THE OSSEOUS, BONY SYSTEM.
We should observe as we kept up our observations of the liv ing man that all the parts of him which we have had before us up to the present time, digestive organs, circulatory organs, breathing organs, nervous system, organs of sense, absorbent vessels, glands, muscles, are placed upon, or are enclosed in, a passive system of organs, which, combined into one great system, is denominated the osseous, or the skeleton.
The anatomical teacher, 'wonderfully at home in this system, will declare it to be the groundwork of the body. He will de scribe it as divided into the skull, the trunk, and the limbs. He will divide the skull into the head and face; the trunk into the spinal column, thorax, and pelvis; the upper limbs into the clavi cle or collar-bone, the scapula or shoulder-blade, the humerus or arm-bone, the ulna and radius or fore-arm, the carpus, metacarpus and phalanges, finger-bones, or the hand; the lower limbs into the femur or thigh-bone, the patella or knee-pan, the tibia and fibula or leg-bones, and the tarsus, metatarsus and phalanges, toe-bones, or the foot. He will describe the various kinds of 7 joints. He will enter into the subject of structure and explain how the hardest bone is really built on a vascular net-work. He will tear off from the bone a portion of strong membrane, periosteum, will tell us that this membrane is supplied with nerves, by which it is rendered extremely sensitive, and that by it the bony structure is secreted. He will also explain that the structure of bone is made up of earthy and animal matters in such proportion as to give solidity, but with sufficient tenacity to prevent brittleness or easy fracture.
Shall these bones be subject to injury or local disease, there will be acute pain, shock, and some inability of movement of the body; shall there be much exposure of bone to air, there will be decomposition; shall the parts which make up the bone be dis arranged so that the earthy matter is in excess, the bone will be brittle and will easily break; shall the organic matter be in ex cess, the bone will bend or give way so as to produce deformity, and will fail to sustain, naturally, the structures it was intended to support.