VETERINARY MEDICINES Drugs and veterinary medicines may be administered to domestic animals in various ways. One of the commonest and most convenient methods for prac tical use by stockmen is the drench. The fluid or powdered drug is mixed with a pint or more of water in a bottle and poured into the animal's throat. Powdered drugs and many solutions, in a small quantity, may be mixed with bran or other grain feed, provided the taste is not too disagreeable. The objection to this method is that not all of the drug may be taken. The use of capsules is a very convenient method practiced by veterinarians, but is not so common among farmers. Various medicines are also given by injection with a small syringe under the skin, into the wind pipe, body cavity, chest cavity, or direct ly into a blood vessel. This method should be practiced only after some experience has been had. Medicines may also be administered in enemas in the rectum or by inhalation from hot water. Some powdered drugs may be blown into the nostrils, where a local effect is desired. All irritating medi cines should be mixed with a larger quantity of bran or water in order to render them harmless. Medicines are commonly classified into various groups, according to their physiological effect and a few of these classes of medicines may be briefly defined.
Antiseptics are substances which check or prevent the growth of bacteria and parasitic fungi. The most common ones are table salt, corrosive sublimate, carbolic acid, iodoform, zinc chloride, iodine, iron chloride, formalin, blue vitriol and lunar caustic.
Disinfectants and deodorizers are used for similar purposes and also to absorb moisture and disagreeable odors. The most important disinfectants for veterinary use are chloride of lime, com mon lime, sulphurous acid, formalin and permanganate of potash.
Anesthetics are chemicals which pro duce insensibility or loss of conscious ness. General anesthetics are given by inhalation, and the most common ones are chloroform, ether, a mixture of these drugs and nitrous oxide. Local anes thetics produce insensibility in the part to which they are applied. Good ex amples of this group of drugs arc co caine, carbolic acid, extreme cold, as, for example, from the evaporation of ether and aconite.
Anodynes are substances which re lieve pain and include hot or cold water, belladonna, cocaine, chloral hydrate, opium, morphine, etc.
Anthelmintics, vermicides or vermi fuges are substances used to expel or destroy worms. A number of thee are used, including various purgatives, gas oline, turpentine, carbon bisulphide, etc. Alteratives are substances which neu tralize or counteract the formation of disease products in the blood. The ones most frequently used include mercury, iodine, arsenic, etc.
Narcotics are drugs of which the ef fects are too well known to require description. In treating domestic ani mals, opium, Indian hemp, chloral hy drate and belladonna are most frequent ly used.
Purgatives, laxatives or cathartics are substances used for the purpose of loosening the bowels. In veterinary medicines, the most important purga tives are Glauber salts, Epsom salts, aloes, castor oil, Croton oil and jalap, Vesicants are blistering reagents, the commonest ones being cantharides or Spanish fly, Croton oil, strong acids, hiniodide of mercury, silver nitrate, etc.
In the following paragraphs brief notes are given on the action and doses of some of the common drugs used in veterinary practice.
Aconite lowers the temperature by weakening the pulse and causing an in creased perspiration. Doses for horses, 20 to 30 drops; for cattle, 40 drops; for sheep, 3 to 5 drops; for dogs, 1 drop.
Aloes is a purgative generally admin istered to horses; dose for the horse, 4 to 6 drams; for the dog, dram.
Areca nut is a well known vermifuge; dose for horses, cattle and mules, 1/2 to 1 dram.
Aromatic ammonia is a stimulant and antidote for acid poisons ; dose for horses and cattle, 1/2 to 4 ounces; for sheep, 1/2 oz.
Arsenic is an alterative and nerve tonic; dose for horses, 5 grains; for cat tle, 5 to 8 grains; for sheep, 1 grain.
Bismuth subnitrate produces a coat on the stomach and intestinal walls and soothes irritation in cases of diarrhea; dose for horses, 2 drams; for sheep, 20 grains; for dogs, 5 to 10 grains.
Bromide of potash lowers the tempera ture and checks nervous excitement; dose for horses, 2 to 6 drams; for sheep, 1 to 2 drams; for pigs, 1 dram; for dogs 10 to 20 grains.
Calomel is a vigorous cathartic; dose for horses, 15 to 60 grains; for sheep, 8 grains; for pigs 5 grains; for dogs, 1 grain.
Cantharides when used locally is a blistering agent and given internally it is a stimulant; dose for horses, 0 grains; for sheep, 4 grains; for pigs, 3 grains. Carbolic acid is mostly used as an antiseptic and disinfectant and should be used in a solution in water at the rate of 1 part to 100 parts.
Castor oil is a mild purgative of great value. Dose for horses, 1 pint; for cat tle, pints; sheep, % of an ounce; dogs, an ounce.
Catechu is an astringent and useful in checking diarrhea. Dose for horses, 2 to 5 drams; for sheep, 1 to 2 drams; for dogs, 20 grains. Chalk may also be used for the same purpose in doses of 1 ounce for the horse and 1 dram for sheep, pigs or dogs.
