Home >> Preventive-medicine-and-hygiene >> Other Infections to The Colon Bacillus
Loading

Other Infections
Other Infections Psychoses. Other Infectious Diseases, Notably Typhoid Fever, Influ Enza, Malarial Fever, Erysipelas, And Septicemia (particularly From Uterine Idection), Furnish A Small Number Of Cases Of Mental Disease. From 1 To 2 Per Cent, Of All First Admissions Are Mental Disease Belonging To The Group, In Which Elevation Of ...

Oxidizing Agents
Oxidizing Agents Potassium Permanganate. Potassium Permanganate Is A Germicide Of Undoubted Value, But Of Very Limited Application In General Practice On Account Of The Readiness With Which It Is Reduced And Rendered Inert By Organic Matter. Despite Its Limitations It Ranks High On The List Of Germicides For Certain Definite ...

Oxygen
Oxygen About One-fifth (20.94 Per Cent. By Volume, 23.2 Per Cent. By Weight) Of The Atmosphere Consists Of Oxygen, Which In Many Respects Is Its Most Important Element. Slight Differences Are Noted; Thus, The Air Of Towns Contains Somewhat Less (20.87 Per Cent. By Volume) Than In Mid Ocean. The ...

Oxygen_2
Oxygen Oxygen Consnmed. The Oxygen Consumed Means The Oxygen Which The Organic Compounds In Water Consume When Treated In An Acid Solu Tion With Potassium Permanganate. The Expression Is Synonymous With "oxygen Required" Or "oxygen Absorbed." Oxygen Consumed Is, There Fore, An Index Of The Amount Of Putrescible Organic Matter ...

Ozone
Ozone Ozone, Described By Schonbein In 1840, Is Rarely Found In The Air In Greater Proportions Than Mere Traces, But It Is So Potent Chemically That Even Small Quantities May Be Of Importance. At Montsouris, After Years Of Observation, The Largest Quantity Of Ozone Found In Outside Air , Was ...

Pappataqi Fever
Pappataqi Fever (three-day Fever, Phlebotomus Fever, Sand-fly Fever) Doerr And Russ," And Also Doerr, Franz, And Taussig Originally Described A Three-day Fever Which Occurs On The Shores Of The Mediter Ranean ; It Is Also Known In India, Egypt And South America. The Cause Of Pappataci Fever, Or Sand-fly Fever, ...

Paratyphoid Fever
Paratyphoid Fever Paratyphoid Fever Both Clinically And Etiologically Is A First Cousin Of Typhoid Fever. The Two Diseases Are Indistinguishable At The Bedside. It Needs The Aid Of The Laboratory To Differentiate One From The Other. The Epidemiology Of Paratyphoid Fever Shows Marked Differences From That Of Typhoid Fever. Paratyphoid ...

Pasteur Prophylactic Treatment Recommended By
Pasteur Prophylactic Treatment-recommended By Pasteur Some Pasteur Institutes Now Use A Modified Treatment, Starting With An 8-day Instead Of A 14-day-old Cord, Which Is Exemplified In The Scheme Used At The Hygienic Laboratory, Public Health Service. See Table On The Following Page. The Tendency Is To Hasten The Immunity By ...

Pellagra
Pellagra Pellagra Is Included Among The Diseases Associated With Food, For The Evidence Indicates That It Is Caused By A Deficient Diet Of Some Sort. The Disease Was Long Regarded As An Example Of A Food Intoxication Caused By Some Toxicogenic Saprophyte Growing In Spoiled Corn. Some Investigators Still Look ...

Perborates And Boric Acid
Borates, Perborates And Boric Acid These Substances Possess Almost Negligible Germicidal Properties, And Are Used As Mild Disinfectants In Medicinal Washes, And As Antiseptics For Preserving Foods. ...

Personal Hygiene Of The
Personal Hygiene Of The Soldier The Maroh. Troops Marching In Close Formation Suffer From So Called "crowd Poisoning"—believed To Be Due Mainly To Heat And Hu Midity, Aggravated By Dust (see Page 904). It Is Now Customary In Nearly All Armies To Present As Wide A Front As Possible While ...

Phagocytosis
Phagocytosis Metchnikoff Gave Us The First Physical Explanation Of Immunity Through His Brilliant Studies Upon Phagocytosis. Metchnikoff Was A Biol Ogist, And As A Result Of His Stimulating Observations Upon The Phago Cytes In All The Orders Of The Animal Kingdom He Contributed Much To Our Knowledge, Not Alone Of ...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus There Are Two Kinds Of Phosphorus: (1) The White Or Yellow, Dis Covered By Brandt Of Hamburg In 1669, (2) The Red Or Amorphous, Dis Covered By Schroter Of Vienna In 1845. The Amorphous Phosphorus Is Obtained From The White Phosphorus By Exposing It In A Closed Vessel For ...

