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General Considerations_3
General Considerations The Upper Layer Of The Earth's Crust, Known As The Soil, Is Derived From The Disintegration Of Rocks And The Decay Of Animal And Vegetable Matter Of All Kinds. It Varies From A Few Inches In Depth To Several Feet. The Sub-soil Also Varies From A Few Feet ...

General Considerations_4
General Considerations Diainfeetion.disinfection Means The Destruction Of The Agents Caus Ing Infection. An Object Is Said To Be Infected When Contaminated With Pathogenic Microorganisms. It Is Disinfected By Destroying These Or Ganisms, Whether They Are In The Substance Or On The Surface Of That Object. Disinfection, Then, Deals Only With ...

German Measles
German Measles (rubella, Rotheln) German Measles Is A Distinct Disease It Is Usually Mild And Without Special Complications. It Is Distinguished From Measles By The Absence Of Koplik Spots, The Slightness Of The Prodromal Symptoms, The Mig Rle% Or Absence Of Fever, The More Diffuse Character Of The Rash, Its ...

Glanders
Glanders Glanders Or Farcy Is A Widespread Communicable Disease Of Horses, Mules, Asses, And Other Animals, And Is Readily Communicated To Man. Cats May Become Infected By Eating The Flesh Of Glandered Horses. Goats Also Have The Disease. Cattle Are Immune. Guinea-pigs And Field Mice Are Very Susceptible By Experimental ...

Goiter
Goiter Goiter (from Gutter, Throat) Is A Chronic Enlargement Of The Thyroid Gland, And May Be Due To A Variety Of Causes. The Functions Of The Thyroid Gland Are Due To Its Internal Secretion. Which Contains Iodin. The Secretion Of The Thyroid Acts As An Excitant (hormone) Of The Metabolic ...

Gonorrhea
Gonorrhea Gonorrhea Is Much More Prevalent Than Syphilis, And Common Opin Ion Regards It As A Mild And Not Very Shameful Disease, That Is, "no Worse Than Sn Ordinary Cold." As A Matter Of Fact, Gonorrhea Is One Of The Serious Infectious Diseases, And The Gonococcus Oy Hiarinkamong The Virulent ...

Grade
Grade A Raw Milk.milk Of This Class Shall Come From Cows Free From Dis Ease As Determined By Tuberculin Tests And Physical Examinations By A Qualified Veterinarian, And Shall Be Produced And Handled By Employees Free From Disease As Determined By Medical Inspection Of A Qualified Phy Sician, Under Sanitary ...

Grade_2
Grade B Milk Of This Class Shall Come From Cows Free From Disease As Deter Mined By Physical Examinations, Of Which One Each Year Shall Be By A Qualified Veterinarian, And Shall Be Produced And Handled Under Sani Tary Conditions, Such That The Bacteria Count At No Time Exceeds 1,000, ...

Grade_3
Grade C Milk Of This Class Shall Come From Cows Free From Disease, As Deter Mined By Physical Examinations, And Shall Include All Milk That Is Pro Duced Under Conditions Such That The Bacteria Count Is In Excess Of 1,000, 000 Per Cubic Centimeter. All Milk Of This Class Shall ...

Graham Lurk
Lurk, Graham : "the Elements Of The Science Of Nutrition." W. B. Saunders And Co., 3rd Ed., 1919. Lusx, Graham : "the Fundamental Basis Of Nutrition." New Haven, 1914. Mccollum, E. V.: "the Newer Knowledge Of Nutrition." The Macmillan Co., New York, 1918. ...

Ground Water
Ground Water Water Which Is Taken From The Ground By Means Of Wells Or Flow Ing Naturally From The Ground, As In Springs, Is Usually Satisfactory, As Far As Injurious Impurities Are Concerned. The Surface Water Is Greatly Purified As It Percolates Through Fine, Sandy Soil. This Is Nature's Process ...

Hardness
Hardness Hard Water Is Objectionable Because It Wastes Soap And Affects The Skin Unpleasantly; It Is Less Satisfactory Than Soft Water For Cooking And Washing ; It Produces Scale In Boilers And Is Objectionable In Some Industries Such As Paper Mills. The Traveler Is Unpleasantly Reminded Of The Effect Of ...

Head Injuries
Head Injuries Psychoses. A Very Small Number Of Patients Admitted To Hospitals For The Insane Suffer From Psychoses Due Directly To Traumatism To The Brain. Nearly All Such Cases Are Men. Injury To The Brain Often Seems To Have A Marked Effect In Precipitating Psychoses In Alcoholics -and Sometimes In ...

