Home >> Preventive-medicine-and-hygiene >> Accidents to General Considerations_2
Loading

Accidents
Accidents Accidenta. In New York State About 200 Industrial Accidents Resulting In Total Blindness Occur Annually. Besides This, There Are A Large Number Of Accidents Occurring On Railroads, In Construction Work, And In The Field And Forest. Many Of The Accidents To The Eyes Occurring In Factories Are Pre Rentable ...

Acids
Acids Acids In Sufficient Concentration Are Very Effective Germicides. An Amount Of Acid Which Equals 4 Per Cent. Of Normal Hydrochloric Acid Is Sufficient To Prevent The Growth Of All Kinds Of Bacteria And To Kill Many. The Germicidal Power Of An Acid Depends Upon The Free Hydrogen Ion In ...

Acute Infectious Jaundice
Acute Infectious Jaundice (epidemic Catarrhal Jaundice—weirs Disease.) Infectious Jaundice, Or Epidemic Catarrhal Jaundice, Has Been Known . For A Long Time To Occur Among Troops, Among Sewer Workers, Among Miners, And Among Agricultural Laborers Working In Wet Soil, As Rice Planters; Also People Who Handle Food, At Least In Japan, ...

Administrative Measures
Administrative Measures • Isolation Is Possible, But Not Very Practical During Epidemics. In 1889-90 Some Large Institutions Were Saved Through A Strict Quarantine. Once Within The Walls, It Is Exceedingly Difficult To Control. In 1918-19, The Infection Was Kept Out Of Goat Island In San Francisco Harbor, But Finally Got ...

Adulteration Of Food
Adulteration Of Food Adulteration Of Food Consists Of A Large Number Of Practices, Some Of•which Are Fraudulent, Others Technical In Nature. Some Forms Of Adulteration Are Injurious To Health, But For The Most Part They Have An Economic Rather Than A Sanitary Significance. Foods May Be Adul Terated In A ...

Agencies Available For The
Agencies Available For The Application Of Preventive Medicine It Is Possible To Mention Only Very Briefly Some Of The Agencies Which Can Be Utilized In The Application Of Preventive Measures. Hospitals For Mental Disease. A Very Large Proportion Of The Per Ms With Mental Disease In Any State Will Be ...

Agglutinins
Agglutinins Agglutinins Were Definitely Described In 1896 By Gruber And Dur Ham, And A Few Days Later By Pfeiffer And Kolle. Shortly Thereafter Widal Announced The Fact That The Blood Serum Of A Typhoid Patient Will Agglutinate The Typhoid Bacillus In High Dilutions. The Phenom Enon Of Agglutination With Special ...

Alcohol Antiseptic And Germicidal
Alcohol Antiseptic And Germicidal Alcohol Has Both Antiseptic And Germicidal Properties. In Solutions Of 1-1,000 The Growth Of Some Bacteria Is Somewhat Delayed. Many Microorganisms Grow Abundantly In 40 Per Cent. Alcohol And Some In Stronger Solutions. Dry Bacteria May Be Exposed To Absolute Alcohol For 24 Hours Without Losing ...

Alcohol
Alcohol Alcohol—ethyl Alcohol Has Been Used Since The Dawn Of History. Until Recently, We Had Little Precise Knowledge- Concerning The Effects Of Alcohol. No One Doubts That Alcohol Is Harmful When Used In Amounts Sufficient To Produce Its Full Physiological Effects. In Suf Ficient Concentration, It Is A Poison To ...

Amebic Dysentery
Amebic Dysentery Amebic Dysentery (amebiasis, Tropical Dysentery) Is Caused By The Entameba Histolytica, And Is Characterized By A Colitis With Tendency To Chronicity, And A Special Liability To The Formation Of Abscesses Of The Liver (amebic Hepatitis). Ipecac And Its Alkaloid Emetin Have • Curative Virtues. Amebic Dysentery Often Starts ...

Ammonia
Ammonia The Ammonia In The Air Comes Largely From The Decomposition Of Organic Matter. It Is Produced In Sufficient Quantities In A Manure Heap To Be Perceptible To The Senses. Ammonia May Be Regarded As One Of The Normal Constituents Of The Atmosphere, As It Is Constantly Pres Ent In ...

Anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis 41 (ana, Against, And Phyla.; Guard, Or Phylaxis, Protec Tion), Also Called Hypersusceptibility, Is A Condition Of Unusual Or Exag Gerated Susceptibility Of The Organism To Foreign Proteins. In Other Words, Anaphylaxis Is An Altered Power Of Reaction On The Part Of The Body To Foreign Proteins. The ...

