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Statement of the Percentage of National and Local Expenditures for Selected Dates for Countries Named


United States, again making an exception for the influence of the war of 1861, the figures exhibit the same trend. It is of course recognised that population has massed itself in cities during the period under consideration. It is also recognised that municipal corruption, especially in the United States, has exerted considerable influence upon municipal expenditures.

A student of municipal government would assert, further, and very properly, that the increase in local expenditures repre sents in part an investment of public capital in municipal pub lic works. But, making liberal allowance for these considera tions, so far as they contradict our generalization, it yet re mains true that the increase in local expenditures at a rate more rapid than the increase in national expenditures illus trates, if it does not prove, the rapid growth of the develop mental activities of the State. As has been already pointed out, a very considerable portion of the increment of expendi ture assigned for the support of the police power has fur nished the means for the expansion of developmental func tions.

Other nations besides those included in the above summary present the same tendency. In Belgium, for example, there has been a growth in the local expenditures of the great cities during the twelve years prior to 1890 of 55 per cent. Accord ing to Herrfurth, the per capita of expenditures in Prussia for local purposes in 1849 was 3.77 marks; in 1869, 6.47 marks; in 1876, 9.58 marks; in 1880, 10.53 marks; in 1884, 11.46 marks. The tendency seems to be universal, and it may be accepted as a general truth that expenditures for local pur poses are increasing at an unusually rapid rate.

According to the analysis of the previous chapter, de velopmental functions present themselves under five general heads. It is not possible, on account of the diverse classi fication followed in public reports, to submit a comprehensive statement of the movement in expenditures incident to these several services. As illustrative of the tendency, however, a few facts are here presented respecting the increase in ex penditure for educational purposes. Even this statement must be limited and fragmentary. In the United States the amount of money which was expended for educational purposes for public common schools in the year 1890 was $145,583,115. This is equal to nearly 17 per cent of the aggregate expendi tures. The only item of expenditure in excess of education is " pensions, charities, and gratuities "; and, as every student of current history knows, the pension payments of the United States could never have reached their present figure had it not been for the difficulty, which the United States Govern ment experienced in the reduction of its revenue.

The trend of expenditures for education in the United States may be clearly observed by instituting a comparison between the year 1880 and the year 1890. Confining our statements to public common schools—that is to say,, exclud ing expenditures for State universities, normal schools, and the like—the expenditure for 1880 was $79,528,736; the expendi ture for 1890 was $137,065,537. The expenditure for public common schools per capita of population for 1880 was $1.59 in 1890 it was $2.24. The expenditure per capita per pupils enrolled in common schools in 188o was $7.99; in 1890 it was $11.03. There is no other item of ordinary expenditure which has grown at so rapid a rate.

Other countries present the same tendency. In Bavaria, for example, the expenditure for education and instruction in 1868 was 1,507,000 florins; in 1890 it was 15,701,000 marks. The per cent of total expenditures, both national and State, assigned to education and science is the following for the countries named: Prussia, 10.14; Austria, 5.96; Italy, 4.11; France, 9.63.

19. Analysis of the Aggregate of Public Expenditnrea in the United States. The facts presented in this chapter do not amount to a proof of the generalization that was ventured respecting the trend of public expenditures, although they do support that generalization so far as they may be brought to bear upon it. As further strengthening the impression that the financial interests of modern states are influenced by the demands of the civilizing process going on in society, there is next inserted for the consideration of the student an analysis of the aggregate expenditures of the United States for the year 189o, all grades of government and all agencies of ex penditure being included. Each item is made the subject of a remark indicating whether the expenditure is incurred for the support of the protective activities, the commercial activi ties, or the developmental activities of the State.

It will be observed that certain items, as " Interest on Debt," " Executive Department," " Congress and Legisla tive," are not classified as protective, commercial, or develop mental, the reason being that it is impossible from the head ing of the item to have any idea as to the nature of the service

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