TREATMENT In case of an outbreak of foot rot among a herd of sheep, all affected sheep should be immediately is olated and all the sheep, whether dis eased or not, should be made to pass through a shallow trough containing a solution of chloride of lime at the rate of 1 pound to 12 quarts of water. The depth of the solution should be 4 inches or more. Another effective solution con sists of 1 pound of carbolic acid for each 4 gallons of water. After treat ment the healthy part of the herd should be placed in a clean, uncontaminated pasture and the diseased animals left for further treatment. The hoofs should be pared away so as to remove all loos ening horn tissue after which the sheep may be made to stand for 10 minutes in a strong solution of blue vitriol as warm as may be borne by the hand. The solu tion recommended by Mohler consists of 3 pounds of blue vitriol or copper sul phate in 5 gallons of water. The 'solu tion should be no deeper than is neces sary to cover the hoof and the sheep should be prevented from lying down in it since great injury would result to the skin and wool.
Foot and mouth disease symp toms of foot and mouth disease in sheep might be mistaken for those of foot rot. The lesions in the feet in the case of foot-and-mouth disease are, however, much more superficial than in the case of foot rot, and disappear spontaneously after the disease has run its course. Moreover, the lesions in foot-and-mouth disease are more apt to be visible than in the case of foot rot and are accom panied with pustules and ulcers in the mouth. Finally, foot-and-mouth disease is far more infectious than foot rot and spreads with far greater rapidity. Arthritis trouble arises as a result of infection which takes place at birth, the infectious material entering through the unclosed navel cord. The symptoms appear soon after birth, the lamb being feverish, without appetite, and lame in one or more joints. Pus may form in some of the affected joints and in some of the internal organs. There is no treatment for the disease after it has once appeared but it may be effectively prevented by washing the navel cord soon after birth with a 10 per cent solution of carbolic acid.
2.7aEgnant edema A form of blood poisoning or malignant edema quite of ten occurs as a result of infection from injury with unclean instruments, es pecially sheep shears. Professional sheep shearers are sometimes very care less in this regard and carry about with them shears which have become badly contaminated with the bacilli of malig nant edema. When they cut the skin of sheep in shearing them an infection is almost sure to take place at this point and leads to an extensive swell ing which is hot and painful and pro duces an exudation with a disagreeable odor. The disease is ordinarily fatal, terminating in a few days. Where sheep are badly cut in shearing, they may also become infected by allowing them to lie down in old filthy corrals, since the bacillus of malignant edema commonly occurs in such soil. It is al ways desirable, therefore, to give some heed to this matter, since otherwise large losses may occur. Occasionally a loss of 100 to 200 sheep has been observed in a single band of 2,000 as a result of infection with malignant edema.
Big head A peculiar and fatal dis ease of unknown origin occurs among sheep in Utah, Nevada, Idaho, and Wyoming under the name big head. The characteristic symptoms of the dis ease are great swelling of the head and ears, with an occasional extension of the dropsical condition along the neck even to the shoulders. The cars, in some cases, swell to the thickness of an inch and affected sheep show pronounced cerebral symptoms. About 50 per cent of cases die and those which recover are so badly affected that they are of little value for stock purposes. There are certain areas which are com monly recognized as dangerous on ac count of the unusual occurrence of this disease on them. This fact gives some basis to the belief that the disease is due to some poisonous plant. No plant has been found, however, which would cause the symptoms of big head. The trouble has also been attributed to the bites of scorpions, but the local dis tribution of the disease would not har monize well with this supposition. It may be an infectious disease of which the micro-organism is unknown. In some respects it resembles the disease com monly known as geel ad:op, which oc curs in South Africa, and is there be lieved to be of infectious nature. In some seasons big bead causes the loss of from 20,000 to 50,000 sheep and is, therefore, an important disease in the localities where it occurs. Big head appears mostly in the spring, in April and May, but, according to some sheep raisers has also been observed in the fall. It has been known in the localities where it occurs for the past 30 years.
