THE CREOLE PONY is really a small race horse with preponderance of Thorough bred blood. They enjoy considerable fa vor in Louisiana. The Creole has been crossed with the Shetland pony with fairly good results.
Draft type As the light or "hot blooded" horses are all descended, with modification, from the Thoroughbred, so the draft or "cold blooded" horses are descended from the old black horse of Flanders. At the dawn of history this wild black horse was found throughout Pennsylvania from the seaboard to the Ohio river. For this heavy work the Conestoga horse was produced and was at one time famous as a draft horse in Pennsylvania. This horse was a prod uct of local breeders, based on imported heavy horses of unknown blood. The Conestoga horse stood 16 to 181/2 hands high and weighed 1,600 to 1,900 pounds. With the advent of railroads the breed was allowed to become extinct.
The Clydesdale originated in Scot land, being first referred to in 1715. The continental Europe. In northern Europe the conditions seemed to be favorable to the development of large men and large horses. By skillful breeding and an oc casional mixture with oriental or native blood, several heavy breeds have been produced from the black horse of Eu rope. Thus from England we have ob tained the Clydesdale, Shire horse, and Suffolk Punch; from France the Per cheron and French draft horse; and from Belgium the Belgian draft horse, or Flemish horse.
Before the days of railroads much freighting was done by horses through black Flemish horse and other heavy horses were crossed with the early form of the type. At present the type is well fixed and the breed is very true and prepotent. The color is bay or brown with white markings on the face and legs. Other colors, such as gray, black and chestnut sometimes appear. The flanks are lighter in color, fading to a dun on the belly. Mares weigh 1,500 to 2,000, stallions, 1,800 to 2,200 and the height is 16 to 17 hands. The head is long, neck medium, leg broad, with fine silky feathering below the knee and hock, shoulders sloping. The Clydesdale shows a fast, elastic walk and a fairly good trot. The waist is sometimes too small, the back too long and the feet too flat In these points much improve ment has been made of late. The fore head is broad, hindquarters well devel oped, leg joints strong, tail well carried. The special merits of the Clydesdale aro the smooth, clean legs, and the long, graceful strides. This breed was firsi, imported into Canada in 1842, into the United States in 1880 and the first but rather too small, with a tendency to curb, prepotency marked, disposition sluggish. The Suffolk keeps easily and is well adapted as a plow horse to or dinary farm conditions. He is not popu lar either in Canada or the United States and there are only about 20 regis tered in this country. (For secretary, see appendix.) The Shire horseThe black horse of Flanders, imported to England and crossed on native heavy mares, gave rise American stud book appeared in 1882. There are 11,000 Clydesdales registered in this country. (For secretary, see appendix.) The Suffolk Punch comes from the county of Suffolk, England, where he has been bred in his present form for more than 200 years. Chestnut or sorrel is the only color allowed. The Suffolk stands 15 to 101/2 hands high,weighs 1,500 to 1,900 and is rounder in conforma tion than the Clydesdale or Shire horse. Tbe back is broad and short, legs clean to the old war horse or "great horse," which was much in favor as a charger in the days of knight errantry. Its descend ants appeared as the black Lincoln shire horse early in the eighteenth cen tury, which in turn became the pro genitors of the modern Shire horse. A modern Shire stallion from King Ed ward's stables is shown in Fig. 2, page 8. Gilbey believes that this horse traces his ancestry back to the horses found in England by Cwsar.
