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Infectious Sore Mouth in Pigs Necrotic Stomatitis



Infectious sore mouth is a common disease of pigs. It usually occurs in young pigs from a few days to a few weeks old and is highly contagious. Heavy losses are frequently reported from this disease.

Causes. The specific cause of this disease is the necrosis bacillus. This germ is widely and is said to be a normal inhabitant of the hog's intestines. It is commonly found in the manure around the hog houses and in filth, and is frequently associated with other ulcerative and processes than that of the mouth.

Filthy quarters is the one condition that favors the development of the disease. Damp, wet, muddy yards are favorable conditions for the spreading of the infection, but infection may occur quite readily in dusty yards. Under such the teats of the mother become soiled with filth containing the germs of the disease. A method of spreading the disease is by pigs nursing and infecting the teats of mothers having healthy litters.

The germ does not develop on a healthy mucous membrane. Opportunity for developing in the mouth of the pig is afforded by some slight Wound on the lining membrane, or the and irritation to the part caused by the eruption of the teeth. Age is an important factor, as the disease is usually seen in pigs under two months of age.

Symptoms. At the beginning of the disease, pigs that are nursing the mother are careless of the teat and may refuse to nurse. Older animals show a falling off in the appetite and eat sparingly. The animal is feverish and acts dull. On the mouth at this time, the lining membrane shows several inflamed patches, usually on the gum and lips. In the early stages the inflamed parts are a deep red color and swollen. Sometimes the snout and lips are badly swollen and the breathing is interfered with. Later the patches become necrotic and ulcers form. In this stage the part becomes whitish or yellowish white in color toward the central part of the area, and inflamed and thickened at the margins. The necrotic tissue soon sloughs off and deep, depressions or ulcers form. These may several of the teeth, or a large portion of the lips and snout. The opening of the mouth causes the animal a great deal of pain and the breath has a disagreeable odor. Salivation is sometimes noticed.

As the pig is weak, feverish and unable to suckle, it soon becomes greatly emaciated. It is usually seen standing or lying down in the pen, or in some quiet place. It moves about but little and acts dull and stupid. The latter symptoms are due to the poisonous products manufactured by the germs, and the effect they have on the nervous system, as well as the weakened, debilitated The disease usually terminates in from three to ten days. The loss in the herd is frequently fifty per cent., and, if the conditions favor the development of the disease, it is even more fatal. Cases that make a recovery are generally stunted, or deformed about the face and lips.

Treatment. Preventive measures are very They should be carried out along two lines: (I) keeping the hog house and yards in a sanitary condition by removing the manure and other filth, and the occasional disinfection of the hog house; (2) not allowing an infected pig to mix with the herd.

As soon as the disease breaks out in a litter, both the mother and the pigs should be separated from the herd. The affected pigs can be treated by dipping them head foremost into a four per cent. water solution of some reliable tar or permanganate of potassium, one ounce to a gallon of water, can be used. A more thorough way to treat them is to wash out the mouth by injecting the solution directly into it with a syringe. It is advisable to use this method practical, and especially in advanced cases. It is also advisable to clean the ulcerated parts by scraping away the dead tissue and rubbing the surface of the ulcer with lunar caustic. The above treatment should be repeated twice a day in cases, and in mild ones once a day. It should be kept up for as long a time as A small teaspoonful of flowers of sulphur, into the mouth of the affected pig, is as a treatment for this disease.

It is usually more economical to kill the badly diseased pigs than it is to treat them, as they are apt to scatter the disease and become badly stunted or deformed.

disease, usually, lips, pig, treatment, hog and yards