THE RELIABILITY OF A PEDIGREE in any instance, depends upon the character of the association which publishes the rec ord and also upon the integrity of the individual breeder. Nearly all of the breeds of importance are divided into families and there may be as many different associations and registry books, and it is important that the breeder of pure bred stock knows the initials used by all of these associations and be posted with reference to their standing. It may detract greatly from the value of an animal to be recorded in a herd book which does not have the support of the best breeders, or with an association which is lax in its requirements of reg istration.
A COMPLETE PEDIGREE should be trace able for at least six generations. When all the sires and clams are known for that length of time, the pedigree is said to be complete. But when any are lack ing, it is termed short bred. With im ported animals, however, it is only necessary that the registration run hack to the importation, and the initials Imp. after a number means that the animal was imported. Not all societies follow the same method in presenting pedi grees. In the case of Shorthorn and some other cattle breeders' associations, a simple statement is given of the sire and dam of an animal and then of the dams in successive order, thus leaving out the breeding of the sire's side. A complete pedigree requires that both lines be traced out for at least six gen erations.
IN PRESENTING A PEDIGREE the name of the animal is first given with such other data as are necessary to identify it and then an ordinary brace is used, after which the sire is placed above and the dam below, another brace follows the name of the sire and at the top again of this brace the sire is given and the dam below. The same procedure is car ried out for further generations and with the dam also.