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The Colon Typhoid Group
The Colon-typhoid Group The Colon-typhoid Group Is A Large Class Of Important Organisms Which Has The Typhoid Bacillus At One End And The Colon Bacillus At The Other. The Intermediate Forms In This Group Comprise The Paratyphoid Bacilli, The Dysentery Bacilli, The Hog Cholera Bacilli, The Bacillus Psitta Cosis (a ...

The Control Of Outbreaks
The Control Of Outbreaks Diphtheria Frequently Appears In Asylums, Hospitals, Comps, Jails On Shipboard, And Similar Places. Under These Conditions Of Crowding The Disease Has A Highly Contagious Tendency. It May, However, 1)4 Controlled With Every Assurance Of Success Ti He Application Of Well Tried Measures. The Most Important Measure ...

The Deficiency Diseases
The Deficiency Diseases Unbalanced Diets Give Rise To "deficiency Diseases." Thus, A Diet ]arking The Vitamin Known As "water-soluble B" Gives Rise To Beriberi ; Aerophthalmia Is Brought On By A Diet Lacking "fat-soluble A"; Scurvy S Due To The Lack Of Another Specific Vitamin. Pellagra And Rickets Are Due ...

The Destruction Of Mosquitoes
The Destruction Of Mosquitoes The Measures Aimed At The Destruction Of The Mosquito Naturally Fall Into Two Classes: (a) Those Directed Against The Egg, Larva And Pupa—the Aquatic Stages—and (b) Those Directed Against The Winged Insect. For The Extermination Of Mosquitoes The Most Effective Measures Are Those Which Destroy Their ...

The Effects Of Vitiated
The Effects Of Vitiated Air The Effects Produced By An Atmosphere Vitiated By The Breath And Other Exhalations From Human Beings May Be Divided Into Acute And Chronic. The Acute Effects Are Usually Lassitude, Headache, Vertigo, Nausea, Vomiting, And Even Collapse. In Extreme Cases Death May En Sue. The Chronic ...

The Gaertner Group
The Gaertner Group The Gaertner Group, Of Which B. Enteritidis Is The Type, Occupies An Intermediate Position Between The Colon Bacillus On The One Hand, And The Typhoid Bacillus On The Other. It Is Also Called The "intermediate Group," The "hog Cholera Group," The "enteritidis Group," The "paraty Phoid Group," ...

The Government Control Of
The Government Control Of Vaccine Virus By The Law Of July 1, 1902, The Vaccine Virus Sold In Interstate Traf Fic In The United States Must Come From A Licensed Manufacturer. These Licenses Are Issued By The Secretary Of The Treasury Only After A Careful Inspection Of The Plant, Personnel, ...

The Hereditary Transmission Of
The Hereditary Transmission Of Disease We Are Now Prepared To Discuss More In Detail The Hereditary Trans Mission Of Disease. The Question Whether Disease Is Ever Transmitted Hereditarily Or Not Rests Somewhat Upon Our. Conception Of Disease; That Is, Whether It Is An Entity, A Reaction, Or A "unit Character." ...

The Immunity
The Immunity The Immunity Appears About The Eight} Day Of The Vaccination. Layet Puts T Ie Point The Ninth Day, Burckhard At The Elev Enth. These Data Are Based Upon The Early Work With Variolation, When Persons Were Inoculated With Smallpox At Various Periods Following Vac Cination. Sacco Got Only ...

The Kata Thermometer
The Kata-thermometer Dr. W. Heberden Le Nearly 100 Years Ago Pointed Out That The Actual Temperature Of The Air Is Only One Factor In Determining The Effect Of Atmospheric Conditions Upon The Temperature Of The Body. The Humidity Of The Air, And Particularly The Movement Of The Air Influence Heat ...

The Local Treatment Of
The Local Treatment Of The Wound Woandsproduced B The He 12ite Of An Animal In Which There Is Any Suspicion Of Rabies Should At Once Be Cauterid "fumine Jr Strong Nitric Acid." The Acid Is Best Applied With A Glass Rod Very Thoroughly To All The Parts Of The Wound, ...

The Median Endemic Index
The Median Endemic Index In Epidemiological Work, It Is Essential That The Health Officer Have Some System By Which He May Compare The Incidence Of Disease In The Past With That Of The Present. For This Purpose, Dr. W. H. Brown, Then Epidemiologist Of The Massachusetts Department Of Public Health, ...

