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ZEBU The Zebu (Bos indicus), also known as the humped ox or humped cattle of India, includes not only the various do mestic cattle of India, but also a num ber of races which have run wild. At present the wild form of zebu is prac tically extinct in India. The finest zebus are found in India, but they ex tend eastward to Japan and westward into Africa. Many breeds of Indian cattle or domesticated zebu have been recognized, viz: Mysore, Nellore, Gu jarat, Sind, Gir, Aden, Hill, Village and Thus, the milk yield in the hybrids varied from 1 to 5 quarts a day. More over, the temper of the hybrids entirely unsuited them for any work as draft an imals. The meat was of excellent flavor.

Recently Mares has experimented with hybrid zebus in Algeria. He found that not only the pure zebu, but also mixtures with common cattle containing the slightest trace of zebu blood, were im mune to Texas fever. This is of con siderable importance in countries badly infected with this disease. It appears that not all zebus are equally good for Burmese breeds. The introduction of the common breeds of cattle, such as we are familiar with, has not been very suc cessful, for the reason that our cattle are more susceptible to rinderpest than are the zebus. Consequently, India de pends on her zebu and buffalo, which latter is the same as the carabao of the Philippines. Hybrids between zebus and common cattle in India have proved rather delicate and bard to rear.

Crosses and hybrids crossed a zebu bull on Shorthorn and Holland cows, but found that the hy brids were too small and gave too little milk to be of economic importance.

crossing. The Madagascar zebus have poor meat qualities and those from Cochin China are too small for produc ing hybrids. Mares found the Brah min zebu best. Its average weight is about 190 pounds, with a dressed weight of 495 pounds, or 62 per cent. These hybrids give about 16 quarts of rich milk a day. The meat is of excellent quality and the animals are of beef form. The zebu have been imported in small numbers into the Philippines, where they are being tested to determine their value.

In Porto Rico some of the native cat tle, especially the bulls, show a hump.

The origin of these cattle is not known, but it is probable that they have a slight admixture of zebu blood. According to Pearson, a few animals, commonly re ferred to as buffalo, were imported from Africa about 100 years ago. These ani mals carried humps and were probably zebus. The blood still persists in the native cattle of the island. This may help to explain why the native cattle seem to be immune to Texas fever. Herds of cattle containing zebu blood have been kept in Texas for years and in 1905 some pure zebus were brought to the state.

cattle, zebus, india and hybrids