CALCULUS. STONE IN THE BLADDER.
This well-known affection is due to deposit from the urine of one or other of the more solid constituents. There is not always a direct deposit, for sometimes a foreign substance forms the nucleus of the calculus. There are twelve kinds of calculus of the bladder recognized in the nomenclature of disease. These are placed in the following order. 1. Uric acid. 2. Urate of ammonia. 3. Uric or Xanthic oxide. 4. Oxalate of lime. 5. Cystic oxide. 6. Phosphate of lime. 7. Triple phosphate, phos phate of ammonia and magnesia. s. Fusible. 9. Carbonate of lime. 10. Fibrinous. 11. Urostealith. 12. Blood calculus.
The uric acid calculus, the triple phosphate, and the oxalate of lime which once was called the mulberry calculus because of its likeness to a mulberry-stone, are perhaps the most common kinds of calculus of the bladder. The first of the three, uric acid, is usually oval, fawn-colored, hard, and constructed in lay ers; the second, triple phosphate, is rough, firm, and drab colored; the third, oxalate of lime, is rough, hard, and red, like a mulberry-stone.
Calculus of the bladder is more common in men than in women, and affects residents of certain parts of the country more than those of other parts. It depends greatly on habit of body for its formation, and is very much favored by the use of alco holic drinks, especially of malted liquors. The affection is at tended with irritation and pain; sense of retained secretion within the bladder; and often, when the calculus is large, with discharge of mucus in the secretion. When the formations are minute and distinct, the escape of small calculi may occur, with much pain. Calculus of the bladder is now a remediable affection under sur gical skill.
Foreign growths of the bladder. The bladder is sometimes the seat of simple or non-malignant tumors; of cancer; and of a tumor called " villous," involving the mucous membrane.
Muscular affections. The muscular coat of the bladder may be the seat of disease. We have already seen that it may be hypertrophied. It may also suffer from paralysis, and spasm. When the muscular coat is paralyzed there is what is called retention of urine, from the want of expulsive power. When the muscular coat is irritable the urine has to be voided too frequently, and there is what is known as incontinence of urine.