The Mills Reinoke Phenomenon
The Mills-reinoke Phenomenon Following The Filtration Of The Water Supply At Lawrence, Mass., September, 1893, Mr. Hiram F. Mills, A Member Of The State Board Of Health Of Massachusetts, Noted That A Marked Decrease In The General Death Rate Of The City. And Not Merely In The Death Rate From ...

The Neisser Wechsberg Phenomenon Or
The Neisser-wechsberg Phenomenon Or Deviation Of The Complement Neisser And Wechsberg In 1901 87 Found That, Although The Addition Of A Small Amount Of Immune Serum Renders Normal Serum More Bac Tericidal Or Increases Its Power Of Protection, A Greater Addition Robs It Of Most, And Sometimes Of All, Of ...

The Number Of Bacteria
The Number Of Bacteria In Water The Number Of Bacteria Is Not As Important As The Kind, Yet Much May Be Learned From A Simple Enumeration Of The Bacteria. Roughly Speaking, The Number Of Bacteria In Water Corresponds To The Amount Of Organic Pollution. No Known Method Furnishes A Complete ...

The Nutritive Value Of
The Nutritive Value Of Plants Seeds. Seeds Are Storage Organs And Can Be Classed Together So Far As Their Food Value Is Concerned. The Proteins Of Seeds Are Incomplete. Because They Contain Only A Few Of The 17 Or 18 Amino-acids Necessary To Rebuild Human Protein. Seeds Are Also Poor ...

The Pasteur Prophylactic Treatment
The Pasteur Prophylactic Treatment This Method Of Prophylaxis Was Announced December 6, 1883,- By Pasteur, At The International Congress At Copenhagen, And On February 24, 1884, He Laid Before The French Academy The Details Of His Experi Ments And Results. The Next Year Pasteur, With The Help Of Roux And ...

The Physical
The Physical Exa3i In Ation When A Recruit Arrives At A Recruit Depot He Immediately Receives His Physical Examination. This Is Completed By Medical Officers Detailed For The Purpose, And Is Particularly Thorough. Under The Volunteer System Of Recruiting, Pressure Is At Times Brought To Bear On The Examin Ing ...

The Plague
The Plague (peste) Plague Is An Infection Primarily Of Rats And Other Rodents, Second Arily Of Men; Caused By Bacillus Pestis. In Addition To This Specific Definition The Term P'ague Still Has A Generic Meaning. There Is Much Aefusion In The Literature, Because Formerly All Serious Epidemics Were Called Plague ...

The Preparation Of Food
The Preparation Of Food Cooking. Cooking May Be Regarded As The Greatest Sanitary Inno Vation Ever Introduced By Man To Protect Himself Against Infection. The Heat Required For Thorough Cooking Kills Most Microorganisms Patho Genic For Man And, Therefore, Renders Food Safe, So Far As These Dangers Are Concerned. The ...

The Problems Of Mental
The Problems Of Mental Hygiene Number Of Insane And Mental Defectives. On January 1, 1920, There Were 232,680 2 Patients With Mental Diseases In Hospitals For The Insane In This Country. If The Number On Parole From These Hospitals Is Included, The Total Number Of Patients With Mental Diseases Under ...

The Purification Of Water
The Purification Of Water The Ways In Which Water May Be Purified For Practical Purposes Are Not Many. It Is Worth Noting That Most Of The Advances In Water Puri Fication Come From The Development Of Old Empiric Processes. It Is Only At Long Intervals That New Method Or Principle ...

The Rural Problem Of
The Rural Problem Of Sewage Disposal One Of The Most Difficult Problems Of Modern Sanitation Is To Secure Proper Disposal Of Fecal Matter In Rural Communities, At Summer Hotels, At Temporary Camps Of Laborers, At Summer Colonies At Beach And Moun Tain, And At Individual Houses In Villages And On ...

The Sanitation Of Swimming
The Sanitation Of Swimming Pools The Problem Of The Swimming Pool Is A Good Example Of An Institu Tion Devised To Improve Hygienic Conditions, Yet The Device Itself May Be A Hygienic Menace. Swimming Is One Of The Best And Most Ex Hilarating Forms Of Exercise. It Is Especially Suitable ...

The Schick Test
The Schick Test Object. To Determine The Presence Or Absence Of Diphtheria Anti Toxin In The Blood Of The Subject Under Test. A Minute Quantity Of Toxin (1/50 M. L. D.) Is Injected Intraeutane Ously And A Local Reaction Follows If There Is Less Than 1/30 Of A Unit Of ...