Charcoal is very useful in checking di gestive disturbances and as an absorbent for various kinds of material or acid poi sons. It may be given in as large doses as will be taken.
Chloral hydrate is a powerful narcotic, valuable in the treatment of spasmodic colic. Dose for horses, 1 ounce; for sheep, 1 dram; for pigs, 50 grains; for dogs, 25 grains.
Corrosive sublimate is an active poi son much used as an antiseptic and for ordinary purposes should be used at the rate of 1 or 2 parts to each 1,000 parts of water.
Croton commonly used as a blis tering reagent, may also be administered as a vermifuge. Dose for horses and pigs, 1 to 10 drops; for dogs, 1 drop.
Epsom salts is one of the most fre quently used purgatives. Dose for the horse, 1 pound; for cattle, 1 to 2 pounds; for sheep, 1 to 4 ounces; for the dog, 1 to 4 drams.
Formalin is a noncorrosive and non poisonous antiseptic of great value, its chief disadvantage being an irritating effect on the eyes and nose. For ordi nary purposes, such as treatment of wounds and disinfecting it may be used in a 2 to 4 per cent solution in water.
Gentian is a bitter tonic. Dose for the horse, 4 to 8 drams; for sheep, 1 to 2 drams; for pigs, 50 grains; for dogs, 15 grains.
Ginger is used as a stomachic and stimulant. Dose for horses, 1 ounce; for sheep, 1 dram; for dogs, 15 grains. Glauber salts is a valuable and much used purgative. Dose for the horse, 1 pound; for cattle, 11/2 pounds; for dogs, 1 dram.
Hydrochloric acid is used as a correct ive for faulty digestion. Dose for horses and cattle, 1 to 3 drams; for sheep, 25 drops; for pigs, 20 drops.
Indian hemp is a narcotic much used in cramp colic. Dose for horses, 1/2 to 1 dram; for sheep, 10 to 15 grains; for dogs, 1 to 2 grains.
Iodide of potash is an alterative exten sively used for the internal treatment of various infectious diseases. It is a spe cific for lumpy jaw. Dose for horses, 1/2 dram; for cattle, 1 to 2 drams.
Iron peroxide, sulphate and carbonilte are used as general tonics. Dose for horses, 2 to 4 drams; for sheep, dram; for dogs, 2 to 5 grains.
Jalap is a purgative chiefly used for the smaller animals. Dose for hogs, 1 to 2 drams; for dogs, 1 dram.
Laudanum is much used as an ano dyne and in treatment of colic. Dose for horses, 2 to 4 ounces; for sheep and pigs, 2 drams; for dogs, 20 drops.
Lime water is an astringent and anti dote for acid poison. Dose for horses, 4 to 5 ounces; for cattle, 5 to 8 ounces; for sheep, 1 ounce; for dogs, 1 dram.
Linseed oil is a well known and valu able purgative. Dose for horses, 1/2 to 11/2 pints; for sheep, 6 ounces; for pigs, 5 ounces; for dogs, 1 to 2 ounces.
Male fern is chiefly used as a vermi fuge. Dose for horses, 1 ounce; for sheep, 2 drams; for hogs, 1 dram; for dogs, 30 drops.
Morphine is used like laudanum in re lieving pain and quieting the action of the intestines. Dose for horses 5 to 10 grains; for dogs, 1-8 to 'A grain.
Num vomica is a much used tonic. Dose for horses, 20 to 60 grains; for cat tle, the same; for sheep, 10 grains; for hogs, 8 grains; for dogs, 2 grains.
Olive oil is used as a laxative, like lin seed oil. Dose for horses, 1 to 2 pints; for sheep, 3 to 6 ounces; for dogs, 1 to 3 ounces.
Opium is a narcotic used for the pre vention of spasms. Dose for horses, 1 to 2 drams; for cattle, 2 to 4 drams; for dogs, 1 to 5 grains.
Quinine is a bitter tonic, most used in diseases accompanied with fever. Dose for horses, 20 grains; for cattle, 20 to 30 grains; for sheep, 6 to 10 grains; for hogs, 3 to 10 grains; for dogs, 2 to 5 grains.
Sulphur is used internally as an al terative. Dose for horses, 1 ounce; for sheep, 1 to 2 drams; for pigs, 1 to 4 drams; for dogs, 50 grains.
Sweet spirits of niter acts as a slight stimulant, lowers the temperature and causes sweating. Dose for horses, 1 to 3 ounces; for cattle, 3 to 4 ounces; for sheep, 3 to 6 drams; for pigs, 2 drams; for dogs, 50 drops.
Zinc carbonate and sulphate are used as tonics and astringents. Dose for horses, 2 drams; for cattle, 2 to 4 drams; for sheep, 1/2 to 1 dram.
For the actual use of the various medi cines mentioned under this list, see un der the Diseases of Horses, Cattle, Swine, Sheep and Poultry.