Rabies sheep, the incubation pe riod for this disease ranges from 25 to 00 days. Symptoms are much the same as those observed in other animals and include restlessness, bleating, stamping of the feet, and the tendency to bite. (See under Diseases of Dogs.) Parasitic ictero-liematurie This dis ease, also known as carceag in Europe, is due to a minute animal parasite of the blood related to the plood parasite of Texas fever. The parasite is found in the blood, liver, spleen, kidneys, and other organs, and the disease appears to be confined to sheep. Among the first symptoms are fever and bloody urine, followed by a yellow condition of the skin and dropsical swellings the side of the head and neck, after which the animal remains for much of the time in a crouching position. When ex amined post-mortem, affected animals show a decided yellow color in the skin and fat tissues and an enlargement of the kidneys. The disease is quite gen erally distributed in Europe, but in this country occurs chiefly in limited areas in the Rocky Mountain states, partic ularly in Montana and Idaho. No satis factory remedies have been devised but in a few instances it has been found that goats are not susceptible to the disease and for this reason sheep raisers have taken to grazing goats on the in fested areas.
SheePPnx This disease, while un known in the United States, might pos sibly be introduced and is therefore brief ly mentioned. It is one of the most im portant and universally distributed dis eases of sheep in Europe and it has caused the loss of millions of sheep. It still prevails to a large extent in various parts of Europe. The disease is closely related to cowpox and smallpox. The symptoms include rapid breathing, fever, chills, and depression, followed in a day or two by red spots on the bare parts of the skin. If the eruptions are close together the affected parts become great ly swollen. After a few days vesicles or pustules are formed which burst and form scabs. A system of vaccination has been devised for the control of sheep pox. The permanent home of the dis ease appears to be in Asia, from which outbreaks continually originate. Some of the native sheep of Africa have been found to be relatively unsuseeptible to the disease, while European sheep intro duced into those localities rapidly die by infection.
Blackleg under of Cattle.) Anthrax are very susceptible to this disease and ordinarily develop anthrax in an acute or apoplectic form. (See under Diseases of the Horse.) Lockjaw Tetanus or lockjaw is occasionally observed in sheep as the result of an infection from wounds by nails or splinters. The period of in cubation is about one week and the death rate is very high. (See under Diseases of the Horse.) Tuberculosis Sheep are not as sus ceptible to tuberculosis as cattle and hogs, but when an outbreak occurs, af fected animals should be separated from the rest of the flock in order to prevent the further spread of the disease.
Ulcerative leg infectionA resembling erysipelas appeared among a number of herds of sheep in New York and also affected dairy cows in the same locality. The first symptoms were swell ing in the region of the fetlock and pas tern joints. The disease appeared to originate as a result of infection hi wounds while the sheep were allowed to stand in the mud. The best treat ment was found in the use of an iodized phenol or a saturated solution of borax. Creolin also gave good results when ap plied to the affected parts.
Aspergillosis A number of molds belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium have been found to be some what pathogenic when inhaled into the lungs in large quantities. The spores may germinate in the lungs, causing the development of tubercles, which some what resemble those of true tuberculosis.
trouble prevails most extensively in cer tain localities in the western parts of the United States but ordinarily runs a be nign course and therefore does not at tract much attention except upon the inspection of mutton after slaughter. All kinds of sheep, whether pure breeds or common stock, are equally susceptible, but the symptoms do not develop to an alarming extent except among breeding ewes. According to the investigations of Norgaard and Mohler fatal cases are practically unknown and the losses which result from the rejection of af fected carcasses in abbattoirs are very small.
There is no satisfactory treatment for the disease except that of a preventive nature, which naturally consists in avoiding the use of moldy or dusty hay for sheep.
