Structure The Most ...

The Principles Of Western_p23
It Is Not Enough For The Modern Architect To Admire The Works Of The Past, And Merely To Copy Them Is An Avowal Of Impotence ; But He Must Comprehend Them And Be So Penetrated With Their Spirit As To Be Able To Obtain From Them Deductions Suited To The ...

The Principles Of Western_p24
Let Us Turn To A Few Examples. We Have Observed That The Greeks Placed Bases Under Their Ionic, But Not Under Their Doric Shafts. Yet There Are Very Ancient Examples Of The Use Of This Mem Ber In Greece, As In The Columns Of The Frontispiece Of The Treasury Of ...

The Principles Of Western_p25
11 Ing Them With Deposits Of Dust And Washings Of Dirt, Before Finding At B A Dripping-place Where It Can At Last Leave The Stone ? But The Architects Of The Twelfth Century, Instead Of Inserting A Cornice Be Tween Two Stories In This Manner, Used But A Simple String-course ...

The Principles Of Western_p26
Rial In Obtaining His Effect. This Was An Absolute Rule, And Admitted No Exception, As May Be Readily Ascertained By Examining A Few Monuments Of The Era. It Is Easy To Understand That This Judicious Employment Of Material Is A Quality To Be Seriously Regarded. When I Beheld The Basilica ...

The Principles Of Western_p27
The Greeks Were Born Under A Beautiful Sky, Free From The Fogs And Mists Which Obscure Our Atmosphere ; They Established Them Selves In The Midst Of A Country Divided By Gulfs And By Mountains, And Rich In Materials Of Marvellous Beauty. They Adopted That Architecture Which Was Best Suited ...

The Principles Of Western_p3
Antiquity Never Lost Sight Of This Principle ; And The Middle Ages Often Endeavored To Recognize And Follow It, But With Manifest Inferi Ority, Above All In France ; For In Italy The Influence Of The Pagan Traditions Was Still Felt, And To This Fact May Be Attributed A Large ...

The Principles Of Western_p4
In Examining The Ruins Of Greek Cities, We Cannot But Be Struck By The Care With Which The Architects Of That Beautiful Epoch Profited By Their Sites To Give Increased Value To Their Monuments. They Loved Architecture As An Art, But They Also Loved Nature And Light ; They Endeavored ...

The Principles Of Western_p5
Development That The History Of Architecture Requires To Be Analyzed With The Utmost Care, For From These First Essays We Are To Derive What It Is Most Important For Us To Know In Our Labors For The Renovation Of Modern Architecture. This Is Not The Place To Recount The Supreme ...

The Principles Of Western_p6
The Clunisians Very Nearly Created A Renaissance In The Middle Ages ; They Revived The Love Of Letters, And, For The Time In Which They Flourished, Had Very Advanced Ideas Concerning Administration And Government ; They Were Legislators, Diplomatists, Politicians, Men Of Science, And Artists. If They Did Not Create ...

The Principles Of Western_p7
" Ipse Enim Serenissimus Rex Intus Descendens Propriis Manibus Snum Imposuit, Hosque Et Multi Alii Tam Abbates Qnam Religiosi Viri Lapides Suos Imposuerunt, Quidam Etiam Gemmas, Ob Amorem Et Reverentiam Jhesu Christi Decantates : Lapides Pretiori Omnes Tui."— Letter Of Suger. In This Letter (78th Of The Edition Of Mabillon) ...

The Principles Of Western_p8
Sculpture. They Rapidly Perfected Themselves In The Study Of Geom Etry And Mathematics, And Undertook To Copy Nature In Their Statu Ary And Decoration. In This New Development Of Art, The Peculiar Genius Of The French Nation Began To Appear, — A Genius Which Is As Distinct From That Of ...

