THE EFFECT OF CHURNING is to bring the fat globules in the cream together into masses of greater or less size, so they may be readily separated from the buttermilk. The agitation necessary to produce this result may be accomplished by various forms of churns, but a re volving churn is best for ordinary use. It should preferably be filled one-third to one-half full with cream, and should be revolved at the rate of 50 to 60 times a minute. The greatest agitation of the cream is obtained when the churn is about one-third full. It should be re membered that if the quantity of the cream is too small, some difficulty will be experienced in collecting the butter. In general, the more completely ripe the cream is, the easier it churns. Sweet cream is sticky and the fat globules do not break so readily and separate from the buttermilk. With regard to the rate of turning the churn the directions furnished by the manufacturers of the churn should be followed, since this mat ter varies with the style of churn and the diameter.
After a little experience one may readily recognize by the sound when the cream begins to break and churning should cease as soon as the butter gran ules are about the size of wheat kernels. It may be safer to continue churning a little past this stage in order to make it easier to collect the butter. If the granules are too small, some of the but ter may be lost in straining out the but termilk. Over-churning, however, should be avoided, for the reason that much of the buttermilk will be retained in the butter and is difficult to remove. The amount of moisture content in butter is somewhat increased by long churning, but more than 16 per cent of water in butter is not allowed according to mar ket standards.
As soon as the butter granules are of the right size, the buttermilk is drawn off and the butter washed at least twice with cold, pure water, the churn being revolved a few times at each washing. The butter should not be washed too long since its flavor and aroma are easily removed in the water. The tempera ture of the washing water should be the same as that of the butter or slightly colder or warmer, depending on the con sistency of the butter. The chief pur pose of washing butter is to remove the buttermilk and, as soon as this is ac complished, the washing should be stopped.
Salting butterAs stated by McKay and Larsen, the chief objects of salting are to improve the flavor of butter, increase its keeping quality and help in removing the buttermilk. The amount of salt to be added to the butter depends upon the market. There is some demand for sweet butter, and certain purchasers prefer highly salted butter. The amount of salt varies, therefore, from nothing to 4 per cent. The quantity of salt to be added also depends to some extent upon the amount of moisture in the butter. if a large percentage of mois ture is present, more salt may be added, since a part of it will pass into solution in the water and be removed in working the butter.