VARIOUS FEEDS In order to get a defi nite idea of the feeding value of milk for calves, a test was made by Beach in Connecticut, in which it was found that for each pound. of gain in calves, from 0.91 to 1.33 of a pound of solid matter must be fed. This shows that the young calf is exceedingly effective in manufacturing meat out of feeds. In Switzerland, it has been found that six eggs and 14 quarts of milk a day are sufficient to make a calf gain three pounds a day. This ration, however, would be altogether too expensive, ex cept for high bred animals or in loca tions where fancy prices could be ob tained for fine veal calves. In New South Wales, cod liver oil is extensively used in feeding calves. It appears that 2 ounces of cod liver oil in 3 gallons of milk makes a ration on which calves will gain 11/2 pounds a day at a cost of 3 cents. The cod liver oil is easily fed and is greatly relished by the calves. Likewise in England, cod liver oil has given excellent results. In many cases calves are fed on whole milk for five weeks, after which a ration is prepared in the proportion of 5 quarts of skim milk to 2 ounces of cod liver oil. The oil may be safely fed to calves, since it never shows any bad effects and the calves appear to be very fond of it. It constitutes an exceedingly cheap ration when mixed with milk.
Various forms of starch have been used as cream substitutes for calves. In Italy, a ration of skim milk and starch made gains of 2 pounds a day in calves. Oleomargarine added to skim milk was found to be more effective than ground bone. According to some feeders, scalded linseed meal is the best cream sub stitute, followed in effectiveness by cod liver oil. In Queenstown, cod liver oil has been found to lessen the danger of scouring, and gave better results than a mixture of linseed meal and molasses added to skim milk.
There seems to be no apparent ad vantage in boiling milk for calves, since according to German experience, if it is fed in a fresh condition it should not contain enough bacteria to cause scour ing.
A comparison of skim milk calves and sucking calves was made in Nebraska, during which Burnett kept the calves under observation for 147 days. During this time the average gain of skim milk calves was 292 pounds, and sucking calves 343 pounds. The amount of gain in these cases was in favor of whole milk, but a greater economy was shown in the use of skim milk.
In Germany, an artificial calf cream, sold under the name of Kalberrahm, has been used as a cream substitute, but when mixed with skim milk, this feed has been found to be somewhat inferior to whole milk for calves.
A number of feeders in New South Wales have made use of cocoanut oil cake. .The results obtained, however, indicate that this material is not easy to prepare and that calves do not thrive well on it. In Canada, cocoa shell milk has been prepared by boiling cocoa shells in water. This material appears to be a good substitute for milk for young calves.