The Principles Of Western_p9
Now, Let Us Suppose Ourselves In France In The Twelfth Century, And That We Are Upon To Construct A Great Public Building ; We Find At Once That We Are Not Absolute Masters Even Of The Site Of This Building ; It Is Disputed Piece By Piece, And Only Yielded ...

Transverse Section Of The_p1
Transverse Section Of The Cathedral Of Paris. Let Us Select The Cathedral Of Paris, Which Is One Of The Most Ancient Of The Buildings Belonging To The Truly Lay School Of France, A Specimen Of The Real Gothic Style Of The Twelfth Century. Fig. 90 Presents A Transverse Section Of ...

Transverse Section Of The_p10
The Roman System Of Proportions, Then, Was Overturned By The Greeks Themselves The Moment They Were In A Position To Follow Their Instincts And Once More Have An Art Of Their Own. The Time When The Largest Monuments Did Not In Superficial Dimensions Exceed Fifteen Hundred Square Feet Had Passed ...

Transverse Section Of The_p11
Fig. 97. 2 • It Is Interesting Here To Remark That The Genius Of The Antique Greeks Attained Relative Perfection In At Only By A Long Series Of Tentative Processes All Tending To The Same End. They Reached The Purity Of The Parthenon Only By Induction Through The Successive Ameliorations ...

Transverse Section Of The_p12
' Line Indicating A Very Delicate Feeling For Proportions. All Travellers Who Have Visited This Mosque Agree In Their Testimony That The Effect Of These Bays Is Striking In The Highest Degree, And That They Have Never Been Surpassed In Nobility Of Proportions Or Elegance Of Aspect. They Were Described ...

Transverse Section Of The_p13
The Greeks Reasoned Justly When They Adopted The Perpendicular Post Or Column And The Horizontal Traverse Or Lintel, And In Giving To Each Of These Proportions Relative To Its Function. The Romans Rea Soned But Poorly When, In Applying The Order Thus Formed To Their Vaulted Monuments As A Mere ...

Transverse Section Of The_p14
In Order That We May Comprehend The Differences Between These Two Forms Of Art, Both Of Which Became The Slaves Of Geometry, Let Us Enter The Alhambra And Examine There One Of The Last Buildings Due To What Is Called Arabic Civilization. We Perceive A Structure Concrete, Like That Of ...

Transverse Section Of The_p15
So Contrived As To Throw The Rain-water Far From Its Surface ; All The Lower Members Of The Cornice Must Be Cut In Such A Manner As To Have The Appearance Of Sufficient Strength To Sustain The Burden Imposed Upon Them. The String-course B' Is Nothing More Than A Cincture ...

Transverse Section Of The_p16
T The Profiles A Date From The First Half Of The Twelfth Century, And Belong To The Interior Of The Nave Of The Church Of Vezelay (cornices Or Abaci Of Interior Capitals). The Profiles B Are Exterior, And Are From The Old Tower Of Notre Dame Of Chartres (about 1140). ...

Transverse Section Of The_p17
Romans Never Observed ; It Was A Refinement Peculiar To Greek And Mediaeval Genius. I Am Aware That To Associate Such Names As Athens And Saint-antonin, Pompeii And Deols, As I Have Done, Will Sound Strangely In Some Ears ; But What Shall I Do ? The Monuments Are There, ...

Transverse Section Of The_p2
The Transverse Section Of The Cathedral Of Amiens (fig. 92) Pre Sents A Harmony Of Proportions Obtained By The Superimposition Of Two Egyptian Triangles. The Base A B Of The Lower Triangle A B C Reposes; According To What Seems To Have Been The Usual Custom, Upon The Bases Of ...

Transverse Section Of The_p3
The Greeks (for We Must Always Have Recourse To Them When We Would Receive Light On Any Question Touching The Arts) Had Two Schools Of Philosophy As Well As Two Schools Of Art,— The Dorian Or Pythagorean School And The Ionian School. Of These, The Former Taught Absolute Unity, Excluding ...