Physical Agents Of Disinfection
Physical Agents Of Disinfection • Sunlight. Sunlight Is An Active Germicide. It Destroys Spores As Well As Bacteria. Unfortunately, The Sunlight Is So Uncertain And The Force Of The Sun's Rays So Variable And Their Disinfecting Powers So Super Ficial That It Cannot Be Depended Upon As An Aggressive Measure ...

Plague
Plague In The Management Of A Plague-infected Vessel, A Sharp Distinction Should Be Made Between Bubonic Plague And Pneumonic Plague. From A Quarantine Standpoint, They Are Two Separate Diseases, One Transmitted By Insect Bite, And The Other By Direct Contact. Pneumonic Plague Is A Primary Pneumonia, The Epidemiologic Factors Of ...

Plant Foods
Plant Foods Man Is Still A Parasite Living On The Plant Kingdom. The Vegetable World Furnishes Us Our Chief Source Of Energy. The Animals Which Furnish Food To Man Function As Expensive Converters Of The Energy Of Plants Into A Form Directly Available For Our Uses. A Cow Eats A ...

Poisoning From Plant Foods
Poisoning From Plant Foods Ergotism. Ergotism Is A Form Of Food Poisoning Brought On By Pro Longed Use Of Meal Made From Grain Contaminated With The Cla•iceps Purpurea. The Fungus Develops In The Flowers Of Rye And Other Grains. The Chief Source Of The Poisoning In Man Is From Rye, ...

Poisonous Gases In The
Poisonous Gases In The Air Some Of The Poisonous Gases Of The Air Come From Natural Sources, As Marshes, Mines, Or Decomposing Organic Matter, But Those That Con Cern The Sanitarian Particularly Are The Gases Which Arise From The Works Of Man. These Gases Are Carbon Monoxid, Ammoniacal Vapors, Hydrochloric ...

Population Statistics
Population Statistics Source Of Data. The Principal Source Of Information Regarding Pop Ulation Under Existing Conditions Is A Census Enumeration. For The United States These Enumerations Are Made Every 10 Years. The Last Census Was Taken As Of January 1, 1920. In The United States A Census Has Been Taken ...

Precipitins
Precipitins Another Class Of Immune Bodies Known As The Precipitins May Readily Be Produced In The Blood Serum Of Animals By The Injection Of Bacteria Or Albuminous Substances Having This Antigenic Property. The Precipi Tating Action Of Immune Sera Was Discovered By R. Kraus In 1897. When The Clear Antiserum ...

Preservation Of Foods
Preservation Of Foods The Preservation Of Meat, Milk, Vegetables, And Other Perishable Foods Is One Of The Most Important Questions We Have To Deal With In The Whole Range Of Hygiene. Fermented And Decayed Foods Must Be Looked Upon With Suspicion. The Proper Preservation Of Foodstuffs Involves Not Only The ...

Pressure
Pressure Normal Atmospheric Preunre. The Pressure Of The Atmosphere At Sea Level Is 15 Pounds To The Square Inch, Or, As Indicated In The Barom Eter, It Will Maintain A Column Of Mercury 30 Inches Or 760 Millimeters. A Man Of Average Size Living At Sea Level Is Exposed To ...

Prevalence Of Smallpdx
Prevalence Of Smallpdx It Is Very Difficult For Us Now To Realize That Smallpox Was Once Much More Common Than Measles And Much More Fatal. Many Of Those Who Recovered Were Disfigured For Life, Left Blind, Or With Some Other Serious Consequence Of The Disease. For Centuries Smallpox Was One ...

Preventable Blindness
Preventable Blindness Preventable Blindness Is Considered In This Place Because The Largest Single Factor Causing Needless Loss Of Eyesight Is Gonorrhea. Among The Infectious Eye Troubles The Most Destructive Is Ophthalmia Neona Torum. There Were 64,000 Registered Blind Persons In The United States, Ac Cording To The Census Of Ten ...

Prevention Of Postdiphtheritic Paralysis
Prevention Of Postdiphtheritic Paralysis It Has Been Observed That Postdiphtheritic Paralysis Is More Fre Quent Since The Use Of Antitoxin Than Before The Days Of Serum Therapy. This Is Due To The Fact That Many Cases Now Recover That Would For Merly Have Died. It Is Also Due To The ...

