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SCORES of contemporaneous documents, easily accessible in print, explain how New Netherland was taken from the Dutch in 1664. Nevertheless, almost all English historians, of our own as of earlier times, say that it was captured with out orders by Robert Holmes after he had accomplished what the Royal African Company sent him to do on the Guinea coast. When this is believed, the second naval war between England and Holland is not fully understood, for the long negotiations that prefaced and accompanied it turned partly on the fact that the king of England had per sonally authorized the seizure of a Dutch province in a time of peace. In reality, Robert Holmes assaulted and captured

African posts belonging to the West India Company, crossed over to the West Indies and did the Dutch some damage there, and then returned to England. He never approached or tried to approach New Netherland.

Unfortunately Colonel Nicolls's own report upon his cap ture of New Amsterdam was lost at sea. From the hand of his ducal master a brief record of the event remains. One