The Soil And Its
The Soil And Its Relation To Disease Bacteria In Soil. Countless Millions Of Bacteria Occur In The Upper Few Inches Of The Soil. The Enormous. Overgrowth Of Bacteria In The Upper Layers Of The Soil Gives It The Sticky, Moist Feeling Which Rich Soils Possess. The Odor Of The Soil; ...

The Standardization Of Disinfectants
The Standardization Of Disinfectants There Is No Accurate Standard By Which The Power Of Disinfecting Agents May Be Measured. There Are Conditions Influencing The Life Of The Bacterial Cell Which We Are Unable To Control. It Is For This Reason That The Strengths Of Solutions Necessary To Disinfect Are Variously ...

The Textile Industries
The Textile Industries The Manufacture Of Cotton, Linens, Silk, And Jute Has Received An Unenviable Reputation As A Dangerous Occupation, Despite The Fact That These Industries Need Not In Themselves Be Particularly Unhealthy Occupa Tions. The Textile Industries Illustrate Several Points In The Diseases Of Occupation. One Is That An ...

The Uses Of Food
The Uses Of Food The Two Ultimate Uses Of All Food Are To Supply The Body, (1) With Materials For Growth Or Renewal, And (2) With Energy Or The Capacity For Doing Work. The Potential Energy Received In A Latent Form Stored 'n The Various Chemical Combinations In Foods Is ...

The Uses Of Water
The Uses Of Water In The Body As A Rule, Water Is Not Considered A Food, For It May Be Said To Have Little Or No Value When Estimated As A Force Producer Within The Body. Much Of The Water Which Is Either Drunk Or Ingested As A Part Of ...

Ticks
Ticks • Ticks Belong To The Family Ixodidae; Quite A Number Of Different Species Are Known To Attack Man. Ticks, Or Wood Lice, Are Not True Insecta, But Belong To The Acarines Which Include The Mites, And Are Closely Allied To Spiders And Itchmites (scabies). Ticks Have An Unsegmented Body ...

Total Solids
Total Solids The Total Solids Or Residue On Evaporation Is Obtained By Evaporat Ing A Given Quantity Of Water To Dryness, When A Grayish-white Residue, Composed Of Mineral And Some Organic Matter Which Has Been Held By The Water In Suspension And In Solution, Will Be Obtained. The Amount Of ...

Toxins
Toxins Bacteria Produce Many Different Kinds Of Poisonous Substances, But Of All Of These Are Toxins In The Specific Sense In Which That Term Is Ow Used. A Toxin May Be Defined As A Specific Poison Elaborated By Acterial Metabolism; It Is Soluble In Water; Poisonous In Minute Reproduces The ...

Trachoma
Trachoma. Trachoma Is A Menace To The Intregrity Of Sight. It Is A Specific, Communicable, Destructive Inflammation Of The Conjunctiva, Charac Terized By The Formation Of The So-called Trachoma Granulations, Which May Be Either Papillary Or Follicular; The Ultimate Formation Of Scar Tissue; Marked Chronicity And Intractability To All Forms ...

Treatment Of Sewage
Treatment Of Sewage By Appropriate Processes Sewage Can Be Artificially Purified So That The Decomposable Organic Matter Is Removed Or Oxidized And The Bacteria Removed Or Killed. A Complete Purification Is Not Attempted Even In The Best Conducted Plants, As The Processes Demanded Are Too Elaborate, Too Expensive, And Too ...

Trichinosis
Trichinosis The Three Most Important Hosts For The Trichinella Spiralis Are Man, Swine, And Rats. The Infection Is Spread By One Animal Eating The Flesh Of Another. It Is, Therefore, Evident That If The Disease Occurred Only In Hogs And Man It Could Be Controlled. Hence, A Well-directed Public Health ...

Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis • Tuberculosis Is The Most Irequent And Widespread Of All The Major Infections. In This Countryirper Cent. Of All Deaths, And In Germany 12 Per Cent., Are Caused By Tuberculosis. The Toll Falls Heaviest During The Period Of Life Of Greatest Usefulness—thus 30 Per Cent. Of All Deaths Between ...

Turbidity
Turbidity • • Practically Turbidity Is Synonymous With Muddiness. The Turbidity Of Surface Waters Is Usually Due To Mud, Clay Or Silt, Also To Finely Di Vided Organic Matter, Microscopic Organisms, And A Great Variety Of Ob Jects. Turbidity Represents The Amount Of Foreign Substances In Suspen Sion ; It ...