Prevention Of Serum Sickness
Prevention Of Serum Sickness And Anaphylactic Shock This Subject May Appropriately Be Considered Here, Although It Is A Cohdition That May Follow The Injection Of Any Alien .serum Into The System. Serum Sickness Is A Syndrome Which Frequently Follows The Injection Of Horse Serum Into Man. The Symptoms Come On ...

Prevention
Prevention Preventive Measures Are Based Upon Two Important Facts: That Tuber Culosis Is An Infection Mainly Spread From Man To Man Through Tubercu Lous Sputum, And Secondarily From Cattle Through Infected Milk. Preventive Measures Fall Into Two Categories: (1) Avoiding The Infection, And (2) Increasing Resistance Through Personal Hygiene. Both ...

Prevention_2
Prevention The Prevention Of Lead Poisoning Rests, In The Main, Upon The Fact That The Lead Comes To The Workman Usually As Dust, Sometimes As Fumes Through The Air, But It Must Be Remembered That Lead Is Also Carried To The Mouth By Deposits On The Hands And Other Objects. ...

Prevention_3
Prevention The Prevention Of Mercury Poisoning Is Almost A Direct Counterpart Of The Prevention Of Lead Poisoning. The Air Must Be Kept Free Of Mer Cury, And This Can He Accomplished By Proper Systems Of Ventilation, By The Use Of Hoods With Forced Draft And Other Devices To Keep The ...

Principles Of Heredffy
Principles Of Heredffy For A Clearer Understanding Of The Hereditary Transmission Of Dis Ease, Malformations, And Defects, It Is Necessary To Have An Understand Ing Of The Principal Views Upon Organic Evolution And The Theories Of Heredity. The Student Of Preventive Medicine Should Especially Have A Clear Comprehension Of Mendel's ...

Properties Of Water
Properties Of Water Water Is A Clear, Transparent, Tasteless, And Odorless Fluid; Colorless In Small Quantities; Pale Blue Through A Deep Column. It Freezes At 0° C. And Boils At 100° C. Under A Barometric Pressure Of 760 Mm. It Is Practically Incompressible; Has Its Greatest Density At 4° C.; ...

Prophylaxis
Prophylaxis The Prevention Of Rabies Is Considered Under Three Heads: Treatment Of The Wounds; (2) The Pasteur Prophylactic Treatment, And (3) The Control Of The Disease In Dogs By Muzzling And Quarantine.' The Cauterization Of The Wound And The Pasteur Prophylactic Are Efficient Measures For Theinditidual, But They Are Not ...

Public Health Education
Public Health Education Public Health Education Is Fundamental. It Must Be Considered Under Two Aspects: (1) Acquisition Of Knowledge And (2) Diffusion Of Knowledge. The First Involves Researches In Laboratories, Studies At The Bed-side And Investigations In The Field. The Demonstrations Of Science Underlie All Sound Health Administration And Are ...

Quarantine
Quarantine The Word "quarantine" Is Derived From The Italian Word "quaranta," Meaning Forty. Its Present-day Meaning Dates From The Middle Ages When Venice And Other Hanseatic Cities Detained Arriving Ships With Cases Of Pestilence Aboard For A Period Of Forty Days. This Was The First Systematic Application Of Maritime Quarantine, ...

Rabies
Rabies Synonyms. Hydrophobia: Wasserscheu, Mil, Tollwut (german) ; Lyssa (greek); La Rage (french). Rabies Is An Acute, Specific, Rapidly Fatal Paralytic Infection Com Municated From A Rabid Animal To A Susceptible Animal; Through Aiiiifind Usually Produced By Biting. Man Always Contracts The Disease From _ Some Lower Animal, Usually The ...

Radio Activity
Radio-activity Soon After The Discovery Of Radium By The Curies It Was Proved, Chiefly Through The Investigations Of Elster And Geitel, That The Air And Soil And Certain Mineral Springs Contained Radio-active Substances. Newly Fallen Rain And Snow Are Also Radio-active. Air Drawn From The Soil By Means Of A ...

Rain Water
Rain Water Rain Water Is Really "distilled Water," That Is, It Is Water That Has Peen Vaporized And Then Condensed. The Process Of Distillation Is One 3f The Best Known Methods For Purifying Liquids Of All Kinds. All The Ion-volatile Substances Are Left Behind; Theoretically, Therefore, Rain Water Should Approach ...

Rat Leprosy
Rat Leprosy An Infection Resembling Leprosy Occurs Spontaneously Among Rats And Bears A Close Resemblance To The Disease In Man, Hut It Seems That Rat Kpriky Is Not Communicable To Man. For A Further Discussion Of Rat Leprosy See Page 414. ...