This disease 13 well known in Europe and the United States and is sometimes also referred to as cascous lymphadenitis. It is a specific, infectious disease caused by a bacillus which is pathogenic for a num ber of small laboratory animals as well as sheep. It is apparently not patho genic for chickens or pigeons and it ap pears doubtful whether the disease ever develops in horse and cattle. This InfluenzaIn cases of this disease in sheep the affected animals show great depression, fever, weakness, and stagger ing gait, a cough develops and the appe tite is gradually lost. In sonic outbreaks, diarrhea is a striking symptom, together with such complications as pneumonia and meningitis. The lesions which oc cur in this disease vary greatly accord ing to the part affected and are found chiefly in the respiratory organs. In the catarrhal form of the disease, Craig and Bitting recommend one tablespoon ful three times daily of a mixture con taining 4 grams tincture of belladonna, IA gram tincture of aconite and enough sirup of squill to make 4 ounces.
Scab Taking the country as a whole scab is the most important disease af fecting sheep. It is due to the pres ence of a mite (Psoroptes corninunis (iris) in the skin and is readily contagious from one animal to another.
The mite burrows in the skin, causing an intense itching and irritation which leads to the formation of pustules, scabs, and the loss of wool. The infected area of the skin rapidly extends as the mites multiply, so that the disease pro stages before scabs have formed and be fore the wool begins to fall off. Loose looks of wool are soon observed and as the scabby area extends over the shoul ders, back and sides, the affected sheep Presents a very disagreeable appearance.
Investigation and resultsIt has been found that scab mites may live for six months or longer in the soil of infest ed localities without any nourishment derived from sheep. If the eggs of the mite are kept at a temperature nearer that of the body they hatch within about four to eight days. Sheep scab prevails to the greatest extent over the western range districts, where sheep are kept under less careful supervision than when raised in small flocks on farms in the thickly settled eastern agricultural regions. Too little attention was paid to the gradual spread of this disease un til it finally became a veritable plague and was forced upon the attention of federal and state sanitary officers and grosses over nearly all parts of the body, which are heavily covered with wool. The irritation makes the sheep restless and causes them to rub and bite affected parts and these actions on the the part of the sheep constitute one of the surest symptoms by which the dis ease may be recognized in the early upon the sheep raisers themselves. The work of eradication was then taken up in a vigorous manner by the Bureau of Animal Industry and by various state veterinarians and other local stock of ficials and has been carried on for many years with striking results. In 1904, the Bureau of Animal Industry in spected 40,968,000 sheep and dipped 9, 578,000. The results of inspection in dicate a decided reduction in the num ber of scabby sheep received at the principal market centers and this is considered as due partly to the extended use of compulsory clipping. In certain states as for example, Wyoming. Utah, Idaho and Oregon, the conditions with regard to sheep scab had become very serious and required the dipping of sheep ing together 4 ounces oil of turpentine, 6 ounces sulphur, and 1 pound of lard. In the extensive dipping of sheep under federal supervision, lime-sulphur is the dip most in use. As a result of the dipping of millions of sheep during re cent years it appears that the federal system has been successful in producing cures, preventing scab in 92 per cent of all cases and in effecting a complete cure in 85 per cent of infected sheep.
on the very extensive scale already men tioned. As a result of this work sheep scab has been almost eradicated in Wy oming,, is under control in Utah and Ore gon, and is being vigorously attacked in Idaho, where millions of sheep were dipped in 1905. The adoption of com pulsory dipping for sheep was at first looked upon as an unnecessary hardship for sheepmen but it was soon recognized that the great advantages resulting from clean sheep far more than outweighed the slight initial disadvantage and trouble of dipping.
In regard to the effectiveness of different dips, tobacco extract and sulphur ap pears to lead the list, followed by lime and sulphur and nicotine and sulphur. The effectiveness of lime and sulphur, however, in recent years has been rather higher than that of any other sheep dip. In the treatment of exposed sheep, lime and sulphur, according to the most recent statistics, stands first, with an effectiveness of 99 per cent, followed by tobacco extract and sulphur at 94 per cent and nicotine and sulphur at 85 per cent. It is recommended by the of A large variety of dips have been used for the purpose of curing scab and many hand applications have also been recommended. Hand treatment of sheep, however, is as a rule unsatisfac tory for the reason that not all affected areas can be recognized at the time of treatment and some of the mites may, therefore, escape. A fairly effective hand application may be made by mix ficials who have charge of this work in the United States that all dips should contain sulphur to the extent of 161/2 pounds per 100 gallons of water.
