INFLAMMATION OF THE LUNGS PNEUMONIA.
Acute congestion and inflammation of the spongy tissue of the lungs is met with in hogs, the same as in other farm animals. Inflammation of a part or a few lobules of the lungs is frequently met with when lung worms are present.
Causes. Fat, plethoric hogs, because of their condition, are especially predisposed to pneumonia. The exciting causes are very much the same as in the different diseases of the air passages, and it is not uncommon for the inflammation to extend from these parts to the lungs. However, there are a number of causes in adition to those already It frequently occurs when hogs to warm, comfortable quarters are changed to cold, draughty pens, or shipped some distance in open stock cars during the cold weather. In fact, any sudden chilling of the body is a common cause of lung disorders. Giving fat hogs too much exercise, when they are not accustomed to it, is a frequent cause of engorgement and inflammation of the lungs. This may occur when they are chased by dogs and boys, or when driven to a distant market at too rapid a pace. Exercise during the hot summer months is apt to cause congestion of the lung tissue as well as heatstroke. Washing or diping hogs during the cold weather may chill the body and result in disease.
Symptoms. Pneumonia following as a result of a bad cold is preceded by the symptoms of the primary disease. If due to severe exercise, the animal appears greatly exhausted and the of the lungs is marked. Death may occur in this stage of the disease.
Inflammation of the lungs usually begins with a and is followed by a high fever. The hog lies down most of the time, hiding under the litter, and may eat nothing or but very little. The are hurried at first, but when the lungs badly involved they are also labored. The character of the pulsebeats vary, depending on the extent of the inflammation and the stage of the disease. In most cases it is full and quick during the early stages, but later, as the condition of the animal improves, more nearly normal. A very weak pulse is present in severe and fatal The visible mucous membranes have a red, appearance, and there may be a slight from the nostrils. The expression of the face is anxious and distressed in severe cases, and rigors and chilling of the body occur.
The respiratory sounds become more or less changed from the normal. The cough is at first deep and dry, later more loose and moist. It may be accompanied by a hemorrhage during the first stage of the disease. Other respiratory sounds are revealed by placing the ear to the side of the chest wall and listening to the sounds in the lungs This cannot be practiced in fat or hogs with satisfaction, as the chest walls are so thick that the lung sounds are deadened, or the noise made by the animal hides the respiratory murmurs.
In the very early stages of pneumonia a or crackling sound can be heard in the parts and louder sounds than normal in the healthy areas. Later, when the engorgment of the lung tissue occurs and the air cells become filled by the inflamamtory exudates, the respiratory sounds are deadened. On returning to the normal, rattling sounds occur. These symptoms help greatly in determining the animal's condition and in watching the progress of the disease.
The chances for recovery depend on the extent and acuteness of the inflammation. Careless exercise, etc., lessen the chance for a favorable termination in this disease, and good nursing helps more in bringing about a recovery than the treatment. The prognosis is more in fat than in lean hogs, as the inflammation is usually more severe in the former. The course of the disease is from one to three weeks, and it may become chronic if the irritation is kept up. In such cases unthriftiness is a prominent symptom.
The above symptoms are not seen in all cases of pneumonia. In bronchial and lung worm a small part of the lung tissue may be and the symptoms resemble these diseases more than they do pneumonia.
Lesions. The character of the lesions differ in the different cases. If death occurs within a few days after coming down with the disease, a large part of the lungs may appear solid and liverlike in color and consistency (hepatization). Later a part becomes lighter in color (gray hepatization). This marks the beginning of the degenerative changes of the inflammatory exudates and the return to the normal. On cutting into the tissue that has reached this stage, a purulent or fattylooking fluid may exude from the cut surface. A part may have reached a later stage, that of resolution, and the absorption of the inflammatory exudates begun. Suppurative changes in the lung tissue may also occur.
In lobular pneumonia the lesions vary more than in the form just described. The bronchial tubes may be plugged with mucus and inflammatory and the lining membrane inflamed. Small areas of lung tissue undergoing different stages of are seen scattered through the lung, with here and there dark colored, depressed in which the air cells have collapsed Some lobules may appear bulging and lighter in color than normal (emphysema). centers may also be observed.
Treatment. The preventive treatment in must not be overlooked. Briefly, it consists in avoiding such conditions as may predispose the animal to the disease, or act in any way as an exciting cause.
Careful nursing is a very important part of the treatment. The hog should be given a wellventilated pen, and kept as quiet as possible. To keep the bowels from becoming one or two ounces of castoroil should be given daily, if necessary, and a light, sloppy diet fed. In severe cold weather, the animal must be kept from chilling and taking more cold by it with a blanket or using artificial heat. As one attack predisposes the hog to a second, it should be protected from severe cold, or the other heat, for a few weeks after making a recovery.
As a counterirritant to the sides of the chest the following liniment can be used : oil of turpentine (ten parts) and crotonoil (one part). If the heart action is weak, from five to ten drops of tincture of digitalis should be given every few hours. the convalescent period alcoholic stimulants can be used if necessary.