TRANSPORTATION REQUIREMENTS The law relating to the transportation of live stock, which is the subject of inter state commerce, requires that in the transporting of cattle, sheep, swine or any other animals from one state to another, they shall not be confined in cars, boats or vessels of any description for a longer period than 28 consecutive hours without unloading the same for rest, water and feeding for a period of at least five consecutive hours, unless prevented from unloading by storm or other accidental causes, or by special request of the owner or person in charge, when time may be extended to 36 hours. In estimating such confinement, the times during which the animals have been confined without such rest on con necting roads from which they are re ceived, shall be included; if, however, proper arrangements for food, water, space and opportunity to rest are pro ' villed, the provision in regard to their being unloaded does not apply. All the regulations of the department of agri culture relative to the shipment of stock, transportation of diseased animals, etc, can be obtained upon application to the Secretary of Agriculture at Washing ton, D. C.
Attendants on stock carsWhere one or more carloads of stock is shipped long distances, it is expected that at least one attendant will accompany them to look after the stock. This attendant will be given free transportation by the railroad company to market, but must pay his own expenses on the return trip. He is usually given accommodations in the caboose of the stock train, and must take such accommodations as are avail able. Where but one or two animals are shipped in a box car, the attendant may ride in the same car with them. On shorter journeys of 24 to 30 hours, where it may not be necessary to either feed or water stock, an attendant is not necessary.
Even with the larger shipments, if no attendant is sent with the stock, the employees of the railroad will see that they are watered and feed given them. Upon arrival at the stock yard, the attendant will see that the car contain ing his stock is switched off at the proper station. If lie is well acquainted with the stock yards, lie may be able to save much unnecessary switching in properly placing his car.
Inspection of stockAs soon as stock arrive at the stock yards, they are in spected by a veterinarian. At the Chi cago stock yards there are three separate sets of inspectors, those representing the city of Chicago, the state of Illinois and the ITnited States. Each of these in spectors has clearly defined duties and all work in harmony to secure pure meats for the people of Chicago, the state, the United States and foreign countries which consume animal and meat products, shipped from the Chi cago markets.
The inspection is both ante-mortem and post-mortem, and in case of doubt, microscopic also. If animals suffering from disease or injury, which makes them unfit for food arrive, they are condemned. These, as well as ani mals which arrive at the yards deal, are sent to the rendering works. Every day considerable numbers of pigs, sheep and occasionally cattle, arrive dead.
"Animals in poor condition and under suspicion as unfit for food are marked with metal tags in the ear and are placed in special pens for further obser vation or slaughter." These animals are slaughtered under the supervision of attendant veterinarians and records are made of each case. In case of ani mals which are out of form in some respects, yet not unfit for food, the meat is sold to local buyers. In the yard inspection it may happen that some animals fall under suspicion that will later be allowed to go with the passed animals as being salable on open market.
Condemned animals"Cows within a month of parturition and for 10 days after will be subject to condemnation. In the slaughter houses, the meat of all cows that have calves inside with the hair on is condemned. So also are all pregnant sows near parturition, hogs with bunches, boils, cuts on hams and shoulders, etc. Bob or deacon calves (calves less than a month old) are con demned, and also sheep emaciated and in bad condition." The live stock exchange takes charge of all dead and condemned animals. The condemned animals are slaughtered and with the dead stock are sold chiefly for soap grease and fertilizers. What ever returns are secured from this source over the cost of handling are turned over to the original owners of the animals.
The system of meat inspection ob served at the slaughtering houses has been noted in another chapter of this work. It is sufficient to state here that by its thoroughness, only clean, whole some meat, free from disease, reaches the public. The stamp of the Bureau of Animal Industry on these meats gives notice to foreign countries that it has been carefully inspected and found absolutely free from disease, clean and healthful.
When to ship stock Stock should be shipped to market only when it is in prime condition; 50 to 100 pounds of meat added to a horse will often in crease its sale value as many dollars. The cost of shipping prime animals to market is no more than for shipping those in medium condition, and it is only the prime stock that gives top market prices.
Many feeders often make the mistake of holding stock that should be sent to market. Thus, if a man is feeding 100 to 150 head of steers and one-half to two-thirds of this number are fit for market, he may keep these in prime condition at a loss until he can ship the whole bunch at once. This is a mistake. Fat stock should be shipped as soon as it is ready and enough is on hand to make a carload. This gives the animals that are left a better chance to improve and avoids the loss that in evitably occurs when stock ready for the market is still retained in the feed ing yards. Many experiments with all manner of stock have shown that the last few pounds added to an animal's growth before marketing cost three to four times as much as it is worth.