Process of clippingSheep dip should be used at a temperature of 100° to 110° F. and each sheep should be kept in the dip for about 2 minutes. Where a large number of sheep are to be dipped en extensive system of corrals con nected with a single or double dipping vat must be provided. Some of the dipping vats now in use will allow running through 10,000 to 15,000 sheep a day. The tobacco and sulphur dip is prepared from 1 pound of tobacco leaves and 1 pound of sulphur for each 6 gallons of water. The materials has not existed long. In old cases, how ever, with a large development of scab and crusts over the affected parts, the Fort Collins formula, calling for 11 pounds of lime and 33 pounds of sul phur per 100 gallons of water, is recom mended. In preparing the lime and sul phur dip the lime is slaked in enough are mixed and kept in a lukewarm con dition for about 24 hours, after which they are brought to the boiling temper ature and then allowed to cool.
Lime and sulphur dips have been pre pared according to various formulas con taining 11, 15, 16 2-3, 33 1-3 pounds of lime and 15, 16 2-3, 20 5-6, water to make a lime paste, after which the sulphur is sifted into the lime paste and the whole mixed. The mixture is then boiled in a small amount of water for at least two hours with occasional stirring. The boiling should continue until the sulphur disappears from the surface of the mixture. The preparation and 33 pounds of sulphur per 100 gal lons of water. The Bureau of Animal Industry has also used a formula calling for S pounds of lime and 20 pounds of sulphur per 100 gallons of water. The last named formula is recommended as very efficacious in cases where the scab should then be allowed to settle and the clear liquid drawn off, adding enough water for the proportions called for by the formulas just given. The federal authorities recommend that the sedi ment should never be allowed in the dipping vat, but in many instances where sheep have been dipped by their owners this has been done without caus ing any injury.
The chief objections which have been raised against different sheep dips are their injurious effect upon the sheep or upon the color or staple of the wool. An extensive investigation of this matter was made by Hollings in Bradford, Eng land, from the standpoint of the quality of the wool. Many complaints have been made by wool buyers of injuries to wool from different kinds of dips. The investigations in question cover nearly all of the English colonies. It appeared that as a rule the low price paid for inferior grades of wool was due to the injury from the different dips. Hol lings condemns lime and sulphur dip as alkali or arsenic be present in the dip great harm results to the wool. On this account the use of arsenical dips can hardly be recommended as a general farm practice, since mistakes might easily be made in compounding the dip. As a matter of fact the injury to the wool from the use of lime and sulphur dips has caused exceedingly few com plaints in this country and it is recom mended as the best dip not only for effectiveness in curing scab but for ease in preparation and application and com parative harmlessness to the sheep and wool.
Read scab This disease is also caused by a parasitic mite (Sarcoptes scabiei ovis). Other varieties of this mite cause itch or mange in other farm injurious.Tt was claimed to cause trouble in scouring, dyeing and weaving of the wool and for this reason has been abandoned by many sheep raisers in Australia, Tasmania, and Argentine Re public. Tobacco dips were found to stain the wool in large percentages of eases except where sheep were dipped immediately after shearing. Tobacco dips are further objected to on the ground that they are injurious to the sheep. Carbolic dips, and especially those containing pitch oil, are injurious to the wool staple. Hollings believes as a result of his investigations that ar senical dips are effective in curing scab and that these dips cause the least in jury to wool when properly prepared and applied. If, however, an excess of either animals, producing similar diseases upon them. The attacks of the mite arc largely confined to the head and this gives rise to the common name for the disease. The mange caused by the head scab mite may extend backward about the eyes, ears and neck. The mites burrow under the skin of parts not heavily covered with wool, causing the formation of pustules, which become in crusted. Any of the dips commonly used in the treatment of scab will cure this form of scab and the cure takes place promptly with the remedies ap plied in other stages of the disease. The crusts may first be removed by rub bing with oil, after which, if other dips are not convenient, kerosene emulsion or a tar sulphur oil ointment will give satisfactory results.