Heating
Heating Heating And Ventilation Go Hand In Hand. A Large Share Of The Cost Of Heating Is Chargeable To Ventilation, Hence, If Ventilation Is Overdone, It Is An Unnecessary Expense. The Artificial Warming Of Houses Has A Similar Action To Clothing. "burning Fuel In The Furnace Saves Fuel In The ...

Hemolysins
Hemolysins Hemolysins Are Substances That Lake The Blood; That Is, They Dis Solve The Hemoglobin From The Red Blood Corpuscle 'and Set It Free In Solution. A Certain Part Of The Stroma Of The Red Corpuscle Is Also De Stroyed In Complete Hemolysis. Some Of The Hemolysins Are Specific And ...

Heredity And Eugenics
Heredity And Eugenics Heredity May Be Defined As The Genetic Relation Between Successive Generations. It Is A Condition Of All Organic Evolution. Castle Defines Heredity As Organic Resemblance Based On Descent. It Is Now Perfectly Evident That Heredity Is One Of The Fundamental Factors In Preventive Medicine—and Of First Importance ...

Heredity Versus Environment
Heredity Versus Environment How Much Of Our Physical And Mental Make-up Is Due To (nature) And How Much To Environment (nurture) Is One Of The Much Discussed Problems. It Seems Evident To Students Of Biology That By Far The Overwhelming Factor In Our Organization Is Set And Definitely Fixed At ...

Heredity
Heredity Tsychoses. The Accepted Theories Of Heredity And The General Re Lation Of Heredity To Disease Have Been Considered Elsewhere (section I V. Chapters Ii And Iii, Page 607). In Examining The Relation Of Hered Ity To Mental Diseases, The Advantage Of Dropping The Use Of The Medico Legal Term ...

Hookworm Disease
Hookworm Disease (uncinariasis Or Ancylostomiasis) Theoretically The Prevention Of Hookworm Disease Is Comparatively Simple, For Here We Have An Infection Of Which We Know The Parasite And Its Life History, Its Mode Of Exit And Entrance Into The Body, And We Poems A Satisfactory Cure For The Disease Within Reach ...

Housing
Housing Housing Has An Intimate Relation To Health. Housing Influences Morbidity And Mortality, But In A Rather Indirect Way. It Is Difficult To The Factors Of Crowding, Personal Habits, Poverty, Food And Other Hygienic And Sanitary Influences From The Actual Housing Conditions. A House After All Is Only An Instrument ...

How Plants May Injure
How Plants May Injure Health • Poisonous Plants. Many Plants Contain A Physiological Poison, Such, For Example, As Aconite, Strychnin, Ricin, Abrin, Muscarin, And A Long List "mccollum, E. V.: "the Newer Knowledge Of Nutrition," The Macmillan Co., 1918. Of Other Substances Normally Present. According To Chestnut,• There Are About ...

Humidity
Humidity Aqueous Vapor. Water In Its Gaseous State Is Always Present In The Atmosphere. Water Vapor Is The Most Variable Of The Normal Constitu Ents Of Air, And Also One Of The Most Important, On Account Of Its Influ Ence Upon Health. It Is Usual To Consider Water Vapor Apart ...

Hydrogen Sulphid
Hydrogen Sulphid Hydrogen Sulphid Is An Extremely Poisonous Gas Causing Death In Stantaneously If Inhaled In Large Quantities. In Smaller Amounts The Symptoms Caused Are Nausea, Vertigo, Headache, General Malaise, All Of Which Soon Disappear If The Workman Goes Into The Open Air. The Industrial Processes In Which Hydrogen Sulphid ...

Hygiene In The Tropics
Hygiene In The Tropics The Chief Characteristics Of Tropical Climates Which Adversely Affect Military Service Are The Constant Warm Temperature, Great Relative Hu Midity, High Degree Of Insolation, Close Contact With Populations Having Low Sanitary Standards, And Prevalence Of Unusual Preventable Infections. Our Own Tropical Possessions, Such As The Philippines, ...

Ice
Ice Ice Was Not Suspected Of Being A Vehicle By Which Infection Could Be Spread Until It Was Shown In Bacteriological Laboratories That Typhoid And Other Cultures Are Not Killed By Freezing. Leidy In 1848 Showed That Water Derived From Melted Ice Contained Not Only Living Infusoria, But Also Rotifers ...

