YARDAGE CHANCES All people doing business in the stock yards must con form to the above regulations. The care of the stock from the time of its arrival to its disposal is subject to the company's orders and care. No charge is made for the use of the yards, but a charge for weighing, usually termed yardage, is collected when the stock is sold. The yardage charges in Chicago are noted above. In Buffalo and Pitts burg, the yardage charges are as follows: Cattle 15 cents a head; hogs 6 cents; sheep 4 cents; calves 8 cents. At Oma ha, the charges are 25 cents for cattle; 8 cents for hogs; 5 cents for sheep, and 10 cents for calves.
Payment for stockIf a carload of stock is sent to market to be sold by a commission merchant, the shipper re ceives a check or draft for his consign ment just as quickly as the stock is sold. Along with it he receives a statement as to the weight of the stock, the classifi cation which was made of it, the prices received for each class, the yardage and feed charges paid and the amount of the commission charges. All these expenses are subtracted from the gross receipts for the stock and the balance is sent to the shipper. There is usually no delay whatever in making a settlement.
Shipping cattle In shipping cattle off grass, they should always be put up in a dry lot for a day or two before shipment is made and fed nothing but corn, oats and bay. This applies more particularly to the native eastern cattle which are used to these feeds. If this is not done, the cattle on arrival at market have a grassy look, their hair looks shiny, and they shrink almost double what they would if handled as noted, and sell from 10 to 15 cents a hundred less than if put in a dry lot and fed on dry feeds before shipping. If the cattle are fed corn on grass, they may be taken off the day before shipping and fed on dry food.
IN DRIVING CATTLE TO THE CARS, care should be taken not to overheat them. The cars should be well bedded down with hay or sand. Either of these is considered more satisfactory than oat or wheat straw. For successful ship ping, it is essential to place cattle on the cars full of feed, but with as little moisture in them as possible. A steer full of water at the beginning of the shipment is likely to show up badly in the stock yards, as a result of loose bowels. When properly handled, cattle should arrive at the stock yards dry be hind and ready for a good fill of water.
Oversalting and watering stock Many shippers make the mistake of oversalting their stock at time of ship ment, or by feeding them oats, with the expectation of having the stock arrive very thirsty in market and drinking large quantities of water which will add to their weight at the time of sale. This is a great mistake; the buyers in the stock yards have had long experience, and can tell at a glance whether stock has been overwatered or not. When cat tle are bought by buyers to be shipped still farther on the cars, it is of great importance that they be in con dition to stand the farther shipment at once. If cattle drink too freely they are apt to flounder and break clown. The packing houses can use these cattle, but it stops competition as far as out side buyers are concerned, and the re sult is a considerably lower price than they would normally have brought had they not been oversalted and thus drunk too freely.
With cattle shipped from feeding pens, there will ordinarily be no especial preparation for their shipment neces sary. They should be fed as usual on the day of shipment. If the cattle are not used to having salt every day, it should not be given to them on the morning they are taken to the station. Water may be withheld from the stock on the day of shipment in cold weather, but should not be withheld in warm weather.
A prominent firm of commission dealers on the Kansas City market, states that: "A big fill is not by any means the desired end in the marketing of beef cattle. To handle them intelli gently in the feed lbt and on the way to the shipping point and to load them with care, means much more for the appearance of animals on the market and helps to make a sale. Cattle buyers are paid for what they know and so their bids on sore and clown cattle, the result of bad shipping or heavy fill, are in accordance with appearance of con signments in the pens. What a shipper gains in one direction is frequently lost in another." Loading cattleAs to the loading of cattle, Clay, Robinson & Co. state that the best investment a shipper ever made was in putting extra good bedding in his cars, as it means a big saving from loss of possibly dead or crippled cattle, as well as the shrinkage. The car should be loaded comfortably full, as steers ride better than when loaded loose ly. If fairly compacted, it prevents throwing by the starting and stopping of the cars. On the other hand, if the ear is crowded too heavily, it is not easy for a steer to get up if he once gets down, and often a crippled or a dead animal is the result. There will also be less loss from this source if the stock is classified and all those put in one car approximating the same weight. This, of course, cannot be done where only one car is sent, except in a limited way by partitions, but is a matter of importance where several cars are shipped.
Factors affecting selling price of cat tle for beef There are a number of fac tors affecting price of cattle in the mar ket. These are the supply, the class and breed of cattle, their weight, sex and age, amount of by-products fur nished, etc.