The sheep botfly (Oestrus ovis) lays its eggs in the nostrils of the sheep in early summer and the eggs. up on hatching, develop into grubs which penetrate deeply into the nasal cavity and after becoming full grown fall to the ground where they bury themselves and finally emerge as adult flies. The flies somewhat resemble the common house fly but are covered with small round spots and the abdomen bears velvety brown and straw colored hairs. The flies may be seen all summer long wor rying sheep which in badly infested lo calities form a habit of carrying the nose close to the ground in order to keep out the botflies. Sheep sometimes resort to dusty roads for this purpose. The pres ence of the grubs in the nasal passages causes considerable congestion and ul ceration and in some cases death. In most localities where sheep raising has been practiced for a century or more al most every sheep carries from 2 to 3 grubs in the head from October to June. Treatment for this trouble is somewhat difficult. The maggots may sometimes the nostrils. A good plan recommended by many sheep raisers consists in boring holes in a log in which salt is placed and tar smeared around the margins of the holes. The sheep in eating the salt keep the nose smeared with tar.
Tick The common sheep tick is not a true tick but a wingless fly which is very generally distributed throughout the country and causes great damage, not, as a rule, in killing any infested sheep but in bringing about a loss of flesh and unthriftiness. The parasite (Melophagus ovinus) is often considered be dislodged by the use of a feather dip ped in turpentine and inserted into the nostrils. Fumigation by means of sul phur fumes and other gases in closed rooms has proved injurious to sheep and only partly effective in removing the maggots. In serious cases it may be ad visable to trephine the outer blade of bone, after which the maggots may be re moved and the part thoroughly washed out in tepid water containing a suitable antiseptic. One of the best preventive means for controlling this trouble is to smear tar about the nostrils in sheep, since this substance has a tendency to keep the flies from laying their eggs in of little importance as an enemy of the sheep, but really causes serious losses of lambs in many localities. It is partly due to the fact that after the ewes are shorn the ticks migrate at once to the lambs and cause great irritation. In many localities, it has been found desir able to dip both ewes and lambs imme diately after shearing in order to get rid of this pest. For this purpose sheep may be dipped in a lime-sulphur solution or any other dip which is commonly recommended for sheep scab. The dip, however, need not be so strong as recom mended for scab, for the reason that ticks are not under the surface of the skin but simply crawling about in the wool. A weak ereolin dip will therefore give quite satisfactory result and sheep need not be held so long in the dip as in the case of scab. Where the tick prevails to an excessive degree it is well to dip the sheep after shearing and also in the fall.
Bladder worm Upon examining sheep after slaughter it sometimes occurs that the larval stages or bladder worm form of the tapeworm (Taenia margi nata) are found in the caul. This is the larval condition of the tapeworm which occurs in the dog but is most fre quently found in the bladder worm form in sheep and pigs and occasionally in cattle. The vesicle in which the bladder worm occurs is found in all sizes rang ing from that of a pea to that of a man's fist. The bladder worm is most fre quently found in the pleura and peri toneum covering the walls of the body cavities. Since this parasite lives in the adult form in the intestines of dogs it is desirable that dogs be treated at regu lar intervals with some vermifuge like aloes in order to expel the tapeworms and that all unnecessary dogs be kept away from sheep pastures, since the eggs of tapeworms from dogs may be taken into the stomach of sheep with their feed and thus give rise to an infestation. The bladder worm stage in sheep is us ually a harmless parasite. It may, when occurring in large numbers, cause death in young animals, but this is quite in frequent.