Illustrative Cases Of Death
Illustrative Cases Of Death By Sewer Gas Case No. 1. The Main Sewer Of The Town Of Revere, Mass., Discharges Into The Sea Near The Southerly End Of Revere Beach. In Order That The Sewage Might Not Discharge On The Incoming Tide, A Covered Tank Was Built Near The Seashore ...

Immigration
Immigration No Consideration Of The Preventable Causes Of Mental Diseases In This Country Would Be Complete Without Reference To This Important Element In Our National Life. It Is A Question Peculiar To The United States. Dur Ing The Last 95 Years 32,027,424 Immigrants Have Come To This This Vast Migration ...

Immunity Gained Through Inheritance
Immunity Gained Through Inheritance Immunity To Disease Is Either Natural Or Acquired. Natural Immu Nity Is Inherited Through Successive Generations Of A Species Or A Race. Acquired Immunity, Like Other Acquired Characters, Is Not Inherited As A "unit Character" In The Sense Of Mendel. Thus, There Has Been Little Variation ...

Immunity
Immunity Man Possesses A Considerable Resistance To Tuberculosis. This Is Shown By The Fact That Many Cases Recover Spontaneously And That 70 Per Cent. Of All Individuals Who Reach The Age Of 16 Years And Who Spend Most Of This Time In Association With Their Fellowmen Under The Usual Urban ...

Immunity_2
Immunity Infection And Immunity; Definition Of Terms. Immunity Or Re Nstance To Disease Is The Very Foundation Of Preventive Medicine. It Is The Overshadowing Factor In Hygiene. In This Sense We Use The Term `hygiene" To Include The Care Of The Person, In Contradistinction To "san Itation," Which Deals With ...

Indices Of A Successful
Indices Of A Successful Vaccination The Take Must Be Typical And The Clinical Course Characteristic, Other Wise We Have No Assurance That The Individual Is Protected Against Small Pox. The Best Indices Of A Successful Take Are: (1) The Course Of The Eruption, (21 Tbegmeral_symptignilawl The Scar. The Importance Of ...

Infant Mortality
Infant Mortality "infant Mortality Is The Most Sensitive Index We Possess Of Social Welfare. If Babies Were Well Born And Well Cared For, Their Mortality Would Be Negligible" (newsholme). Of Every Five Babies Born, One Dies Before It Is Able To Walk And Talk. The Awakening Of The World To ...

Infantile Paralysis
Infantile Paralysis (acute Anterior Poliomyelitis) Infantile Paralysis Is An Acute Generalized Infection, Due To A Filter Able Virus, Occurring Both In Epidemic And Sporadic Virus Attacks The Nervous System, With A Special Tendency To Localization In The Anterior Horns Of The Gray Matter Of The Spinal _cord, Hence The Name ...

Infection
Infection A Distinction Is Drawn Between A Polluted And An Infected Water. A Polluted Water Is One That Contains Organic Matter And The Products Of Decay, Either Of Vegetable Or Animal Origin. An Infected Water Is One That Contains The Specific Parasites Causing Disease. A Polluted Water May Not Be ...

Influenza
Influenza (la Grippe—grip) Influenza Is An Acute, Highly Communicable, Febrile Disease, Charac Terized By Great Pandemic Outbreaks. The Fever Lasts Three Days And Shows A Special Tendency To Bronchial And Pneumonic Complications. When Influenza Sweeps Over The World In Pandemic Form, It Becomes The Most Serious And Furious Of Epidemics ...

Influenza_2
Influenza 245 And Elsewhere Lead Me To Conclude That Vaccines Made With Dead Of Pfeiffer's Bacillus Have No Protective Value Whatever. Whether The Polyvalent Vaccines Prevent Pneumonic Complications Has Not Been Blished. • ...

Inoculation Or Variola Inoculata
Inoculation Or Variola Inoculata [variolation] The Practice Of Inoculation Or Variolation Must Be Carefully Distin Guished From That Of Vaccination. By Inoculation We Mean The Introduc Gil Or Smailpox The Skin Of Man. The Disease Thus Pro _ Duced Is Usually Mild, But Is Nevertheless True Smallpox, And Just As_con ...