The Shire horse resembles the Clydes dale, but is heavier and coarser. The color is black, bay, brown or gray; height 16 to 17.2 hands, weight 1,600 to 2,300 pounds, neck short, nose Roman, shoulder straight, body short, deep and round, back broad, legs strong with heavy bone and "feather" extending around on the sides. The gait is slower and less stylish than in the Clydesdale, but the animal is stronger and less likely to be "weedy." The shoulders and pasterns are more erect than in the Clydesdale and the cheron, Percheron or French Draft. In that year the name Percheron was adopted. At first two types, the light and the heavy, were recognized. The light Percheron was most in fever and was used as a coach horse. He weighed 1,400 to 1,600 pounds, stood about 15.2 hands high and had considerable speed as well as strength. The neck was trim, the feet well formed and the legs only slightly feathered. In 1732, many of the orien tal horses were captured in France from the invading Saracens, and this blood, hair is coarser. Shire and Clydesdale have been crossed to produce the select Clydesdale, but this horse is no longer in favor. The early importations of Shires to this country included many in ferior animals, but great improvement in this respect has taken place in recent years. There are about 7,500 registered Shires in the United States. (For secre tary, see appendix.) The Percheron is the national horse of France and originated in the dis trict of La Perche. Until 1883 all draft horses in France were referred to indifferently as Norman, Norman-Per mixed with that of the European black horse, yielded the Percheron. Shire horses were also imported from England and their blood added to the existing mixture. Du Hays in his treatise on the Percheron claims an Arabian ances try for this horse.
The French Haunch horse of Canada is a descendant of the light Percheron and makes a good cob horse, and the "Morse Gray," imported into New York about 1825, was evidently a Percheron.
The color of the modern Percheron is black, gray, or white, stands 16 to 17.2 hands high, and weighs 1,600 to 2,200 pounds. The legs are short, blocky and without feather, the hoof is good, head small, face straight, neck arched, should ers and hips sloping, body deep, round and broad. The Percheron is powerful, but his legs and feet are his strong points. He shows his heel in walking and his action is good, but not quite so swinging as that of the Clydesdale. The percentage of blacks has been greatly in creased by the Americans. Roans, bays, browns and chestnuts are occasionally observed, but probably indicate impure breeding. The weak points in the Percheron are lightness of leg below the knee and hock, rolling gait in front and wide straddling behind. These defects, however, are only seen in a certain percentage. For breeding, stallions with oblique pasterns should be selected.
Alexander rightly calls attention to the beneficial effects which the Percheron has exercised upon our native horses. He is by far the most popular of all the draft horses, and breeds fairly true to type. He is docile, easily kept in con. dition, of good constitution and well adapted to all sorts of draft purposes. When crossed on native mares, the Percheron produces excellent express, farm, draft and general purpose horses, according to the size of the mare. "Where the blood of this breed pre dominates in a district, no other breed should be used. Continued breeding in the right line is highly advisable and will re sult in the production of practically pure bred horses of great usefulness and value." There are more than 30,000 registered Percherons in the United States. (For secretary, see appendix.) The French Draft, also known as the Boulounaise horse, had the same ances try as the Percheron and was once in cluded with the latter. In fact, the breed is now in process of differentiation from the Percheron and can scarcely be dis tinguished from it. The prevailing colors are gray, bay and black. The French Draft is. slightly heavier than the Percheron and useful for fewer pur poses, being purely a heavy draft horse. (For secretary, see appendix.) preferred colors are brown, bay and black with an occasional roan or chest nut. They are closer to the ground than the Percheron and less trim in appear ance. The head is large, ears sometimes lopped, neck thick, shoulders straight, hack short and board, chest deep, legs short and flat, feet large, heel low. The defects of the Belgian are clumsy gait, coarse neck, sloping croup and too erect pasterns. Attention is being given to the correction of these points. Belgians are slowly gaining in favor among American breeders on account of their The Belgian Draft horse, or Flemish horse, stands nearer than any other breed to the old black horse of Flanders. His ancestors were first used as war chargers and later for draft purposes. Until re cently the Belgian Draft horses imported into the United States have lacked qual ity. The Percheron and Clydesdale pos sess more style and better action than the Belgian, and are therefore more in fa vor in this country. The Belgian has less feather on the legs than the Clydes dale, shorter neck, wider breast and larger body.
The Belgian Draft is the largest of all horses, weighing 1,700 to 2,500 pounds, and standing 15.3 to 17 hands high. The great power and easy keeping qualities, There are about 2,000 registered Bel gians in the United States. (For secre tary, see appendix.) In southern Belgium there is a light race of Belgian drafters, known as the Ardennes horse. Having described the various breeds of light and draft horses, we may now turn our attention to the recognized market classes of the hors.).