Gid or staggersThis disease is also caused by a bladder worm stage of a tapeworm (Tae nia coenurus) which lives in the intestines of dogs. The bladder worm is about the size of hazelnuts and is provided with a thin membrane. It penetrates from the alimentary tract to the brain, where it causes peculiar symp toms which characterize the disease. Affected sheep have the tendency to turn round and round in a circle toward the side of the brain in which the parasite is located. There is practically no treat ment for this disease, but prevention may be accomplished to a large extent by burying or destroying the head of af fected sheep so as to prevent the dogs from becoming reinfested from eating the bladder worm stage of the tapeworm. Gid is of common occurrence in Europe, but has not been known in the United States until within the past few years. It has recently been rejorted from a number of localities in Montana and was observed in the Judith Basin by one of us. In some cases where the bladder worm is located near the top of the head an actual enlargement of the skull may take place and the worm may be re moved by trephining at this point. It should also be remembered that wolves, coyotes, and foxes may be infested with the adult worm and may, therefore, carry infection.
Fringed tapeworm (Taen ict fimbriata) This is a very common intestinal parasite of sheep, especially in the western states. where it causes extensive financial loss. It is found in a large majority of flocks of sheep throughout the Rocky mountains and in some cases whole car loads of sheep have been found badly af fected to the extent of 60 per cent or more. The fringed tapeworm varies from 6 to 8 inches in length and is found in the small intestines and bile ducts. When present in large numbers the lambs are weakened and fail to de velop or put on fat. The general symp toms are those of malnutrition and many investigators have believed that excessive infestation by this tapeworm is one of the causes of loco disease. In the intestines, the tapeworm causes a local irritation and similar effects are produced in the bile duets in addition to stopping the flow of bile. It is not known how the worm lives from the egg stage until it is again found in the intestines of sheep, hut some experi ments by Curtice indicate that occa sional infeetioq may take place directly from one sheep to another without an intermediate host. Treatment for fringed tapeworm is usually without very satisfactory results. The medi cines which are used for this purpose become so diluted before they reach the small intestines that they have but lit tle effect on the tapeworms. Powdered areca nut may be given in doses of 1/2 to 1 dram and oil of male fern 10 to 20 drops, or the ethereal extract of male fern may be given in dram doses. One pound of copper sulphate dissolved in 2 quarts of water and then diluted to make a solution of 8 gallons gives fairly satisfactory results when administered in doses of 2-3 ounce for young lambs and 1 1-3 ounces for lambs two months of age.
Broad tapeworm (Moniezia expansa) This parasite attains the length of 12 to 15 feet and is 1/2 to 34 inch in width. The life history of the tapeworm is not understood. It affects lambs and young sheep more frequently than other ani mals. The symptoms of infection are malnutrition, whiteness of the wool, and paleness about the eyes and lips. A posi tive diagnosis, however, is as a rule very difficult. The worm develops very rapidly in the intestines of infested sheep. No medicinal treatment of a satisfactory nature has been devised.
Liver fluke (Pesci:01a hepolica) This parasite is of quite common occur rence in the liver of sheep and cattle throughout the country, but many large areas are comparatively free from it. The usual location of the liver fluke is in the bile duets of sheep, goats, cattle, fluke. The life history of the fluke is quite complicated. The eggs pass out through the bile duct and intestines with the feces. After hatching in ponds and pools of water the young, immature flukes are parasitic in the body of fresh water snails. There are two or three immature stages which are passed in the water and finally the larvae crawl onto the stems of grasses, from which posi tion they gain entrance to the stomach of sheep. The symptoms of liver rot due to fluke worms are not easily recog nized. Badly affected sheep are nn thrifty, show a poor appetite, and a yel low tinge to the skin, as well as paleness about the lips and eyes. During the later stages of the disease the sheep becomes rapidly emaciated and if badly infected the mortality is high. This dis ease is more prevalent in wet than dry years. There are no remedies which bring results in removing the flukes. Even the use of tonics are of little avail. When the young larvae are first taken into the stomach they are susceptible to the action of salt and it is sometimes suggested that the free use of salt will help to prevent bad infection.