Insecticides
Insecticides 2 Practically All Germicidal Agents Are Also Insecticides. There Are Some Exceptions To This Statement, Notably Formaldehyd, Which Is A Potent Germicide, But Has Little Or No Effect Upon Insect Life In Its Gaseous State. The Action Of Insecticides May Be Considered Under Three Classes: (1) Those That Act ...

Interpretation Of Sanitary Water
Interpretation Of Sanitary Water Analysis The Interpretation Of A Sanitary Water Analysis Is Much More Diffi Cult Than The Analysis Itself, Where Everything May Be Carried Out By Rule Of Thumb In Accordance With Standard Procedures. Single Or Occa Sional Determinations Of Either The Chemical Or Bacterial Properties Of Water ...

Interstate Quarantine
Interstate Quarantine The Regulations Prepared Under This Act Are More Comprehensive With Respect To Quarantinable Diseases Than Are The National Quarantine Regu Lations, Since The Former Include Not Only The Diseases Enumerated In The Maritime Quarantine Regulations, But Also A Number Of Communicable Diseases, Such As Scarlet Fever, Typhoid, Measles, ...

Iron
Iron Iron In Water Influences Its Quality From The Standpoint Of Desir Ability Rather Than From The Standpoint Of Health. After Hardness There Is No Question Of Greater Practical Importance In Considering The Quality Of A Water. All Natural Waters Contain A Certain Amount Of Iron, And Ground Waters Are ...

Isolation
Isolation In Theory Isolation Is The Most Perfect Single Method To Check The Fpread Of A Communicable Disease. The Results In Practice, However, Have Been Somewhat Disappointing On Account Of Unusual Difficulties. The Statement Has Frequently Been Made, Especially With Reference To Typhoid Fever, That If All The Cases Could ...

Japanese River Fever
Japanese River Fever Japanese River Fever Occurs Along The River Bottoms With A Preference For Sandy Soil. Clinically, It Resembles Typhus Fever. It Is Transmitted By A Small Mite (leptus Akarnushi) Which Lives Upon Field Mice. The Field Mouse Is The Reservoir Of The Infection. The Disease Also Occurs In ...

Kerosene Emulsion
Kerosene Emulsion Hard Soap, Shaved Fine, 1/2 Pound. Water, 1 Gallon. Kerosene, 2 Gallons. Dissolve The Soap In The Water, Which Should Be Boiling; Remove From The Fire And Pour It Into The Kerosene While Hot. Churn This With A Spray Pump Till It Changes To A Creamy, Then To ...

Kinds Of Bacteria In
Kinds Of Bacteria In Water Water Analysis Is In Its Infancy So Far As Methods For Determining The Kinds Of Bacteria Are Concerned. It Is Comparatively Easy To Isolate Colon Bacilli And To Determine Their Approximate Number In A Water. It Is Also Comparatively Easy To Isolate Cholera Vibrio. Methods ...

Lead Poisoning
Lead Poisoning Lead Poisoning..—lead Is Practically Never Found In Natural Waters. The Source Of The Lead In The Water Is Almost Always Lead Service Pipes, Or Some Other Lead Object Used In Collecting, Storing, Or Delivering The Water. Lead Is The Most Dangerous Inorganic Substance With Which Our Drinking Water ...

Lead
Lead Tests. The Presence Of Lead May Be Discovered By Chemical Tests Or Surmised From The Symptoms Of Lead Poisoning Among Those Who Use The Water. In The Amounts Present It Does Not Affect Either The Appear Ance Or Taste Of The Water. It Is Possible To Determine The Presence ...

Lead_2
Lead Lead Poisoning Is One Of The Most Frequent, Most Serious, And Most Insidious Of All The Occupational Intoxicants. If A Pound Of Lead Drops On A Workman's Head The Catastrophe Is More Obvious Than If Minute Quantities Of Lead Are Taken Into The System Day By Day, But The ...

Leishmaniasis
Leishmaniasis Fever," Oriental Sore, Etc.) Leishmaniasis 127 Is A Specific Infection Caused By A Minute Flagellated Animal Parasite. The Disease Usually Runs A Chronic Course And Is Char Acterized By Irregular Fever, Enlargement Of The Spleen And Anemia. It Is Found In Most Tropical Countries, But Is Unevenly Distributed. It ...

Leprosy
Leprosy Leprosy Is A Contagious Disease In The Sense That It Is Probably Always Communicated Directly From The Sick To The Well, But Prolonged And Intimate Association With A Leper Ordinarily Seems Necessary To Contract The Infection. The Degree Of The Contagiousness Varies Very Much, De Pending Upon Conditions Not ...