Rats And Other Rodents
Rats And Other Rodents Rats, Mice, Squirrels, And Other Rodents Have Become A Serious Prob Lem In Preventive Medicine, And Their Habits And Methods Of Suppression May Be Considered Conveniently At This Place. Plague Being Primarily A Disease Of Rats, The Prevention And Suppression Of This Infection Re Solve Themselves ...

Reaction
Reaction • The Alkaline Reaction Of Natural Waters Ordinarily Depends Upon The Carbonate And Bicarbonate Of Calcium And Magnesium. In Some Waters In The West It Also Includes The Carbonate Of Sodium And Of Potassium. The Alkalinity Of Water Is Determined By Titrating 100 C. C. Of The Sample With ...

Recruits And Recritmng
Recruits And Recritmng Nothing Is More Mistaken Than The Lay Idea That Any Man With Cour Age Would Make A Good Soldier. A Suitable Recruit Must Not Only Be Able Bodied, But He Must Have Good Character, Mentality, Habits, And Tem Perament. A Minor Physical Defect May, Under The Strain ...

Refuse Disposal
Refuse Disposal By George C. Whipple Professor Of Sanitary Engineering In The Harvard Engineering School The General Term "refuse" Is Applied To All Of The Solid Waste Ma Terial Not Carried By The Sewers, Such As Ashes, Rubbish, Garbage, Street Sweepings, Manure, And Dead Animals. The Quantity Of This Waste ...

Relapsing Fevers
Relapsing Fevers Relapsing Fever, Also Called Famine Fever, Tick Fever, And Seven-day Fever, Is Found Upon All The Five Continents Of The Globe. Epidemics Of This Disease Have Been Reported, Especially From Ireland And Russia. The, Infection Prevails In India, Where Vandyke Carter Of Bombay Made His Classic Investigations. Relapsing ...

Relation Of Plague To
Relation Of Plague To Rats And Fleas Plague Is Primarily A Disease Of The Rat And Secondarily Of Man. This Fact Is Now Firmly Established Not Only By The Recent Experiences, But Especially Through The Admirable Studies Of The Indian Plague Conn Mission," Which Established Beyond Doubt The Fact That ...

Relative Values Of Public
Relative Values Of Public Health Work It Is Evidently Impossible To Express With Mathematical Precision The Relative Importance Of Different Public Health Procedures. Efficient Administration Requires A Sense Of Proportion. The Relative Val Ues Of Health Activities Vary With Location, Character Of Population, Stage Of Civilization, Etc. In Many Communities ...

Resin Lime Mixture
Resin-lime Mixture Pulverized Resin, 5 Pounds. Concentrated Lye, 1 Pound. Fish Or Other Animal Oil, 1 Pint. Water, 5 Gallons. Place The Oil, Resin And One Gallon Of Hot Water In An Iron Kettle And Heat Till The Resin Softens; Then Add The Lye And Stir Thoroughly; Now Add 4 ...

Resistance Of The Virus
Resistance Of The Virus It Is Generally, And Doubtless Correctly, Assumed That The Active Prin Ciple Of Variola Has Approximately The Same Resistance To External Con Ditions As Vaccine Virus. This Assumption Is Confirmed By Experimental Evidence, Which Shows That The Virus Of Smallpox Is Somewhat More Readily Destroyed Than ...

Resistance Of The Virus_2
Resistance Of The Virus We Have No Easy Method Of Determining Just When The Tubercle Bacil Lus Dies., The Criterion Of Death Depends Upon Animal Experimentation. The Tubercle Bacillus Has No Spore And May Be Classed With Other Non Spore-bearing Organisms So Far As Its Viability Is Concerned. Its Virulence ...

Revaccination
Revaccination The Clinical Picture Of Secondary Vaccinations May Be Quite Different From The Typical Take Following A Primary Vaccination. These Altered Reactions Were Known In The Time Of Jenner, But Were Lost Sight Of Until Recently Rediscovered, And Their Significance Realized From Studies In Anaphylaxis. Revaccinations May Be Divided Into ...

Rickets
Rickets (rhachitis) • There Can Be No Doubt That Rickets Is A Nutritional Disease, But The Responsible Factors Are Diet And Hygiene. It Is Characterized Especially By An Alteration In The Growth Of The Bones. These Become Enlarged At The Extremities And So Soft That They Bend Under The Weight ...