Typhoid Bacillus
Typhoid Bacillus The Search For A Typhoid Bacillus In Water Is Frequently Like Looking For A Needle In A Haystack; In Fact, It Has Seldom Been Isolated From A Drinking Water. It Is Probable That The Typhoid Bacillus Rarely, If Ever, Multiplies In Natural Waters. The Dilution Is Usually Enormous, ...

Typhoid Fever
Typhoid Fever (typhus Abdominalis) Typhoid Fever Is A Sanitary Problem Of First Magnitude, Especially In This Country, Where It Is Still Unduly Prevalent. In The United States Typhoid Fever For A Long Time Stood Fourth On The List Of Mortality Tables: Tuberculosis Coming First, Then Pneumonia And Cancer; Typhoid Fever ...

Typhus Fever
Typhus Fever (typhus Exanthematicus) Typhus Fever Was Formerly Confused With Typhoid Fever. Louis Iu 1829 Named Typhoid Fever, But It Remained For One Of His Pupils, Gerhard, Clearly To Lay Down The Difference Between The Two Diseases. Previous To That Time, Typhus Fever Was Prominent And Prevailing, While Typhoid Fever ...

Typhus Fever_2
Typhus Fever Typhus Fever Is One Of The Quarantinable Diseases In Which If One Case Appears On Board A Vessel There Are Apt To Be Several, Especially If The Infection Develops Amongst The Crew Or Steerage Passengers, And Hence All Possible Contacts Should Be Detained In Quarantine For The Full ...

Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet Recently The Well-known Germicidal Power Of The Ultraviolet Rays Has Been Put To Practical Use In The Sterilization Of Water And Other Substances. These Rays, Of Short Wave Length, May Be Obtained From The Cooper-hewitt Mercury Vapor Lamp, Which Is Very Rich In Ultra Violet Nagier Conceived The Idea ...

Unbalanced Diets
Unbalanced Diets Unbalanced Diets. A Balanced Ration Is One That Furnishes Th Optimum Condition For The Maintenance Of Vigor And The Characteristic Of Youth; It Must Promote Growth, Favor Utilization Of Food And Provid For Normal Reproduction. The Science Of Nutrition Has Emerged Fron Its Simpler Beginnings Into A Complex ...

Vaccination Of Exposed Persons
Vaccination Of Exposed Persons The Question Frequently Arises Whether Persons Exposed To Smallpox Should Be Vaccinated. The Effect Of Vaccination During The Period Of Incubation Of Smallpox Is Very Interesting, And May Be Summed Up As Follows: 1. Vaccination Just Before Or During The Primary Fever Of Smallpox Does Not ...

Vaccination
Vaccination Vaccination May Be Defined_ As The Transference Of The Virus From The Akin Eruption Of An Animal Having Vaccinia Or Cowpox Into The Skin Of Another Animal. Vaccination, Then, Consists In Introducing The Active Principle Of Cowpox _into The_ Skin_ Of _a Susceptible Animal. For Over Years Vaccination (from ...

Vaccination_2
Vaccination ( L'accinia,--cow Pox) Students Will Vaccinate Each Other, And Each Student Will Keep A Careful Clinical Record Of His Own Local And General Reactions. Keep A Daily Record Of Temperature, Pulse, Etc., On The Enclosed Chart. Fill In Blank Below And Make A Daily Record Of (1) Local Eruption. ...

Vaccine Virus
Vaccine Virus Vaccine Virus Is The Living Specific Principle In The Matter Obtained Skin Eruptionon Of Animals Having A Disease Known As "vaccinia" Or "cowpox." Vaccine Virus Is Obtained From Calves, But May Also Be Obtained From Older Cattle, From Man, Rabbits, Buffalo, Camels, And Other Mammals. Cowpox, Or Vaccinia, ...

Venereal Deaseases
Venereal Deaseases As A Danger To The Public Health, As A Peril To The Family, And As A Menace To The Vitality, Health, And Physical Progress Of The Race, The Venereal Diseases Are Justly Regarded As The Greatest Of Modern Plagues, And Their Prophylaxis The Most Pressing Problem Of Preventive ...

Venereal Infections Per Thousand
Venereal Infections Per Thousand Men - Both These Tables Indicate That The English-speaking People Are, In Their Navy And Military Organizations At Least, Greater Sufferers From Venereal Infections Than The Other Nations. The Figures However Are Not Strictly Comparable, Because Of Different Methods Used Of Recording These Diseases. The Venereal ...