Animal Foods Milk
Animal Foods: Milk • , The Animal Foods Used By Man Are Not Of Great Variety And Source. They Include The Flesh And Various Organs Of The Herbivorous Animals, ,wire, Domestic And Wild Fowl, Eggs, Fish, Shellfish, Insects And Their Products (honey), Milk, And Milk Products. The Flesh Of Carnivorous ...

Animal Parasites
Animal Parasites Trichinosis. Trichinella Spinals, Formerly Trichina Spiralis, Com Monly Known As Trichina, Is A Round Worm Which Passes Its Entire Life Cycle In Man, Rat, Or Hog. Many Other Animals, Such As Mice, Foxes, Guinea-pigs, Rabbits, Cats, Dogs, Etc., Are Susceptible. This Parasite Dif Fers From Many Other Animal ...

Anthrax
Anthrax (splenic Fever. Charbon.) Anthrax Has Figured Prominently In The History Of Bacteriology And Immunology. The Anthrax Bacillus Was The First Pathogenic Microor Ganism To Be Seen Under The Microscope, By Pollender In 1849. Anthrax Was The First Communicable Infection To Be Experimentally Transferred, When Davaine And 'layer," In 1850, ...

Antitoxins
Antitoxins An Antitoxin Is An Antibody Formed In An Animal Through The Stimu Lation Of A Specific Toxin. The Usual Method Of Producing An Antitoxin Is By The Repeated Injections Of Increasing Amounts Of Toxine Into A Sus Ceptible Animal. The Strongest Antitoxins Are Obtained From Animals That Are Very ...

Argon
Argon Argon, Discovered In 1894 By Lord Rayleigh And Professor Ramsey, Is Quite Inert Chemically; That Is, It Has Not Been Made To Combine With Any Other Element. It Comprises From 0.75 To 1 Per Cent. Of The Atmos Phere. Argon Has Not Been Demonstrated In The Body; It Is ...

Arsenate Of Lead
Arsenate Of Lead Arsenate Of Soda (5 Per Cent. Strength), 4 Ounces. Acetate Of Lead, 11 Ounces. Water, 100 Gallons. Put The Arsenate Of Soda In 2 Quarts Of Water In A Wooden Pail, And The Acetate Of Lead In Four Quarts Of Water In Another Wooden Pail. When Both ...

Arsenate Of Lime
Arsenate Of Lime • White Arsenic, 2 Pounds. Sal-soda, 8 Pounds. Water, 2 Gallons. Boil Till The Arsenic All Dissolves—about 45 Minutes. Make Up The Water Lost By Boiling And Place In An Earthen Dish. For Use Take One Pint Of This Stock, 2 Pounds Freshly Slaked Lime, And 45 ...

Arsenic
Arsenic Arsenic Acts As An Irritant To The Skin And Mucous Membranes, Set Ting Up Conjunctivitis, Coryza, Eczema And Ulcerations; It Also Produces General Poisoning, Causing Anemia And Neuritis And Degenerative Changes In Liver And Kidneys. Arsenical Neuritis Is Particularly Severe. Arsenic Is Present In Almost All The Sulphid Ores ...

Bacillary Dysentery
Bacillary Dysentery Bacillary Dysentery Is A Specific Infection Caused By Bacillus Dysen Teriae, Of Which There Are A Number Of Strains. It Is Usually A Self-lim Ited Disease, Running An Acute Course Without Complications Or Sequelae. Bacillary Dytentery Occurs In All Countries And Climes, With A Tendency To Summer Prevalence. ...

Bacteria In The Air
Bacteria In The Air • The Number Of Bacteria In The Air Ordinarily Has A Direct Relation To The Amount Of Dust; In Fact, Many Of The Bacteria In The Air Are Attached To Dust Particles. Bacteria In The Air Are Commonly Consid Ered As One Kind Of Dust, But ...

Bacterial Vaccine Alternative Methods
Bacterial Vaccine Alternative Methods. 1. Set Up Water Bath To Each 2 Men And Accurately Regulate To 53 Degrees, C. 2. Clean Slides For Smears. 3. Make Bacterial Suspension With 1 C. C. Ungraduated Pipet Using About 1 To 2 C. C. Salt Solution And Reserve Drop In Pipet For ...

Bacterial Vaccines
Bacterial Vaccines Dead Bacteria, When Injected Into The Tissues, Usually Produce A Local Reaction At The Site Of Inoculation And Also A General Reaction. The Local Reaction Consists Of Swelling, Pain, Redness, And Other Indications Of Irritation And Inflammation. The General Reaction Consists Of Fever, Headache, Pains In The Muscles, ...