Leprosy_2
Leprosy An Alien Leper Is Not Allowed To Land. The Law Requires The Vessel On Which He Arrives To Take Him Back Again. It Is Unconstitutional To Forbid The Landing Of An American Leper, But As Soon As He Lands He Comes Under The Laws Of The City Or State ...

Lice
Lice Lice Are Degraded, Wingless Insects, And Are Divided Into Two Groups According To Their Method Of Feeding. The Mallophaga Included Biting Lice, Like The Bird Lice Which Feed On The Hair And Feathers Of Animals, But Do Not Suck Blood. As Far As Is Known, These Lice Do Not ...

Lice_2
Lice 365 The Outer Garments. Lice May Be Found On Any Garment Or Article Worn By An Infested Man. In Conducting Inspections For Lousiness, It Is Important To Remember This, And To Bear In Mind That The Body Louse May Lay Its Eggs On The Hair Of The Head As ...

Lice_3
Lice 367 Canadian The Penetration With Dry Heat Is Not As Complete As When Using Steam. Stagnant Hot Air Is Less Effective Than Circulating Hot Air. In The Front Area, In Dugouts And Trenches, The Hot Box 116 May Be Used. This Box Is Based On The Principle Of The ...

Lice_4
Lice • 369 In Conjunction With The N. C. I. Powder, The English Use A Mixture Known As Vermijelli, Which Consists Of : Crude Mineral Oil 51/2 Pinta. Soft Soap 3. Lbs. Water About This Is Smeared In The Interior Seams Of The Clothing. Impregnation Of Underclothing With Various Chemicals ...

Life Tables
Life Tables In Theory Life Tables Represent The Duration Of Life Of Individuals Born At The Same Time. Given A Group Of Individuals Born In Any One Year And A Life Table Will Show The Number In The Group That Will Still Be Alive In Each Succeeding Year As Long ...

Liquid Disinfectants
Liquid Disinfectants These Consist Of Substances Either In Solution Or Suspension_ An Enormous Number Of Such Disinfectants Have Been Exploited, But To Be Of Practical Value They Must Not Only Be Strongly Germicidal, But Must Also Meet The Many Exacting Requirements Of General Practice. Such Sub Stances Are Few In ...

Lobar Pneumonia
Lobar Pneumonia Lobar Pneumonia Is A Communicable Disease Which Should Be Classi Fied With The Infectious Fevers. If Pneumonia Were A New Disease It Would Be Regarded As "contagious," And Its Spread Would Be Guarded Against By Isolation And The Application Of Antiseptic Principles. Many Different Infections Are Caused By ...

Lysins
Lysins Lysins Are "substances" That Have The Power Of Disintegrating Or Dis Solving Cells Or Other Organized Structures. Those That Dissolve Bacteria Are Known As The Bacteriolysins, Those That Dissolve Red Blood Cells Are Called Hemolysins, Those That Dissolve Epithelial Or Other Body Cells Are Called Cylolysins Or Cytotoxins. The ...

Malaria
Malaria Malaria Is One Of The Most Prevalent Of All Preventable Diseases; It Is The Scourge Of The Tropics. The Cause Of This Infection Was One Of The First To Be Discovered (laveran, 1880), And Its Mode Of Transmission Was One Of The Most Brilliant Discoveries In Sanitary Science (ross, ...

Malt
Malt The Universal Consumption Of Fresh Meat As A Daily Article Of Diet By Civilized Man Is Of More Recent Origin Than Is Generally Supposed. Mcculloch 1 States That "so Late As 1763 The Slaughter Of Bullocks For The Supply Of The Public Markets Was A Thing Wholly Unknown, Even ...

Malta Fever
Malta Fever Malta Fever Is A General Infection Not Unlike Other Specific Bacteri Miss, Such As Typhoid Fever. It Is Caused By The Micrococcus Meliten Ei$, Discovered By Bruce In 1887 During The Earlier Days Of Bacteriology. Clinically The Disease Is Characterized By Profuse Perspiration, Constipa Tion, Frequent Relapses Often ...

Management Of An Epidemic
Management Of An Epidemic Campaign The Management Of An Epidemic Campaign. The First Essential For Success In The Suppression Of An Epidemic Is A Knowledge Of The Epidemiology Of The Disease. The Most Important Single Fact From A Practical Standpoint Is A Knowledge Of The Mode Of Transfer Of The ...