Transverse Section Of The_p4
In Fig. 94 We Venture To Present Another Example, Under Some What Unfavorable Conditions. It Is Proposed To Build The Façade Of A Château, Composed Of Two Stories, .dormer-windows, A Great Roof, And Low Wings. Dividing The Whole Length Into 22 Parts, We Take 4 Of Them For The Central ...

Transverse Section Of The_p5
Gencies Imposed By Certain Appropriations And Requirements, He Cannot Always Dispose These Heights And Retreats As May Seem Most Desirable To Him In View Of The Phenomena Of Perspective ; He Must Endeavor So To Treat His Façade As To Suggest To The Spectator That Which His Eyes Cannot See ...

Transverse Section Of The_p6
If It Is The Aim Of An Architect, When He Fits An Architectural Order To A Room In The Modern Fashion, To Diminish The Apparent Extent Or Height Of This Room By So Doing, I Admit That He Exactly Attains His Purpose; But If It Is Desirable To Produce The ...

Transverse Section Of The_p7
Even The Romans Applied This Principle, In Their Better Moments, Or, I Should Rather Say, When They Gave Full Liberty To The Greek Artists In Their Employ, And Did Not Thrust Their Love Of The Sumptuous And Colossal Between The Artist And His Work ; For Sometimes, When They Decorated ...

Transverse Section Of The_p8
Modern Society Is Floundering About Among Many Strange Contra Dictions, And Not The Least Among These Is That Those Who Approve And Defend The Revival Of Classic Architecture Among Us Are Pursuing A Course Diametrically Opposed To That Always Followed By The Greeks Of Antiquity. Now If, In Respect To ...

Transverse Section Of The_p9
The Law Of The Predominance Of Masses Was Rigorously Applied By The Artists Of The Byzantine Empire, Who Preserved Enough Of The Old Greek Spirit To Appreciate Its Primary Importance, And It Was Observed Also In The Architecture Of The Caliphs, Of The Moors, Of The Persians, And Of The ...

Ugene Emmanuel_p1
Ugene Emmanuel Viollet—le—duc, Born In Paris In The Year 1814, A Diligent Student Of Art, A Learned Archaeologist, And An Architect Of Experience, Published In The Year 1s63 A Work Entitled Entretiena Our L'arehiteeture. In The Year 1872 A Second And Concluding Volume Appeared. The First Volume, More Especially To ...

Ugene Emmanuel_p2
The French Academy Of Painting And Sculpture Was Founded In 1648 ; That Of Architecture, In 1671. The Modern Reale Des Beaux. Arts. Is A Direct Descendant From These Official Schools ; It Has Inherited All Their Col Lections, And In It Are Merged All Their Traditions Of Theory And ...

Ugene Emmanuel_p3
Meanwhile, In This Uncongenial Atmosphere, The Gothic Or Mediaeval School Received Its Chief Encouragement From The Archaeological Spirit; And M. Lassus And M. Viollet-le-duc Became Engaged, Not In The Legitimate And Practical Development Of Their Theories Of Art, But In The Restoration Of The Gothic Monuments Of France. The Academic ...

Ugene Emmanuel_p4
It Will Be Observed, As A Characteristic Of His Argument, And As A Reassur Ing Fact To The Professional Reader, That At Every Step The Allurements Of Mere Sentiment, So Irresistible To The Layman, Are Distrusted, And That The Premises Of Every Conclusion Claim To Be Practical Facts In The ...

Ugene Emmanuel_p5
Are We Then, On The Other Hand, To Find The True Architect In " The Master Workman," As The Quarterly Reviewer Would Have It, —in The Man Who Knows Nothing Of Archaeology And Who Cares Less ? In The Beginning Of Things, When The Needs Of Mankind Were Simple And ...