Bacteriological Mile Standards
Bacteriological Mile Standards Certified, Or Grade A (raw Milk). Not Over 10,000 Per C. C. Grade A (pasteurized Milk). Not Over 200,000 Per C. C. Before Pas Teurization, And Not Over 10,000 Per C. C. After Pasteurization. Grade B. Not Over 1,000,000 Per C. C. Before Pasteurization And Less Than ...

Bedbugs
Bedbugs Ctimex Lectularius Has Been Carried By Man To All, Parts Of The In Habited World. It Has Become A True Domesticated Animal And Has Accommodated Itself Well To The Environment Of Human Habitations. The Bedbug Has No Wings And A Very Flat Body, Which Enables It To Hide In ...

Beriberi
Beriberi (polyneuritis) Our Knowledge Of Beriberi 14 Is Now Sufficient To Place This Scourge Of The Tropics Among The Preventable Diseases. It Is Now Evident That Beriberi Is A Disease Due To An Unbalanced Diet, Deficient In A Specific Vitamin, "water-soluble B." It Is Our Best Known Example Of A ...

Birth Statistics
Birth Statistics Statistics Of Births Are Of Interest Mainly Because Of Their Relation To Population Growth, The Excess Of Births Over Deaths Being Known As The "natural Increase." Growth Of Population Has Been The Object Of Concern To Nations Largely Because Of Its Effect In Determining The Future Military Strength ...

Boiled Water
Boiled Water Boiling Renders Water Safe So Far As Water-borne Infections Are Con Cerned. It Also Destroys The True Toxins And Probably Renders Most Poi Sonous Substances Of Organic Origin That May Be In The Water Harmless. Water Containing Lead And Other Stable Chemical Substances Injurious To Health Would Not, ...

Bordeaux Mixture
Bordeaux Mixture Copper Sulphate (blue Vitriol), 4 Pounds. Lime (unslaked), 4 Pounds. Water, 25 To 50 Gallons. Dissolve The Copper In Hot Or Cold Water, Using A Wood Or Earthen Vessel. Slake The Lime In A Tub, Adding The Water Cautiously And Only N Sufficient Amount To Insure Thorough Slaking. ...

Botulism
Botulism (allantiasis) Botulism Is A Specific Intoxication Caused By The Toxin Of The Bacil Lus Botulimus (clostridium Botulinum). The Bacillus Grows In A Great Variety Of Foodstuffs, Both Of Plant And Animal Origin, And Produces Poison In The Food Before It Is Eaten. The Name Botulism Has Lost Its Original ...

Breakfast
Breakfast Sweet Milk, Daily. Boiled Oatmeal With Butter Or With Milk Every Other Day. Boiled Hominy Grits Or Mush With A Meat Gravy Or With Milk Every Other Day. Light Bread Or Biscuit (one-fourth Soy-bean Meal), With Butter, Daily. ...

Camp Sites
Camp Sites Sanitary Preference, In The Selection Of The Camp Site, Must Often Yield To Military Necessity. The Proper Location Of The Camp Is A Matter Of The Greatest Importance In Maintaining The Health And Efficiency Of Troops, And Demands Intelligent And Careful. Consideration. The Site Should Be Chosen With ...

Carbon Dioxid
Carbon Dioxid Carbon Dioxid (co,) Is A Very Important Constituent Of The Atmos Phere. The Amount Of This Gas In The Air Is Relatively Small—normally About 0.03 Per Cent., Usually Expressed As 3 Parts In 10,000. When Ire Consider The Great Bulk Of The Atmosphere The Total Amount Of Carbon ...

Carbon Monoxid
Carbon Monoxid Carbon Monoxid Is A Colorless, Inodorous, And Highly Poisonous Gas. It Burns With A Pale Blue Flame. It Is One Of The Products Of The Incom Plete Combustion Of Illuminating Gas, Also Of Coal And Explosives. It Is Met With In Coal Mines And Other Subterranean Galleries Where ...

Cerebrospinal Fever
Cerebrospinal Fever Cerebrospinal Fever Is An Infection With The Meningococcus (diplo Coccus Intracellularis Meningitidis, Weichselbaum). The Essential Lesions Of The Disease Are Chiefly Focused Upon The Meninges Of The Brain And Cord. The Disease Occurs Both In Localized Epidemics And Spo Radically. It Is Characterized By A Clinical Course Of ...