Roaches
Roaches Roaches Are Among The Commonest And Most Offensive Of The Insects Which Frequent Human Habitations. They Are Under Suspicion Of Convey Ing Several Infections. There Are No Less Than A Thousand Species Of The Family Blatlidae. Four Of These Have Become Domesticated And Cosmo Politan. They Are Periplaneta Americana, ...

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Is An Interesting Infection, With A Very Limited Geographic Distribution. The Symptoms Closely Resemble Those Of Typhus Fever, Including An Eruption, First Macular Then Petechial. This May Go On To Gangrene Of The Skin, Due To Thrombi Of The Peripheral Vessels. Irritability ...

Rural Sanitation
Rural Sanitation The Country Is The Weakest Link In The Sanitary Chain. This Is Largely Due To Economic Reasons, With The Added Handicaps Of Inadequate Organ Ization, Great Distances, And Imperfect Education. Most Rural Health De Partments Are Under-manned, Poorly Supported, And Render Inadequate Ferric-a. From The Standpoint Of The ...

Sanitary Analysis Of Water
Sanitary Analysis Of Water A Complete Sanitary Analysis Of Water Includes: (1) A Physical Exam Ination To Determine Color, Turbidity, Odor, And Taste; (2) A Microscopic Examination To Determine The Number And Character Of Particles In Sus Pension, Especially Algae; (3) A Chemical Analysis To Determine The Nature And Amounts ...

Sanitary Survey Of A
Sanitary Survey Of A City Or Town Each Student Is Required To Make A Sanitary Survey Of A City Or Town, Based On The Following Outline, And Submit A Written Report Of The Same. The Report Should Consist Of: (a) Data, (h) Interpretation Of The Facts, And (c) Criticisms And ...

Sanitary Surveys
Sanitary Surveys Sanitary Surveys Are Designed To Determine The General Sanitary And Hygienic Conditions Of A Community. Surveys Are Often Made To Discover Oue Or More Special Factors ; Thus We Have Tuberculosis Surveys, School Surveys, Privy Surveys, Milk Surveys, Water Shed Surveys, Housing Surveys. Etc. Survey Means "to Look," ...

Sanitation Of Barracks And
Sanitation Of Barracks And Camps Sanitation Of Barracks And Permanent Camps Deals With Sites, Build Ings, Ventilation, Lighting, Heating And Many Other Factors Which Have Been Discussed In Other Pages Of This Book. A Camp Or Permanent Garri Son Is A Small Compressed City, With A Peculiar Population Constitution, Consisting ...

Sanitation Of Trenches
Sanitation Of Trenches The Sanitation Of Trenches, Such As Are Used In Modern Warfare, Pre Sents Unusual Difficulties. Owing To The Extended Use Of Hand Grenades, Trenches Are Dug Deep Enough So That The Soldier's Head Is Several Feet Below The Surface. Parts Of Trenches May Be 40 Feet Below ...

Scarlet Fever
Scarlet Fever Scarlet Fever Is An Acute Febrile Infection Characterized By A Diffuse Eruption Which Appears During The First Day Or Two Of The Fever, And Wire Throat Of Variable Intensity. The Seasonal Prevalence Of Scarlet Fever Resembles That Of Diphtheria. The Disease Increases In The Fall The Year, And ...

School Sanitation And Personal
School Sanitation And Personal Hygiene It Took A Long Time To Realize That The Whole Child Goes To School— His Body, Mind, And Soul; That Education Of The Mind Alone Is One Sided And May Be Hurtful; Finally, That The Hygiene Of The Child And His Teacher, As Well As ...

Scurvy
Scurvy (scorbutus) Scurvy Is A Deficiency Disease Due To Some Prolonged Error In Diet, Particularly The Lack Of Fresh Food In The Ration. It Is Characterized By Debility, Anemia, A Spongy Condition Of The Gums And A Tendency To Hemorrhages. The Lesions Occur Especially In The Bones, The Blood Vessels ...

Section Xii Industrial Hygiene
Section Xii Industrial Hygiene And Diseases Of Occupation Industrial Hygiene Is One Of The Most Important Topics In Preventive Medicine, As It Deals With The Health, The Welfare, And The Human Rights Of The Vast Majority Of The Population. Industrial Hygiene Is A Sub Ject In Which The Medical, Economic, ...

Sedimentation
Sedimentation Sedimentation Is Of Limited Use In Improving The Sanitary Quality Of A Water. ' Sedimentation Basins Are Frequently Used As A Preliminary Process In Water Purification. It Is The Cheapest Way Of Removing Rela Tively Large Particles Which Will Settle Out In A Moderately Short Time. There Is Also ...