Maritime Quarantine
Maritime Quarantine Maritime Quarantine In This Country Is Enforced Only Against Six Dis Eases, Viz., Cholera, Yellow Fever, Plague, Typhus Fever, Smallpox, And Leprosy. We Do Not Quarantine Against Typhoid Fever, Tuberculosis, Measles, And Other Infections Which Are Not Greatly Feared And Which Are Constantly With Us. Infections Of A ...

Marriage Statistics
Marriage Statistics Marriage Statistics Are Of Interest Because Of The Information They Give Regarding The Social Life Of The People And The Establishment Of Families And Households, And Because Of The Relation Of Marriages To Population Growth Through Their Influence On The Birth Rate. Their Consideration Naturally Precedes That Of ...

Md Mental Hygiene By
Mental Hygiene By Thomas W. Salmon, M.d. Medical Director, National Committee For Mental Hygiene; Formerly Passed Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Public Health Service; Formerly Chairman, New York State Board Of Alienists. A Very Few Years Ago It Would Have Been Difficult To Justify The In Viu6on Of A Chapter On ...

Meat Inspection
Meat Inspection' The Purpose Of Meat Inspection Is To Eliminate Diseased Or Other -wise Bad Meat From The Food Supply; To See That The Preparation Of Meats And Meat Products Is Cleanly ; To Guard Against The Use Of Harm Ful Dyes, Preservatives, Chemicals, Or Other Deleterious Ingredients; To Prevent ...

Mechanism Of Immunity
Mechanism Of Immunity The Relation Between Seed And Soil Is Often Used To Explain Immunity, Hut This Analogy Does Not Help Us Very Much For The Reason That The Soil Does Not React. A Fertile Soil May Be Considered Susceptible; A Barren Soil Immune. The Seed In The First Instance ...

Meningococcus Isolation And Carrier
Meningococcus Isolation And Carrier Detection • Obtain Material On A Swab From The Posterior Nasopharynx (adenoid Region) ; Plate Directly From The Swab, And After 24 Hours' Incubation Of The Inverted Plate, Make Presumptive Slide Agglutination Tests With Spe Cific Sera And Suitable Controls, Using Colonies Fished Directly From The ...

Mental Causes
Mental Causes Coniliets. Important Recent Additions To Our Knowledge Concerning The Psychology Of Mental Diseases Have Brought About Radical Changes Of Opinion As To The Part Played By Mental Causes. The Statistical Tables Of Hospital Reports Have Always Listed As Etiological Factors "grief," "worry," "death Of A Relative," "fear," "remorse," ...

Mercury
Mercury Mercurial Poisoning 24 May Be Contracted By Workmen Employed In Extracting Mercury From Cinnabar (sulphid Of Mercury), In Which It Is Usually Found In Nature. The Ore Is Simply Roasted And The Mercury Volatilizes And Readily Condenses In Metallic Form. Mercury Volatilizes At A Low Temperature And It Is ...

Methods Of Disinfection
Methods Of Disinfection A Few Instances Are Given Upon The Following Pages Of The Best Meth Ods Of Disinfecting Rooms, Excreta, And Fomites. The Examples Selected Have Been Taken As Types Of A Class. In Public Health Work The Things Most Frequently Needing Disinfection Are Feces, Sputum, And Othei Dis ...

Methods Of Vaccination
Methods Of Vaccination Vaccination Consists In Transferring The Virus Of Cowpox From One Animal To The Skin Of Another Animal.the Operation Of Vaccination Con Sists Of Introducing Vaccine Virus Into The Skin. Under No Circumstances Must The Vaccine Virus Be Placed Under The Skin Or Subcutaneously. The Operation May Be ...

Microscopic Examination
Microscopic Examination There Are Three Methods Of Making A Microscopic Examination Of Milk In Current Use. These Are Convenient And Practical Methods Of Roughly But Quickly Determining The Sanitary Quality Of Milk, Based Upon Its Bacterial Content. (1) The Stewart-slack Method. Two C.c. Of Milk Are Placed In A Glass ...

Military Hygiene
Military Hygiene Military Efficiency Depends Upon The Health Of The Command. Many Military Disasters Have Been Due To Disease. Valor And Patriotism Are Seriously Handicapped By Typhoid Fever, Dysentery, Malaria And Other Infections Which In Years Past Have Sapped The Strength Of Armies. More Soldiers In The World's History Have ...

