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VALUE Of MANURE The fertilizing value and the cash value of the manure produced by different animals under normal conditions, is shown in the table below prepared by Beal, the manure being understood to include both solid as.d liquid excrement: The two tables taken together show hat, with equal weight of animals, hogs produce more manure a day than any other animal. Cows and calves come next, followed by sheep and horses. If we consider the money valise of a ton of manure, as shown in the last table, we see that the most valuable manure is that produced by hens, followed by that produced by sheep, then hogs, while that produced by calves, cows and horses is about equally valuable. Under ordinary farm practice, it is not common for each kind of manure to be saved separately but all are put into a common heap. The composition of manure thus made varies according to Beal, about as follows: Nitrogen, 0.4 to 0.8 per cent; phosphoric acid, 0.2 to 0.5 per cent; potash, 0.4 to 0.8 per cent; water, 60 to 75 per cent.

Preventing losses of plant food in manureIn ordinary handling of barnyard manure enormous losses occur because the liquid portion is allowed to go to waste. A part is absorbed in the bedding used and finds its way to the common heap, but large quantities are lost through the cracks in the barn floor and leaching in the yard. If the real fertilizing value of this material were well known, much greater care would be taken to preserve it. European farmers understand this better than American farmers do, and preserve this material with as much care as any pro duct produced on the farm.

Relative value of solid and liquid manure As between the solid and liquid excrement the liquid is by far the more valuable from a fertilizing standpoint. The urine of all farm animals is espe cially rich in nitrogen and potash, but is lacking in phosphoric acid. Investiga tions at the Pennsylvania station showed that the urine of milch cows contains nearly one-half the nitrogen and three fourths of the potash of the food con sumed and almost no phosphoric acid. The dung on the other hand contains about one-third of the nitrogen, one sixth of the potash and three-fourths of the phosphoric acid of the food.

Similarly, experiments with sheep at the Maine station showed that the urine contained nearly half the potash, and from one-half to three-fourths of the nitrogen. All of the phosphoric acid was found in the solid excrement. These data show that neither the solid excre ment nor the liquid is a complete ferti lizer in itself ; the one is lacking in nitro gen and potash and the other in phos phoric acid and much better results will be secured where both are combined. This is effected in a large measure by using such materials for bedding as will absorb the liquid, when it may be mixed with the solid excrement. The best ab sorbents from the standpoint of economy, fertilizing value and effectiveness are straw, peat and peat moss. Sawdust is a good absorbent, but has no value as a fertilizer.

On the average 2.2 per cent of the ni trogen of manure is in the solid matter and 10.8 per cent in the liquid; 1.67 per cent of the phosphoric acid is in the solid matter and only a trace in the liquid of cows and horses, but practi cally 5 per cent in the liquid of hogs; 1 per cent of the potash and soda is in the solid matter and 13.2 per cent in the liquid.

Character of manure from different farm animals various kinds of manures produced by the different farm animals, differ markedly in their physi cal characteristics as well as their chemi cal composition, and have greatly differ ing values for the various purposes to which manures are put.

manure, liquid, cent, solid, potash and acid