Chancroid
Chancroid Chancroid Is A Specific, Local, Auto-inoculable, And Contagious Venereal Ulcer, Caused By The Streptobacillus Of Ducrey (1889). The Ulcers Are Often Multiple And Confer No Immunity. Chancroids Are Local Ulcers And Cause No Sequelae Or General Systemic Effects, Such As Follow Chancres. Chancroids, Or Soft Chancres, Are Peculiarly Liable ...

Chemical Analysis Of Milk
Chemical Analysis Of Milk Total Solids. The Total Solids In Milk Consist Chiefly Of The Fats, Sugar, Proteins, And Inorganic Salts. The United States Standard Re Quires 12 Per Cent. Of The Milk To Consist Of Total Solids, 8.5 Per Cent. Of Which Shall Be Solids Not Fat, And 3.25 ...

Chemical Methods Of Purifying
Chemical Methods Of Purifying Water Methods For Chemically Purifying Drinking Water Include The Use Of Lime, Ozone, Permanganate Of Potash, Various Metals And Their Salts, And Chlorin And Its Compounds The Hypochlorites. Other Methods Have Em Ployed Hydrogen Peroxid, Barium Peroxid, Peroxid Of Chlorin And Bromin And Chlorin Together. Ozone. ...

Chlorids
Chlorids Chlorin As Sodium Chlorid Or Common Salt Is A Normal Constituent Of All Waters. Traces Of It Taken Up From The Air Are Found In Rain Water, Especially Near The Seacoast. The Rain Water Collected At Troy, New York, Was Found By Mason To Average 1.64 Parts Per Million ...

Chlorin
Chlorin In Waters That Have Been Treated With Calcium Hypochlorite Or Liquid Chlorin, It Is Frequently Advisable To Ascertain The Presence Or Absence Of Chlorin. As The Reagents Which Have Been Proposed For Its Detec Tion Are Not Specific For Chlorin But Give Similar Or Identical Reactions With Oxidizing Agents ...

Cholera
Cholera The Sick Are Removed From The Vessel And Isolated. Due Care Is Taken As To Disinfection And Disposal Of The Patients' Discharges. Eating Utensils And All Other Articles Used In The Sick Room Should Be Disinfected Before Removal, And The Room Should Be Well Screened To Exclude Flies. All ...

Cholera_2
Cholera The Cholera Vibrio May Be Detected In Water By Making A Dunham's Solution Of The Water Itself ; That Is,. To A Large Quantity Of The Water Sample Add Sufficient Peptone To Make A 1 Per Cent. Solution, And Render Slightly Alkaline With Sodium Carbonate. The Water Should Be ...

Claims For Vaccination
Claims For Vaccination 1. "duly And Efficiently Performed It Will Protect The Constitution From Subsequent Attacks Of Smallpox As Much As That Disease Itself Will." " 2. It Protects The Individual Against Smallpox For A Period Which Has Not Been Determined Mathematically For The Individual, But Which Averages About Seven ...

Classification Of Foods
Classification Of Foods Foods Are Classified In Various Ways, But No Classification Is Complete. They May Be Divided Into Groups, According To Their Physical Properties. Their Source, Their Composition, And Their Function, Or The Role Which They Perform In The Animal Body, And Their Biologic Properties. Physical Properties. Foods Are ...

Classification Of Pneumococci
Classification Of Pneumococci Make Smear Preparations Of Pneumonia Sputum. Stain For Capsule By Hiss Method And Gram Method. Hiss Method. Preparations Are Made By Mixing Suspected Material With A Drop Of Animal Serum, Preferably Beef Blood Serum, On A Cover Slip. Dry In Air And Fix By Heat. Stain For ...

Classification Of Water
Classification Of Water From A Sanitary Standpoint Water Is Either Good Or Bad. Commonly Waters Are Classified As Pure Or Impure. It Is Not Possible, However, In The Present State Of Our Knowledge, To Draw A Sharp Line Of Distinc Tion. In The Classical Reports Of The Massachusetts State Board ...

Coal Tar And Its Products
Coal-tar And Its Products Coal-tar Creosote. Creosote Is A Highly Complex Refractile Liquid Obtained From The Destructive Distillation Of Wood Or Coal. Wood-tar Creosote For Medicinal Use Is Obtained From Beechwood ; It Is A Complex Mixture Of Plienoloid Bodies, The Proportions Of Which Differ According To The Modes Of ...

Cold Climates
Cold Climates Ordinarily, Troops Stationed In Arctic Regions Maintain A Higher Average Of Health Than Those Remaining In The Temperate Zone. Great Cold At Many Times Has Been A Big Factor In Military Operations. Per Haps The Most Notable Example Is The Celebrated Retreat From Moscow. On The March In ...