Milk Products
Milk Products Condensed And Evaporated Milks Are Concentrated By Partial Drying. The First Really Practical Method Was Devised By Mr. Gail Borden, Of White Plains, New York, Who Successfully Evaporated Milk Under Re Duced Pressure, And In 1865 Obtained A Patent For His Process. Condensed Milk Is Not Sterilized Because ...

Milk
Milk Milk Is Our Most Important Food. It Is The Best Single Food. The Exceptional Value Of Milk Is Due To The Fact That It Contains All The Essentials Of A Balanced Diet; It Is Rich In Vitamins, The Quality Of Its Protein Is Especially High, The Fat Favors Growth, ...

Milk_2
Milk Bacteriology Of Milk—object. To Determine The Sanitary Charac Ter Of A Milk. 1. Mix Milk By Shaking The Bottle. 2. Flame Lip Of Bottle And Pour A Sterile Test Tube About Half Full Of Milk For B. Welchii Test. Put Test Tube Into Water-bath At 80° C. For An ...

Mineral Acids
Mineral Acids The Atmosphere At Times Contains Nitric, Sulphuric, And Other Acids. These Are Derived From Electric Discharges, But Mainly From The Com Bustion Of Coal And From Industrial Processes. Sulphuric Acid Or Sul Phates In The Air, According To Angus Smith, Is A Measure Of Manu Facturing Activity And ...

Mining
Mining Coal Mining Is One Of The Dangerous And Unhealthy Occupations. The Dust, The Unnatural Conditions Under Which The Miner Is Com Pelled To Work Underground, The Poor Air, And Sometimes Exposure To Poisonous Fumes All Conspire To Make This Occupation One Attended With Unusual Risks. The Unsatisfactory Methods For ...

Modes Of Infection
Modes Of Infection We Are Still Ignorant Of The Precise Mode By Which Smallpox Is Con Veyed. The View Generally That The Infection Is Airborne And Enters The System Through The Respiratory Mucous Membranes. Been Surmised That A Local Lesion May Produced Inthis Favorable Soil, The So-called "propustule," From Which ...

Mom
Mom. The Two Chief Functions Of The Air That Are Especially Concerned With Health Are (1) Interchange Of Gases In Respiration, And (2) Regulation Of Bodily Temperature. Further, It Should Be Remembered That The Com Bustion Of The Food We Eat Depends Upon The Oxygen Of The Air We Breathe, ...

Mom_2
Mom. Factory-ribbed Glass Or Laufer Disperse The Light Into The Parts Of The Room Where The Light Is Needed, Hut Diminish Its Total Amount; They Are Of Advantage, Especially Where Schools Have A Small Amount Of Free Space In Crowded City Districts. The Principal Light Should Come From The Pupil's ...

Morbidity Statistics
Morbidity Statistics Morbidity Statistics Are The Statistics Of Sickness And Disease. They Show The Occurrence Of Diseases And Their Relative Prevalence In Different Localities And At Different Times. They Differ From Mortality Statistics In That As Relates To Disease, Mortality Statistics Are The Statistics Of Fatal Cases Only, While Morbidity ...

Mortality Of Postvaccinal Smallpox
Mortality Of Postvaccinal Smallpox In Relation To The Number Of Scars. One Point Needs Emphasis: The Degree And Duration Of The Im Munity Are Directly Proportional To The Typical Nature Of The Take. No Reliance Should Be Placed Upon Atypical Reactions. The Immunity May Be Renewed; Two Vaccinations Are Usually_sufficient ...

Mortality Statistics
Mortality Statistics • Mortality Statistics Are Statistics Of Deaths. They Are Of Interest Primarily Because Of Their Relation To Changes In Population. Aside From The Factor Of Emigration, Mortality Statistics Show The Losses In Numbers Being Sustained By The Population, Just As Birth Records Show The Additions. Where Migration Is ...

Movements Of The Atmosphere
Movements Of The Atmosphere Moving Air Is Necessary For The Maintenance Of Health And Is A Prime Requisite Of Good Ventilation. The Motion Of The Air Serves The Twofold Purpose Of Bringing Us A Fresh Supply And Taking Away The Sewage-polluted Air From Our Immediate Vicinity. Moving Air Also Favors ...

Mumps
Mumps (epidemic Parolitis) Mumps Usually Occurs Between The Ages Of 5 To 15 Years. There I Decreased Susceptibility Both Before And After This Time. It Is A Diseas Of Children And Young Adults. As A Military Problem, Mumps Frequentl Occurs In Men Between 21 And 31 Years. In The Soldier ...