and hogs. Occasionally it is also found in the horse. It is found in small or large numbers in the liver of nearly all sheep and cattle and for this reason can not be considered as a source of serious disease except when it is present in un usually large nmnbers. Tt is only in rare instances that the liver tissue it gelf is affected by the presence of the Stomach worm (Strongylus conlor lus) Slicep are very commonly infest ed with this parasite and east of the Mississippi river it is perhaps the most serious disease with which the sheep raiser has to contend. In Indiana, Craig and Bitting estimate that the average annual loss from this parasite is about 30,000 sheep. It is to be found in nearly all flocks in small numbers but serious symptoms and losses occur only when the parasite is present in large numbers. Lambs are particularly susceptible, especially before weaning.
The stomach worm, as its name indi cates, is parasitic in the stomach and is a small, threadlike worm about inch to 1 inch in length and of a white or reddish brown color. The life history of the parasite, while not thoroughly understood, appears to be such that in festation may take place directly from one sheep to another after the parasite has passed out with the feces and existed some time in moist places or stagnant water. The symptoms of stomach worms are not very characteristic. There are digestive disturbances accompanied with diarrhea. The appetite is abnormal and quite irregular. Frequently the thirst appears to be increased.
In preventing this disease it should always be remembered that the young worms are taken up by sheep in grazing upon moist, badly infested grass. In festation may, therefore, be avoided to a considerable extent by frequent change of pastures. During wet seasons it is well to arrange pasture lands so that the use of such fields may be alternated every third or fourth day. If pas ture fields are known to be badly in fested, the sheep may be taken up dur ing part of the time and fed on dry forage. Many lines of treatment have been recommended and some of them give quite good success but they are hard to administer and in general are unsatisfactory in results. This is par ticularly true in large flocks where the repeated administration of a drench to each individual sheep requires en ex pense of time and labor which is almost prohibitive. Vermifuges as a rule be come badly diluted before reaching the fourth stomach, where the worms are located. A vermifuge powder recom mended by Craig and Bitting contains pound each of areca nut and wormseed and 1/4 pound each of gentian, sulphur and sulphate of iron. An ounce of this mixture is given to each ten lambs or six old sheep in the morning with meal or crushed grain. Turpentine has also been used in treating sheep for stomach worms. This drug may be mixed with milk at the rate of 1 part to 16 and the mixture given in doses of 1 to 3 table spoonfuls, depending upon the size of the lamb. Still better results are obtained from the mixture containing 8 parts pine tar, 8 parts raw linseed oil, and 1 part turpentine, in doses of 1 to 3 ounces. An emulsion may be made by adding 1 ounce of turpentine to 2 ounces of raw linseed oil and adminis tering this mixture in doses of ounce to 1 ounce. This remedy should be given in a perfectly fresh condition. Considerable success has been reported from the use of benzine and gasoline and these remedies are recommended by Stiles and others as the best for use against the stomach worm. Each dose of gasoline or benzine must be mixed separately in linseed oil or milk and the mixture may be given to lambs in tea spoonful doses and to old sheep in table spoonful doses. While excellent results have been reported by some men who have used this remedy, others have re ported unfavorably on its use. Accord ing to some investigations it appears that 4 ounces of sweet milk containing one tablespoonful of gasoline is a suit able dose for a sheep weighing from 60 to 100 pounds. This treatment should be given only after a fasting period from 10 to 18 hours and no water should be given until after a further pe riod of two hours. Moreover, the treat ment must be given on three consecutive days and then repeated for another three days a week or ten days later. The gaso line or benzine eon best be administered with a fountain syringe having a rubber tube that can be passed well back into the mouth and the sheep should be held in a standing position, since if it is set on its haunches some of the gasoline may pass into the lungs and cause death.
One of the most recent treatments which has been highly recommended con sists in giving coal tar creosote in a 1 per cent solution in water, the dose be ing 2 ounces for young lambs. In a single treatment Craig and Bitting ob tained better results from this than from any other method. Wheeler, at Biltmore, North Carolina, obtained best results from lysol and other coal tar products in doses of 6 ounces in 1 per cent solution. The chief attention, however, should always be given to means of keeping lambs away from con taminated feed and water, since preven tion is far more successful and profitable than remedial treatment.
