DIABETES. DIABETES MELLITUS.
A disease in which there is excessive discharge of fluid from the kidneys, and in which glucose, or grape sugar, is produced in the body in large quantity, and to which the profuse elimination is due. The urine contains grape-sugar in excess. The exhaus tion which follows the loss of fluid is often accompanied by other systemic changes, due to the presence of sugar in the other secre tions and in the blood, and to the modifications of nutrition which thereby are effected. Opacity of the crystalline lens, diabetic cataract, is, occasionally, one of these modifications of structure; shrinking of the structure of the brain is another; a peculiar type of pneumonia is a third. Diabetes commonly proves fatal. It is primarily due to changes commencing in the nervous system.
Diabetes Insipidus: — A form of disease resembling diabetes mellitus in one symptom, viz., the excessive excretion of fluid by the kidney. There is, however, no sugar excreted in this variety of the disease. The affection is more frequent amongst members of the male than of the female sex, and it is less fatal, as it is also less common, than diabetes mellitus. The stage of adoles cence, and a few years afterwards, are the periods in which the disease is most apt to occur. The nature, causes, and seats of this malady are indifferently understood.