WHEAT While wheat should never constitute the whole or even the major part of the grain ration for steers, it may be used when the market price is low. A number of experiment stations and feeders have investigated the feed ing value of wheat for the purpose of determining the maximum market price at which wheat could be fed with a profit. In Minnesota, it was found that wheat could be profitably fed to steers when the market price was not higher than 471/2 cents a bushel. In Idaho French found that steers on a chopped wheat ration produced a pound of meat for every 3.4 pounds of wheat consumed. The profit from feeding wheat to steers was found to be quite attractive, and it appears that chopped wheat is an ex cellent grain ration when combined with corn silage and hay. As a rule, how ever, it is best to feed wheat for only a part of the fattening period, changing to barley and oats or peas in order to prevent the steers from getting off feed. In Colorado, wheat with or without sugar beets has been found to produce good gains in steers. The shrinkage as a result of shipping was greater than with corn-fed steers, but less than in those on a barley ration. Ground wheat appeared to be superior to ground bar ley. In Canada, wheat bran proved to be more valuable for feeding purposes than whole wheat or wheat flour, and in this test the new-process bran gave the best results. In Maryland, however, the new and old-process bran proved to be of equal value. In Oregon and Penn sylvania, wheat used alone was found to be less effective than when mixed with corn or some other grain. In Ore gon, wheat has been tested as a steer feed in the sheaf. Steers appeared to do better than pigs on sheaf wheat, but the gains are costly and the steers do not mature quite as rapidly as on ground wheat. It should be remembered that frozen wheat has about as high a feeding value as uninjured wheat, and on account of its low market price may be fed with profit. The economy of feeding wheat in any form to steers de pends upon the market price. In Wyom ing, cracked wheat in one feeding ex periment appeared to be used at a finan cial loss.
At the Montana experiment station, Linfield found wheat to be superior to either oats or barley and almost, if not quite, equal to a mixed ration. Wheat also produced meat at a very economic rate, the gains costing 5 cents a pound on a wheat ration and 8 cents on an oat ration. It was found necessary, however, to make a change in the ration after two months, since by that time the cattle had a smaller appetite for wheat.
In Canada, the use of frozen wheat and corn silage in fattening steers re sulted in good gains and an excellent quality of beef. English feeders have found that wheat may be profitably used to replace linseed meal. Moreover, in Nebraska, wheat showed a feeding value corn ration. The gains on the wheat ration exceeded those on a corn ration by 16 pounds a head in a feeding exper iment of 23 weeks.