Natures Methods Of Purifying
Nature's Methods Of Purifying Water In Nature, Water Is Purified By Various Methods, The Chief Of Which Are: (a) Evaporation And Condensation, Which Makes Rain Water The Purest Of Natural Waters; (b) The Self-purification Of Running Streams. Which Is A •variable And Uncertain Quantity; (c) Storage In Lakes And Ponds ...

Nitrogen
Nitrogen The Nitrogen In The Air May Be Regarded As A Diluent, And As Inert So Far As Its Direct Action Upon Man Is Concerned. There Is No Appre Ciable Difference In The Amount Of Nitrogen Contained In Inspired And Expired Air. Nitrogen Does Not "dilute" The Oxygen, And Thus ...

Non Specific Diseases Due To
Non-specific Diseases Due To Water Impure Water Is Responsible For Disorders Othep-than The Specific Gas Trointestinal Infections, But These Disorders Are Often Obscure Or Over Looked. It Is Not Always Plain Just What Quality Or What Impurity In The Water Is Responsible For These Non-specific Disorders, And The Dis Eases ...

Note
Note. The Factor 10.3 In The Above Formula Is The Weight Of The Sample Of Milk Used, I. E., The Volume (10 C.c.) Times The Specific Gravity Of The Milk. Water. Milk Is Still Frequently Sophisticated By The Addition Of Water. A Watered Milk May Be Suspected From A Low ...

Nuisances
Nuisances A Nuisance May Be Defined As "the Use Of One's Property In Such A Way As To Injure The Rights Of Others, And To Inflict Damages." Popularly A Nuisance Is An Annoyance. Statutory Definitions Are Usually More Explicit And Include Nuisances Not Directly Related To Public Health. A Comprehensive ...

Odors And Taste
Odors And Taste The Purest Water Is Absolutely Devoid Of Taste And Odor, But It Is Also Insipid. If Such Water Is Aerated By Agitation Or By Filtration Through A Porous Air-containing Substance, It Becomes Sparkling And Agreeable. The Taste Is Imparted To Most Waters By The Mineral Matter As ...

Odors
Odors People Have Always Believed, And Still Naturally Cling To The Notion, That Anything That Smells Bad Must Be Detrimental To Health. Sci Ence Has Demonstrated That Our Sense Of Smell Is A Poor Sanitary Guide. Smell Is Not Primarily A Protective Sense. Its Chief Function Among Animals Is To ...

Ophthalmia Neonatorum
Ophthalmia Neonatorum Ophthalmia Neonatorum Or Inflammation Of The Eyes Of The New Born Includes All The Inflammatory Conditions Of The Conjunctiva That Occur Shortly After Birth—usually Before The End Of The First Month. The Conjunctivae Of The Newborn Are Peculiarly Liable To Infections. The Gonococcus Is Usually The Cause Of ...

Opsonins
Opsonins The Name Opsonin (61from4co, I Cater For, I Prepare) Is Given To Sub Stances Which Occur In The Blood And -which Have The Power Of Preparing Bacteria And Other Cells For Ingestion By The Leukocytes. The Opsonins Com Bine With The Bacteria And In That Way Prepare Them For ...

Organic Matter
Organic Matter It Is Not Possible To Determine The Amount Of Organic Matter Pres Ent In A Sample Of Water By Any Direct Method. As All Protein Matter Contains Nitrogen, Methods Have Been Devised To Determine The Total Amount Of Nitrogen And Also The Amount Of Nitrogen In Various Com ...

Other Exogenous Poisons
Other Exogenous Poisons Morphinism And Other Drug Addictions Are Responsible For Less Than 1 Per Cent. Of First Admissions To Hospitals For The Insane In This Coun Try. Fewer Such Patients Are Admitted In New York And Massachusetts Now Than Were Several Years Ago. This Gratifying Fact Is Due, In ...

Other Industrial Poisons
Other Industrial Poisons Benzol Or Benzene Is One Of The Coal-tar Distillates, And Is Used Either Pure Or As Commercial Benzene, Which Contains Such Impurities Ag Xylene And Toluene. Benzene Is Used As A Solvent For Rubber, Also In The Pro Duction Of Rubber, Resin, Iodin, Phosphorus, Sulphur And Fats; ...