Color
Color • Pure Water, When Viewed In Small Quantities, Appears To Be Perfectly Colorless, But, When Viewed In Bulk, As In The White-tiled Baths At Bux Ton, And In Certain Swiss Lakes, It Is Seen To Possess A Beautiful Greenish Blue Tint. A Very Small Amount Of Suspended Or Dissolved ...

Common Colds
Common Colds (acute Coryza) • More People Probably Suffer From Common Colds Than From Any Other Single Ailment. Vital Statistics Give No Hint Of The Prevalence And Im Portance Of These Minor Affections Because The Mortality Is Nil And The Morbidity Records Are Notoriously Imperfect And Difficult To Collect. Could ...

Communicable Infections
Communicable Infections There Are Several Infections To Which Workmen In Certain Industries Are Specially Subjected. Of These The Best Known Are: Anthrax, Or Wool Sorter's Disease From Hides And Hair; And Hookworm Disease, Or Miner's Anemia, From Polluted Soil. Also Glanders From Horses. Sometimes Results Directly, But More Often Indirectly, ...

Composition Of The Air
Composition Of The Air The Air Constitutes A Gaseous Ocean In Which We Live; It Consists Of A Vast Volume Of Gases At Least One Hundred Miles Ordinarily We Speak Of This Gaseous Envelope Of The Earth As The Atmosphere, And The Water Resting Upon The Surface Of The Earth ...

Composition
Composition At The Close Of The Eighteenth Century Water Was Regarded As An Elementary Substance. In 1781 Cavendish Discovered That, When An Electric Spark Is Passed Through A Mixture Of 2 Parts Of Hydrogen To 1 Part Of Oxygen, These Gases Combine To Form Water. Since Then Water Has Been ...

Compulsory Vaccination
Compulsory Vaccination \ Vaccination Affords A High Degree Of Immunity To The Individual, And A Well-nigh Perfect Protection To The Community. To Remain Unvac Cinated Is Selfish In That By So Doing A Person Steals A Certain Measure Of Protection From The Community' On Account Of The Barrier Of Vac ...

Conclusion
Conclusion The Attempt Has Been Made To Outline Some Of The Preventable Causes Of Mental Diseases And Mental Deficiency And To Indicate, Very Broadly, Possible Preventive Measures. It Seems Essential That, Notwithstanding The Complexity Of Some Of The Questions Involved, The Prevention Of Mental Diseases And Mental Deficiency Should Be ...

Cooh
Cooh Eral Formula Of The Monoamino Acids May Be Stated As It — Where R May Be Of Very Simple Or Very Complicated Structure; For Ex Ample, Simple Chains As In Leucin, Members Of The Aromatic Series As In Tyrosin Or Tryptophan Or Sulphur-containing Bodies. In The Diamino-acids Two Hydrogen ...

Cooperative Sanitation
Cooperative Sanitation What Appears To Be Needed At The Present Time Is Some Method Of Cooperation By Which Needed Sanitary Reforms Can Be Brought About At Least Expense. It Is Unbusinesslike To Compel The Purification Of The Sewage Of A Large Upstream City In Order To Protect The Water Supply ...

Cytotoxins
Cytotoxins If Instead Of Red Blood Cells An Animal Is Treated With The Body Cells Or Glandular Cells Of Another Species, It Develops The Power To Dissolve The Cells In Question. This Power Is Contained In The Blood Serum And Is Brought About By Substances Known As Cytotoxins, Which Are ...

Dangers And Complications
Dangers And Complications The Alleged Danger From Vaccination Has Been Greatly Magnified By The Antivaccinationists. However, Vaccination Is Not Always A Harmless Procedure; It Must Be Looked Upon As The Production Of An Acute Infec Tious Disease, And, Although The Disease Is Always Mild And Benign, It Must Not Be ...

Decomposed Foods
Decomposed Foods Decomposition Is Defined As Natural Decay. In This Sense All Or Ganic Substances, Both Animal And Vegetable, Living Or Dead, Are Decom Posed, For Decomposition And Recomposition Occur As A Constant Feature Of Life's Processes. At The Moment Of Death Recomposition Ceases, While Decomposition Continues. In One Sense ...

Deer Fly Fever
Deer-fly Fever (pahvent Valley Plague) Deer-fly Fever Is A Mild Specific Febrile Infection Due To Bacterium Tularense, And Transmitted By Crysops, A Biting Fly. The Disease Is Limited To The Rural Population Of Millard County, Utah. It Is Char Acterized By Enlargement Of The Lymph Glands, Which Drain The Bitten ...