Sewage Disposal By George
Sewage Disposal By George C. Wuipple Professor Of Sanitary Engineering In The Harvard Engineering School Importance Of Speedy Removal Of Fecal Matter. The Basic Principle That Underlies All Methods Of Sewage Disposal Is To Get Rid Of The Sewage As Speedily As Possible, With The Least Nuisance To The Smallest ...

Sewage Streptococci
Sewage Streptococci • Fresh Sewage From Man And Other Mammalian Animals Usually Con Tains Streptococci Resembling The Streptococcus Pyogenes. At Present Little Stress Is Placed Upon Isolation Of These Types, And The General Con Sensus Of Opinion Is That The Occurrence Of These Organisms In A Water Is Of Less ...

Sewer Gas
Sewer Gas Sewer Gas, Once A Hygienic Bugaboo, Is Now Not Seriously Regarded By Sanitarians. Sewer Gas Became The Residual Legatee Of Murchinson's Pytbogenic Theory, Namely, That Typhoid Fever Was "produced By Emana Tions From Decaying Organic Matter." People Naturally Cling To The Notion That Anything That Smells Bad Must ...

Shellfish
Shellfish Shellfish Include Mollusks, As Oysters, Clams, Mussels, And Crustace Ans, As Lobsters, Crabs, And Shrimp. The Conditions Which Render Such Food Injurious Are Much The 'same As Those Discussed In Connection With Fish. Shellfish May Be Diseased When Taken From The Water, But Little Is Known Of The Diseases ...

Sleeping Sickness
Sleeping Sickness (the Trypanosome Fevers—trypanosomiasis) • Sleeping Sickness Was Limited To Tropical Africa, Especially In The Congo, On The Shores Of Victoria Nyanza, And About The Head Waters Of The Nile, But Is Gradually Spreading. Many Thousands Have Perished From This Infection, Caused By Trypoinosoma Gambiense And Transmit Ted By ...

Smallpdx In The Vaccinated
Smallpdx In The Vaccinated And Unvaccinated The Experience Of Over One Hundred Years Offers Convincing Proof Of The Pronounced Difference In The Mortality And Morbidity From Small Pox In The Vaccinated And The Unvaccinated. In Countries Like Germany, Sweden, Ireland, Scotland, The Philip Pine Islands, Porto Rico, And England, Where ...

Smallpdx
Smallpdx Ordinarily Those Who Have Had Smallpox Or Who Have Had A Recent Successful Vaccination Are Not Detained. All Others Must Submit To Vaccination. Persons Declining Vaccination Are Detained For The Full Period Of 14 Days Before They Are Released. As A Rule, It Is Not Necessary To Detain Cabin ...

Smallpox And Vaccination
Smallpox And Vaccination The Prevention Of Smallpox Depends Primarily Upon Vaccination, Upon Isolation And Disinfection. Vaccin Was The First Specific Prophylactic Measure Given To Man; It Produces An Active Im Munity To Smallpox. On Account Of Its Importance And Great Practical Value This Subject Will Be Considered In Some Detail, ...

Smoke
Smoke Smoke Is A Product Of Combustion And Consists Of A Mixture Of Gases Containing Solid Particles." Ordinary Smoke Consists Largely Of Unburned Carbon Particles, Hydrocarbons, And Other Pyroligneous Products; Gases, Some Of Them Poisonous, Such As Carbon Monoxid; Also Mineral Acids, Etc. Large Manufacturing Chimneys Are The Chief Offenders. ...

Soaps
Soaps Ordinary Soaps Have But Limited Disinfecting Power. According To Behring The Germicidal Power Of Soaps Depends Upon Their Alkalinity, But Serafini More Correctly Points Out That The Free Alkali Present, Even In Concentrated Soap Solutions, Is So Small In Amount That It Can Exert No Disinfecting Action Whatever, And ...

Some Fundamental Considerations In
Some Fundamental Considerations In Prevention In Order To Improve The Hygienic Conditions Under Which People Work, And In Order To Prevent The Diseases Of Occupation, Five Funda Mental Conditions Are Essential: (1) Investigators ; (2) Laws; (3) Fac Tory Inspection; (4) Penalties; (5) Education. It Is Self-evident That Before Anything ...

Some General Considerations
Some General Considerations Sources Of Infection. There Are Two Great Sources Of The Commu Nicable Diseases Of Man, Viz.: (1) Man Himself, And (2) The Lower Animals. Most Of The Communicable Diseases Of Man, Especially Those Which Occur In Epidemic Form, Are Peculiar To Man. This Is The Case With ...