Venereal Prophylaxis And Hygiene
Venereal Prophylaxis And Hygiene Of Sex The Same Principles Apply To The Prevention Of The Venereal Diseases As Apply To The Prevention Of Other Communicable Diseases. The Fight Against Venereal Diseases, However, Is Especially Complicated And Difficult Because Of The Close Association With Prostitution, The Problems Of Sex, Morality, And ...

Vincents Angina
Vincent's Angina Vincent's Angina Was First Described By Professor Vincent In 1898. It Is An Important Disease In Itself, And Also Because It Is Very Likely To Be Mistaken For Diphtheria. Vincent's Angina Is Due To A Fusiform Bacillus And An Accompanying Spirillum (spirochete ?). In Early Cases The Bacilli ...

Vital Statistics
Vital Statistics The Registration Of Births, Deaths, And Marriages, And The Reporting Of Notifiable Diseases; The Resulting Records And Derived Statistics; And Their Legal, Social, And Public Health Uses. By John W. Trask Surgeon, United States Public Health Service Medical Director, U. S. Employees' Compensation Commission [statistical Methods, See Pages ...

Vital Statistics_2
Vital Statistics Delinition.i—vital Statistics May Be Defined As Statistics Relating To The Life Histories Of Communities Or Nations. They Pertain To Those Events Which Have To Do With The Origin, Continuation, And Terminatioq Of The Lives Of The Inhabitants. They Commonly Include Statistics Of Population, Births, Marriages, Deaths, And The ...

Vitamins
Vitamins Vitamins Are "accessory Factors" In The Diet Necessary For Growth And Metabolism. They Are "unknown Dietary Factors" Essential To Life. Vitamins Are Remarkable In That Exceedingly Small Amounts Produce Qtraordinarily Great Results—in This Respect Resembling Enzymes. Their Chemical Nature Is Not Known. Vitamins Are Produced In The Plant World ...

W M Bayliss
Bayliss, W. M.: "the Physiology Of Food And Economy In Diet." Long Mans, Green And Co., London, 1917. ...

Water And Its Relation
Water And Its Relation To Disease Water Is A Vehicle For Certain Infections Such As Cholera, Typhoid Fever, Dysentery, And Other Diseases, Having Their Primary Seat In The Digestive Tract. It May Carry Inorganic Poisons Such As Lead. It Is Responsible For A Large Group Of Nutritional And Dietetic Disorders ...

Waters General Considerations
Waters General Considerations "the Greatest Influence On Health Is Exerted By Those Things Which We Most Freely And Frequently Require For Our Existence, And This Is Especially True Of Water And Air" (aristotle). While Water Is Not Technically Classed As A Food, It Is An Essential Article Of Diet. In ...

When To Vaccinate
When To Vaccinate The Fact That The Immunity Wears Off After A Number Of Years Makes It Necessary To Practice Revaccination In Order To Afford A Continuous Protection. There Is Some Difference Of Opinion As To Just When It Is Best To Vaccinate The Second Time. Ten Years Is Too ...

Whooping Cough
Whooping-cough (pertu,seis) Whooping-cough Occurs In Epidemics, Which Vary Greatly In Viru Lence, Intensity, And Mortality. The Disease Is More Frequent And Severe In Cold Climates; Otherwise Uninfluenced By Season And Weather.** The Cause Of Whooping-cough Is A Small Bacillus, Described By Burdet And Gengou, Recognized By Agglutination And Complement Fixation ...

Yaws
Yaws (framboesia Tropica) Yaws Is A Communicable Infection Caused By The Treponema Pertemse, Described By Castellani In 1905. It Is Not A "venereal" Disease, But Closely Resembles Syphilis. It Is Named From The Raspberry-like (fram Besiform) Appearance Of The Eruption. "jour. Inf. Dia., Sept., 1920, Vol. Xxvii, No. 3, P. ...

Yellow Fever
Yellow Fever The Prevention Of Yellow Fever Rests Entirely Upon The Fact That It Is Communicated Through The Bite Of An Infected Mosquito—the Stego Twyfa Calopus." The Mosquito Becomes Infected By Sucking The Blood Of Ellow Fever Patients During The First Three Days Of The Fever. All The Experimental Evidence ...

Yellow Fever_2
Yellow Fever Vessels Arriving At An Infectible Port From An Infected Port Are Fumigated And Detained Five Days As A Precautionary Measure During The Yellow Fever Season, Even Though There Is No Evidence Of Sickness On Hoard. The Yellow Fever Season Usually Extends From May 1 Until October 1. The ...