Defectives
Defectives Mental Defectives Are Due To Restricted Mental Development And Must Be Regarded As Children, And Whatever Their Age Must Be Treated As Children. They Are Unmoral, Not Immoral. They Need Treatment Not Punishment, For They Are As Innocent As Children, Not Naturally Bad Vicious Or Wicked. Recognition. The Supposition ...

Dengue
Dengue Dengue Is An Acute Specific Febrile Infection, Characterized By Pains In The Joints And Muscles And A Variable Eruption. It Is Popularly Called Break Bone Fever In The South On Accownt Of The Atrocious Character Of The Pain, And Dandy Fever, From The Stiff And Dandified Gait. It Occurs ...

Dinner
Dinner A Meat Dish (beefstew, Hash, Or Pot Roast, Ham Or Shoulder Of Pork, Boiled Or Roast Fowl, Boiled Or Fried Fish, Or Creamed Salmon Or Codfish Cakes, Etc.), At Least Every Other Day. Macaroni With Cheese, Once A Week. Dried Beans (boiled Cowpeas With Or Without A Little Meat, ...

Diseases Of Occupation
Diseases Of Occupation Classification Of The Occupational Diseases. Oliver Divides The Occu Pational Diseases Into Five General Classes: 1. Diseases Due To Gases, Vapors, And High Temperatures. 2. Diseases Due To Conditions Of Atmospheric Pressure. 3. Diseases Due To Metallic Poisons, Dusts, And Fumes. 4. Diseases Due To Organic Or ...

Diseases Of The Soldier
Diseases Of The Soldier The Diseases Of The Soldier Do Not Differ From Those Of The Civil Popu Lation, But Military Conditions Favor The Spread Of Many Infections. There Are But Few Infections Peculiar To Camp And Field Life. Most Of The Epidemics Of Camps And Barracks Are Preventable. In ...

Diseases Spread Largely Through
Diseases Spread Largely Through Discharges From The Mouth And Nose This Group Of Diseases Is The Most Prevalent And Damaging Of The Infections To Which Flesh Is Heir. The Respiratory Diseases Prevail More Especially In Temperate, Cold And Variable Climates, But Occur Also In Warm Latitudes And Even In The ...

Distilled Water
Distilled Water The Distillation Of Water Is The Only Method Known For Rendering It Pure In A Chemical Sense. From A Hygienic Standpoint It Is Ideal; From A Practical And Economic Standpoint It Has Several Objections. It Is Used Especially On Naval And Other Vessels And In Some Industries. In ...

Drinking Fountain
Drinking Fountain The Movement Toward The Abolition Of The Common Drinking Cup Has Led To The Development Of So-called Drinking Fountains, Of Which There Are Many Types On The Market. They May Be Divided Into Inter Mittent And Continuous, And Each In Turn Into Those With And Without Suitable Mouthguards. ...

Drug Addiction
Drug Addiction The Chief Habit Forming Drugs Are Alcohol; Opium And Its Alkaloids, Especially Morphin, Codein, And Heroin ; And Cocain. It Has Only Recently Been Realized That Drug Addiction Is An Important Public Health Problem. In Addition To Its Sociologic And Economic Aspects. It Is Conservatively Estimated That 1 ...

Dual Water Supply
Dual Water Supply The Question Of A Dual Supply Of Water, One Cheap For General Pur Poses And The Other High Class For Personal Use, Has Often Engaged The Attention Of Engineers And Sanitarians. Ancient Rome Had A Sort Of Double Supply, And Paris And Other European Cities Have It ...

Dust
Dust Dust Is Not Only A Nuisance, But Under Certain Conditions Is Known To Be Prejudicial To Health. Dust Is In Reality A Normal And Very Im Portant Constituent Of The Air; It Exists Everywhere In The Atmosphere And Profoundly Affects Some Of The Physical Conditions Of Our Environ Went. ...

Dusty Trades
Dusty Trades 31 Dust Is The Great Enemy Of The Workman. Much Ill Health Is Caused By The Inhalation Of Dust, Some Of Which Is Also Injurious When Ingested , And Some Of Which Is Irritating To The Skin, Eyes, Or Exposed Mucous Membranes. Dust Of All Kinds, Both Organic ...

Dysentery
Dysentery (flux) Dysentery Is A Form Of Intestinal Flux, Characterized By Frequent Passages Of Blood And Mucus, And Straining At Stool. Diarrheas Of This Type May B& Due To Several Causes, And For The Purpose Of Prevention We May Consider All Dysenteries Under Three Heads: (1) Bacillary, Due To B. ...