Ugene Emmanuel_p6
The Natural Local Conditions, Material And Social, Constitute A Legitimate And Controlling Element Of This Influence. It Is Self-evident, That, To The Formation Of Good Style In Architecture, The Study Of Convenience And Econ Omy Is The First Duty, To Which Everything Else Must Be Subordinate. A Public Like Ours, ...

Ugene Emmanuel_p7
Notwithstanding The Narrow Path Which They Have Chosen For Themselves And Their Peremptory Exclusions, Even If Their Efforts Are Misdirected In The Manner And To The Extent Which M. Viollet-le-duc Maintains, There Pervades The Schools Of Paris An Atmosphere Of Noble Devotion To Art. Whether This Corner From The Inspiration ...

What Are The Social_p1
What Are The Social Conditions Most Favorable To The Development Of Art? It Is Evident That At Certain Times Art Has Been With Singular Energy, Has Been Honored, Culti Vated, And Beloved, While At Others It Has Fallen Into Indifference, Neglect, Or Even Contempt. It Is Cus Tomary To Divide ...

What Are The Social_p10
I Perceive That All Primitive Civilizations Had The Same Physical And Intellectual Needs, And Possessed Nearly The Same Creative Power As Regards Art, In Which They Expressed A Certain Simple And Very Restricted Order Of Ideas. The Task Of The Artist Was Then Compara Tively Easy ; He Was Not ...

What Are The Social_p2
But To Arrive At A Knowledge Of Truth Nothing Is More Important Than To Define Terms. Let Us Understand What Art Is ; For Very Many Talk About Art Without Any Real Knowledge Of Their Subject. There Are Extant, Indeed, Many Epigrammatic And Sententious Defini Tions, Whose Only Merit Consists ...

What Are The Social_p3
It Is Needless To Say More To Prove That Music, Together With Poetry And Pantomime, Which Are Its Derivatives, And Architecture, Are The Only Arts In Which Primitive Man Developed Certain Creative Fac Ulties Of His Nature, In His Desire To Propagate His Ideas, To Preserve His Recollections Or Share ...

What Are The Social_p4
If It Is Well Established, Therefore, That The Nature, And Not The Degree, Of Civilization Produces Works Of Art, We Must At Once Conclude No Longer To Confound The Advance Of Civilization Or The Industrial Arts With The Advance Of The Fine Arts ; We Must Be Content To Judge ...

What Are The Social_p5
Let Us Analyze This Sentiment ; Let Us Examine One By One These Secret Fibres Of The Soul So Sensitive To The Appeal Of Art. Natural Phenomena Produce On Our Minds, Through The Senses, Certain Impressions Quite Distinct From The Direct Physical Effect Of Such Phenomena. Thus A Perfume May ...

What Are The Social_p6
A Blind Man Was Asked If He Had Any Idea Of Redness. " Yes," Replied He, " Red Is The Sound Of A Trumpet." There Is, Then, An Intimate Mutual Relation Between The Expres Sions Of The Various Arts, Because, As We Have Seen, These Expressions Are Drawn From The ...

What Are The Social_p7
A Dog Makes No Distinction Between A Stone Post And A Statue, Between A Picture Of Titian And A Curtain ; And If Greek Birds Have Ever Picked At Grapes Painted On A Panel, It Is Because Such Birds Were Not Made Like Those Of Our Day. If, As Is ...

What Are The Social_p8
Yet Such An Epoch May, To Our Civilized Eyes, Be Barbarous, That Is, Delivered Up To Fanaticism Governed By Prejudices, Possessing Imper Fect Laws, Living Under An Insupportable Tyranny, Having Neither Ad Ministration Nor Police, Holding Half The Population In Slavery, And Without Order Or System. All This Does Not ...

What Are The Social_p9
The Art Which We Discover In The Poetry And Sculpture Of The Greeks We Also Find In Their Architecture ; For A People Is Not Truly , Artistic, Unless Art Is Applied To All The Works Of Its Hands And Its '! Intelligence. Architecture, Moreover, Is, With Music, One Of ...