Sources Of Infection With
Sources Of Infection With The Gaertner Group Diseased Ntemortem Infection. B. Enteritidis And Its Congeners Are Pathogenic For Some Of Our Food Animals, As Well As For Man. Cattle Suffering During Life From Puerperal Fever, Uterine Inflam Mations, Navel Infection (in Calves), Septicemia, Septic Pyemia, Diarrhea, And Local Suppurations Are ...

Sources Of Water
Sources Of Water We May Begin The Circle By Considering That All Water Comes To Ui From The Aqueous Vapor Condensed The Form Of Rain Or Snow. Of This A Certain Amount Returns To The Atmosphere By Evaporation; The Rest Collects Upon The Surface Of The Earth Or Soaks Into ...

Standardization Of Antitoxic Sera
Standardization Of Antitoxic Sera The Method Of Measuring The Strength Of Diphtheria And Tetanus Antitoxins Is Exceedingly Accurate And Satisfactory. The Tests Are Physi Ological, That Is, Depend Upon Animal Experimentation. Guinea-pigs Are Used Because They Are Particularly Susceptible To Both Tetanus And Diph Theria Toxines And React To These ...

Standardization Of Disinfectants
Standardization Of Disinfectants Phenol (carbolic) Coefficient Objedt..—to Compare The Germicidal Power Of An Unknown Disin Fectant Against That Of A 1 Per Cent. Solution Of Phenol. Make Up, According To Directions, Two Dilutions Of Phenol, And Three Of The Unknown Disinfectant, From The Following Table: From A 5 Per Cent. ...

Statistical Methods
Statistical Methods [vital Statistics, Section Ix] Statistical Methods Applied To Biology Have Been Termed Biometry By Professor Karl Pearson. Francis Galton's Book On "natural In Heritance" Is A Pioneer In The Subject, And Embodies A Lucid Introduction To The Statistical Study Of Variation And Inheritance. The Health Offi Cer Must ...

Storage
Storage The Storage Of Water Is One Of The Simplest And Best Means Of Purify Ing It. The First Cost May Be Large, But The Cost Of Maintenance Is Com Paratively Trifling. Harmful Bacteria Soon Die In A Stored Water. The Solid Particles Settle Out, The Organic Matter Is Largely ...

Stream Pollution
Stream Pollution Sewage Disposal By Dilution. The Readiest Method Of Sewage Dis Posal, And The One Which, Until Within The Last Few Years, Has Been Uni Versally Practiced In This Country, Is To Allow The Sewage To Flow With Out Treatment Into The Nearest Stream Or Lake Or Harbor. This ...

Summary
Summary It Is Now Perfectly Plain That The Ill Effects Resulting From A Vitiated Atmosphere Are Not Due To An Increase Of Carbon Dioxid Nor To A Diminu Tion In Oxygen. Upon This Point All Are Agreed. The General Con Sensus Of Opinion Also Excludes Poisonous Bodies In The Expired ...

Supper
Supper Light Bread Or Biscuit (one-fourth Soy-bean Meal), Daily. Butter, Daily. Milk (sweet Or Buttermilk), Daily. Stewed Fruit (apples, Peaches, Prunes, Apricots), Three Or Four Times A Week, On Days When There Is No Green Vegetable For Dinner. Peanut Butter, Once Or Twice A Week. Sirup, Once Or Twice A ...

Suppression Of Rats
Suppression Of Rats The Extermination Of The Rat Is Hopeless; They Are Very Intelligent And Cautious. Extermination Seems A Biological Impossibility, For Billing Off Large Numbers Gives The Survivors An Easier Living. Mil Lions Of Rats Have Been Killed In India, Japan, San Francisco. And Other Places During The Recent ...

Surface Waters
Surface Waters Surface Waters Include Rivers, Creeks, And Smaller Streams, Large And Small Lakes, Ponds, And Impounding Reservoirs, All Resting Upon The Bosom Of The Earth In Contact With The Atmosphae. Surface Waters Vary Greatly In Composition, Depending Largely Upon The Character Of The Catchment Basin. A Water Flowing Over ...

Syphilis
Syphilis Syphilis Is A Specific Infection Caused By The Spirochceta It Is Infected Persons, By Inoculation With Infected Thingi; And By Congenital Transmission. Syphilis Runs A Cluencourse With Of Extraordinary Diversity. Theitni Iegon Or Chancre Forms On The Skin Or Mucous Membrane At The Site Of Entrance Of The Spirochetes. ...