Economic Factors
Economic Factors Unemployment, Overwork, Congestion Of Population, Child Labor, And The Hundred Economic Causes Which Increase The Stress Of Living For The Poor Are Often Contributing Factors In The Production Of Mental Diseases. Weaknesses In Constitutional Make-up—defects In The Armor Of Per Sonality—are Disclosed Under The Stress Of Such Conditions, ...

Economic Importance
Economic Importance The Destruction Of Food, Merchandise, And Property By Rats Is So Great That This Alone Would Justify Active Measures Of Suppression, Even Though They Were Not Responsible For Plague, Trichinosis, And Other Infections. Rats Destroy Grain While Growing; Invade Stores, Destroy Flowers, Laces, Silks, Carpets; Eat Fruits, Vegetables, ...

Effects Of Heat
Effects Of Heat In Many Trades Workmen, More Particularly Firemen, Stokers, Workers In Foundries And Steel Mills, Are Exposed To High Degrees Of Heat. Ed Sail 34 Has Recently Called Attention To The Ill Effects Of Exposure To Unusual Degrees Of Heat. The Symptoms Are Acute, Violent Muscle Spasms. The ...

Electricity
Electricity The Question Of Electricity Is Also A Question Of Vibrations, Not Of The Air, But Of Ether, And One Shrouded In Much Obscurity. The Electric Potential Of The Air Varies Considerably. It Is Highest In Winter And Lowest In Summer, And Shows Diurnal Variations. It Is In Creased By ...

Endemic Or Simple Goiter
Endemic Or Simple Goiter Simple Goiter Is Of Special Interest To The Sanitarian Because It Is Frequent, Widespread And Readily Preventable, Even Curable If Not Too Far Advanced. Simple Goiter Is A Deficiency Disease, Due To Lack Of Iodin In Water, Food, Or Both. Simple Goiter Includes All Eases Of ...

Endogenous Poisons
Endogenous Poisons The Endogenous Poisons Which Are Formed In The Course Of Various Organic Diseases Are Responsible For Not A Few Cases Of Mental Disease. Their Prevention Is The Work Of General Hygiene. The Relation Of Mental Diseases To Disturbances Of The Organs With Internal Secretions Is A Field For ...

Endotoxins
Endotoxins In Contradistinction To The Soluble Or Exotoxins, There Is A Group Of Poisons Known As Endotoxins. The Existence Of Endotoxins Was Taken For Granted Before They Were Actually Demonstrated. As Soon As It Was Found That Only Some Bacteria Produce Soluble Specific Toxines It Was At Once Assumed That ...

Epidemiology
Epidemiology Few Of The Acute Infectious Diseases Show Such A Complete Indepen Dence Of Conditions Soil, Age, Sex, And Occupation, Sanitary Surroundings, Etc., As Toes It Thrives Wherever The Contagion Is Carried, And Wherever It Finds Susceptible People. Prob Ably No One Is Naturally Immune. The Susceptibility Of An Unvaccinated ...

Equipment
Equipment The Soldier's Equipment Includes His Arms And Accouterments, Cloth Ing. And All Other Things Necessary For His Comfort And Health. All Articles Of Equipment Must Be Of Good Quality, Of Greatest Strength And Best Wearing Power, With The Least Possible Weight. There Then Remains 'manual Of The Medical Department. ...

Ether And Chloroform
Ether And Chloroform The Vapors Of Both Ether And Chloroform Possess Slight But Definite Action. An Exposure To Ether Vapors Of One To Forty-eight Hours Was Necessary To Sterilize Agar Slants On Which Pyogenic Organisms Were Grow Ether Is Irregular In Its Action, For Good Contact With The Organ Isms ...

Eugenics
Eugenics The Science Of Eugenics Has Been Defined As "the Science Of Being Well Born." According To Galton, "eugenics Is The Study Of The Agen Cies Under Social Control That May Improve Or Impair The Racial Quali Ties Of Future Generations Either Physically Or Mentally." The Aim Of Eugenics Is ...

Experience Of The World
Experience Of The World War It Is Not Easy To Form An Approximate Idea Of The Number Of Persons Who Suffer From Types Of Abnormal Mental Reactions Other Than Those Which Have Been Mentioned. Before The War Every Internist And Most Surgeons Knew That The Psychoneuroses Are Responsible For An ...