Intestinal worms A number of threadlike worms are frequently found in the upper part of the small intestine of sheep. These include Strongylus ventricosus, S. filicollis and Dochmiu. cernuus. All of these are minute para sites which may be found associated to gether in the intestines and usually cause only slight symptoms of disease. They may be most effectively treated by the use of vermifuges like areca nut. Lung worms The hair lung -worm is found in the small air cells of the lungs and causes a form of pneumonia, while the thread lung worm inhabits the bron chi, causing a hacking cough commonly known as verminous bronchitis. The hair lung worm is so exceedingly slender and long that it commonly escapes notice when the lung is examined post-mortem by individuals who are not acquainted with its location and appearance. The diagnosis of this disease cannot be made with certainty until the symptoms of pneumonia appear and obviously no me dicinal treatment can be given which will expel the worm. The only success ful way of preventing the disease con sists in abandoning badly infested pas tures for a year, or better still, plowing them up and cultivating them for years before they arc again used as pastures. The thread lung worm (Strong,Ous M aria) is somewhat larger and is the one which is commonly referred to as caus ing verminous bronchitis. It may readily be observed in the windpipe and bronchi in animals dead of this disease and occurs with about equal frequency in sheep and calves. The disease is most frequently observed in summer and fall and begins to diminish in intensity in winter. It is frequently referred to un der the name Noose. Apparently wet seasons favor the development of lung worms. The various lines of treatment recommended for this trouble, while more or less successful, are scarcely capable of preventing the stunted con dition in affected lambs. Among the large number of remedies recommended, turpentine is perhaps the best. It may be injected by means of a hypodermic syringe between the rings of the wind pipe so as to pass directly into the wind pipe. The turpentine may be mixed with equal parts of sweet oil to which carbolic acid has been added at the rate of 12 to 15 drops to a tablespoonful of the mixture. Two or more injections of this mixture made at intervals of a few days usually give quite satisfactory re sults. Almost equally good results are obtained by injecting into the windpipe a mixture of 2 parts of olive oil and 1 part of turpentine in doses of 1 to 3 tea spoonfuls. Some investigators have recommended that turpentine be admin istered in the form of an inhalation by placing it in a bucket of boiling water or by pouring some on hot bricks near the head of the affected sheep. Sheep have also been driven into closed stables and made to inhale chlorine gas, or sul phur fumes, for the purpose of induc ing a cough and thus expelling the worms in the windpipe and bronchi. These remedies. however, are not very effective and are somewhat dangerous.
Nodular diseaseIn some parts of the country, particularly in the southern and central states, nodules resembling those of tuberculosis are found in the in test;nes of sheep and are due to the pres ence of a parasitic worm (0e8ophagos loma columbianum). The disease caused by this parasite cannot be diagnosed with any certainty, but as a rule there is a pronounced anemic condition and a profuse diarrhea. In the case of death of any sheep in the herd a post-mortem examination of the intestines will dis close the presence of numerous nodules in the intestinal walls if the worm in question is present. Obviously no treat ment can be given which would affect the worm when protected by the mem branes of the intestinal walls. Ac cording to recent experiments by Dal rymple, however, considerable success has been had from the use of a dry lot pasture for lambs. It should be remem bered that when sheep afflicted with nod dular disease of the intestines are placed upon a previously healthy pasture they infect this pasture very promptly. When healthy lambs are allowed to graze over such pastures they, in turn, become in fested, but when not given access to in fested pastures they do not contract the disease. It appears from Dalrymple's experiments that lambs from infected mothers may be raised in a healthy con dition, provided they be kept on dry lots. This system merely requires that a small feed lot be thoroughly cultivated and kept clear. Green feed and grain may be fed and the lambs are thus pre vented from eating any vegetation which might have become contaminated from the feces of the infested ewes.