THE SMALL YORKSHIRE is finer in qual ity than the Improved, presents greater symmetry and is much more compact in form; they mature much earlier, but do not attain as heavy a weight as the Large Yorkshires.
Tamworth These pigs originated in England, and have been bred for many years, being one of the oldest and purest breeds of Britain. The blood of other breeds has been used to but very little extent in the improvement of the Tam The Tamworths have come into great prominence during recent years, espe cially in Canada, where an extensive bacon trade is being developed with England. The breed is also increasing in favor in the United States. At pres ent they are most numerous in Canada, Michigan, Iowa and Illinois.
Cheshire This white breed of swine originated in Jefferson county, New York. It is the outcome of crosses be tween Large Improved Yorkshire and the Suffolk breeds upon native white hogs. They were first exhibited at fairs in New York state in 1859. They are smaller than any of the breeds described above, and possess early maturing qual ities in a marked degree. They have fair grazing qualities, are docile, rank high among the medium breeds as bacon producers, and are valuable in crossing upon the more slowly maturing breeds for the purpose of refining the bone and increasing early maturity. They con siderably resemble the Berkshire in gen eral appearance except that they are white, are not quite so heavy and are more refined in frame and bone. The ears are small, fine, erect and in old animals point slightly forward.
In 1906, four volumes of the Cheshire Herd Book had been issued registering a total of 3,349 females and males of which about 1,000 are alive.
Hampshire or This hog traces its origin to Hampshire, England. It was introduced in Kentucky as early as 1835, where it bas been carefully bred and other good qualities is very likely to increase in popularity.
Suffolk The hog known in England as the Suffolk is a black bog, while the hog called Suffolk in America, refers generally to a white breed. Good author ities, however, consider the American strain of white pigs as merely the little Yorkshire under another name. The Black Suffolk is one of the smaller breeds of hogs. The head is short, snout turned up similar to that of the small Yorkshires, body deep, ribs well sprung, with short, small bones and legs. The breed possesses early maturing quali ties in a marked degree, is medium in size, lays on fat rapidly and dresses out a high percentage of meat.
ever since. These hogs are black in color with a band 4 to 12 inches wide en circling the body and including the front legs, which are also white. This gives the breed a striking appearance. The head is small, ears of medium length, slightly inclined forward, light jowls, broad back of nearly uniform width, heavy hams, legs set well apart, active and muscular. The sows are pro lific and uniformly good mothers. The breed has excellent grazing qualities and easily attains a weight of 300 pounds at 12 months of age.
In crossing they transmit their qual ities and markings with great uniform ity. The breed is comparatively new, but owing to its handsome appearance What is known as the American or White Suffolk, is a hog somewhat simi lar in general appearance except that the color is a pale yellowish white, perfectly free from spots or other colors. In general, it may be described as a short legged pig, with a moderately long body, but wide and deep and a much dished bead. It is adapted to intensive condi tions where grazing lands are scarce and expensive, and for producing a good quality of quickly grown pork.
Essex The Essex is another rep resentative of one of the smaller black breeds of England, originating in Essex. As bred in America, they attain a weight of 250 to 400 pounds at maturity. They have a fine head, short nose, nicely dished face, thin, erect ears, heavy jowl, with the short, firm boned leg. Espe cially good results have been reported with this breed in the South, but in the northern states it will never be a se rious competitor of the larger breeds like the Poland-Chinas or Berkshires.
Large BlackThis is one of the Eng lish breeds only recently brought into prominence, though it has existed in Cornwall, Devon, Essex and Suffolk counties for many years. The Large Black Pig Society was established in England in 1899, and a few of these pigs have appeared in America and Canada.
to the more southern states. This breed is a long-bodied, long-legged, thin, long nosed hog, exceedingly hardy and with remarkably good foraging powers, but too slow in maturing and too light in weight to compare with the improved breeds of swine. It has no place in modern agriculture.
Victorias There are two distinct breeds of Victorias, the Davis, originated by Geo. Davis in Indiana about 1870, from crossings between Poland-Chinas, Chester Whites, Berkshires and Suffolks, and the Curtis, originated by F. D. Curtis, in New York about 1850, ob The characteristics of this breed are a black color, a large, coarse, lop ear, falling well forward, medium dished face, rather long body, partaking in gen eral of the appearance, and counted as a bacon hog. The legs are strong, the breed very hardy, the sows docile, pro lific and good mothers. In general, the breed has a rather coarse appearance. They dress 190 to 190 pounds at six to eight months old. We are not aware that any herd book has been established as yet in America.
Razorbacks commonly known as the Razorback is a representa tive of the unimproved breed hi this country, and is confined almost entirely tained by crossing natives of the Graz ier strain with the Bayfield, Yorkshire and Suffolk. Both are white breeds, with erect ears and are' very nearly as large as the Poland-Chinas. They re semble the Suffolk in general appear ance, but are a little larger. The breed seems to be average, without striking qualities along any line.
Breeds to growUnder present con ditions in the United States, farmers will find it most generally profitable to grow the larger breeds of hogs, since they gain as rapidly as the smaller breeds up to a marketable weight of 180 to 250 pounds and if not marketed at this time will continue to grow, while the smaller breeds will reach their limit of growth at about this age.