Expression Of Chemical Results
Expression Of Chemical Results Formerly Results Were Expressed In Grains Per Gallon. After The Introduction Of The Metric System Results Were Expressed In Parts Per 100,000, But Now Results Are Commonly Expressed In Parts Per Million. The Latter Method Has The Advantage That 1 Milligram Is 0.000,001 Liter, And, Therefore, ...

Face Masks
Face Masks Face Masks Have A Certain Degree Of Usefulness In Limiting The Spread Of Infections Transmitted By The Secretions From The Mouth And Nose. They Act Mechanically To Check The Diffusion Of Infectious Secretions By The Patient, Or They May Be Used By Well Persons (recipients) As A Bar ...

Filariasis
Filariasis The Filaria Is A Long, Slender Filiform Threadworm With A Curved Or Spiral Tail. The Adult Worms Live In The Connective Tissue, Lymphatics, And Body Cavities. The Embryos Or Larvae Are Found In Great Numbers In The Blood. In Several Species Of Which The Life History Is Known Mos ...

Filters
Filters Slow Sand Filters. Slow Sand Filters, Also Called English Filter-beds, Consist Of Large, Shallow, Tight Reservoirs Suitably Underdrained And Containing Some Five Or Six Feet Of Stratified Filtering Material Of Progres Sive Degrees Of Fineness, Beginning At The Bottom With Broken Stone Or Gravel And Ending With An Upper ...

Fish
Fish • In Nutritive Properties, There Is Little Difference Between The Muscle Of Fish And That Of Beef. In Other Words, Fish Is Meat Although Ordinarily Not So Regarded. Drummond 20 Found That The Coagulable Proteins Of Muscle Tissue Of The Cod, Herring And Canned Salmon Have A Nutritive Value ...

Fleas
Fleas Fleas Are Laterally Flattened, Wingless Creatures Related To The Diptera. They Pass Through A Complete Metamorphosis: Egg, Larva, Pupa, And Imago. The Adult Female Flea Deposits Her Eggs Among The Hair Or Fur Of The Host Animal, But, Unlike The Eggs Of Many Ectoparasites, They Are Not Fastened To ...

Flies
Flies The True Flies Have But Two Wings, That Is, They Belong To The Order Diptera. They Comprise An Enormous Number Of Species. Contrary To Popular Opinion, Flies Are Poor Scavengers. Most Flies Prefer The Sun Shine, But Species Vary Greatly In Their Habits And Breeding Places. However, Surprisingly Little ...

Fog
Fog Fogs Are Caused By The Condensation Of Water Vapor On Particles Of Dust. Dust Particles Have A Varying Capacity For Condensing And At Tracting Moisture, Depending Upon Their Power Of Radiating Heat And On Their Affinity For Water. Carbon Dust Is Hygroscopic And, Therefore, En Courages Fogs. The Ammonia ...

Food Poisoning
Food Poisoning General Considerations. There Are Two Well Recognized Mums Of Food Poisoning. (1) Food Infection, Caused By Bacillus Enteritidis, Or Closely Allied Microorganisms. Bacteria Other Than The Gaertner Group Of Bacilli Are Suspected Of Causing Food Poisoning, But The Relationship Has Not Been Established. The First Important Landmark In ...

Forigilin
Forigilin Formalin. Formaldehyd In Solution Is Known As Formalin. This Is A Very Valuable Disinfectant With A Wide Range Of Usefulness In General Practice. It Is Superior To Bichlorid Of Mercury For Many Purposes, Especially As Its Action Is Not Seriously Retarded By The Presence Of Albu Minous Matter. Formalin ...

Gaseous
Gaseous Disinfectants—fumigation A Germicidal Gas Would Be An Ideal Weapon For Destroying Such In Visible Foes As We Have To Deal With In Public Health Work, Especially For Terminal Disinfection. By Reaching All Portions Of A Room Or Confined Space A Gas Lessens The Risk Of Overlooking Any Surface Upon ...

General Considerations
General Considerations The Fact That Disease May Be Transmitted Through The Bites Of In Was Suspected For Years, But It Was Not Until 1893 That It Was Demonstrated As A New Principle By Theobald Smith In The Case Of Teas Fever Of Cattle And The Tick.' Since Then Many Diseases ...

General Considerations_2
General Considerations Foodstuffs Fall Naturally Into Two Great Divisions: (1) Those De Rived From The Animal Kingdom, And (2) From The Plant Kingdom. The Animal Foods Are Much More Apt To Convey Infections Or To Pos Sess Injurious Properties Than Foods Derived From Plant Life. Of The Animal Foods Meat ...