Syphilis_2
Syphilis Psychoses. Among The Infections, Syphilis Deserves Separate Con Sideration As A Cause Of Mental Diseases Because It Is The Essential Cause Of General Paresis, A Psychosis Responsible For Over 14 Per Cent. Of All Male First Admissions To Hospitals For The Insane. In One Very Large Hos Pital, Which ...

Temperature Of The Air
Temperature Of The Air The Temperature Of The Air Depends Mainly Upon Solar And Ter Restrial Radiation. The Air Absorbs Vast Quantities Of Heat From The Sun, And As The Heat Of The Earth Is Radiated Into Space A Certain Amount Is Again Absorbed By The Atmosphere. Accordingly, The Air ...

Tests For The Adulteration
Tests For The Adulteration Of Mils Coloring Matter. To 150 C.c. Of Milk, Add 5 C.c. Of 25 Per Cent Acetic Acid In A Large Porcelain Casserole And Curdle Over The Bunsen Flame With The Stirring Rod. The Curd Can Nearly Always Be Gathered In One Mass Which Is Much ...

Tetanus
Tetanus ( Lock Jaw ) Compared With The Major Plagues Of Man, Lockjaw Has Always Been A Rare Disease. It Is On Account Of The Characteristic And Fatal Spasms That It Early Attracted Attention. The Student Will Be Well Repaid By A Atudy Of The Historical Development Of The Theories ...

Texas Fever
Texas Fever Texas Fever Or Splenetic Fever Is Also Known As Bovine Malaria, Tick Fever, And Hemoglobinuria. The Disease Does Not Affect Man. It Is Confined To Cattle, And Is Of Very Great Economic Importance. Texas Fever Is An Inflection Which Should Be Understood By All Sanitarian, On Account Of ...

The Amount Of Food
The Amount Of Food Excessive Amonnts. The Amount Of Food Required Varies Greatly With Conditions. In Civilized Communities, Where Cooking Is A Fine Art, The Number And Variety Of Food Preparations Are So Great That The Ap Petite Is Often Stimulated Beyond The Requirements Of The System, And Consequently More ...

The Amount Of Water
The Amount Of Water Used And Wasted From A Sanitary Standpoint Our Aim Should Be To Encourage A Gen Erous Use Of Water, But To Discourage Waste. The Conservation Of Pure Water And The Economic Use Of A Purified Water Are Pressing Problems That A Growing And Expanding Country Must ...

The Bacteriological Examination Of
The Bacteriological Examination Of Milk The Number Of Baoteria.no Known Method Can Give An Enumera Tion Of All The Bacteria In Milk. Some Are Aerobes, Others Anaerobes: Some Require Alkaline, Others Acid Media; Some Grow Best At Room Tem Perature, Others Only At Blood Temperature ; And Some Grow Slowly ...

The Bacteriological Examination
The Bacteriological Examination Practically All Natural Waters Contain Bacteria. This Is True Of Rain Water, Ground Water, And The Waters Of Lakes, Rivers, And Oceans. The Number And Variety Of The Bacteria Vary Greatly In Different Places And Under Different Conditions. The Bacteria Are Washed Into The Water From The ...

The Benefits Of Fresh
The Benefits Of Fresh Air Fresh Air Is Nature's Tonic. It Stimulates Digestion, Promotes As Similation, Improves Metabolism, Strengthens The Nervous System, And Increases Our Resistance Against Some Diseases. It Is A Common Ex Perience That Fresh Air Gives Us A General Feeling Of Well-being. Much Of The Benefit Of ...

The Bordet Gengoii
The Bordet-gengoii Phenomenon—fixation Of Complement Bordet And Gengou 84 Found That Bacteria And Also Red Blood Cells Could Be "sensitized" By Placing Them In Heated Immune Serum. The Immune Serum Is Heated To 55° Or 56° C. In Order To Destroy The Com Plement, Leaving Only The Thermostable "substance Sensibilisatrice" ...

The Cell In Heredity
The Cell In Heredity Each Parent (male And Female) Is Composed Biologically Of Somatic Or Body Cells, Which Are Mortal, And Germ Plasm Which Is Distinct, Con Tinuous, Immortal. The Development And Embryology Of The Germ And Sperm Cells Are Of Particular Interest To The Student Of Heredity. The View ...

The Colon Bacillus
The Colon Bacillus The Bacillus Coli Group Is Very Widely Distributed In Nature. The Normal Habitat Of Certain Members Of This Group May Be Regarded As The Intestines Of Man And Many Other Animals. The Colon Bacillus Is Usually Taken As An Index Of Pollution. The Sanitary Significance Of Colon ...