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Abate
Abate (french, Abbatre ; Spanish, Aba Tir ; Italian, Abbatere); To Beat Down. In Com Merce, To Let Down The Price In Selling. In Law, Means The Beating Down Or Removal Of An Obstruction Or Nuisance, Which, Accord Ing To The Common Law Of England, Any Per Son May Remove, ...

Abele Tree
Abele Tree (populus Alba). European White Poplar, Or Dutch Beech, Otherwise Call Ed The Arbeel. The Abele Is A Tree Of Very Rapid Growth, But Seldom Exceeds Forty Or Fifty Feet In Height. The Leaves Are Large, And Di Vided Into Three, Four, Or Five Lobes, Which Are Indented On ...

Abortion
Abortion (latin, Abortio). In Veteri Nary Surgery, Miscarriage, Slipping, Slinking Casting, Or Warping, All Meaning The Expulsiot Of The Fmtus At So Early A Period Of Pregnancy A: To Render It Impossible For It To Live. The Im Mediate Causes Appear To He The Death Of Thi Fmtus, Or Derangement ...

Abortive
Abortive. A Term Applied By Gardeners And Larmers To Flowers, Seeds, And Fruits, Which 10 Do Not Come To Maturity, In Consequence Of Ex Ternal Injury From The Weather, From Insects, Or Other Causes Affecting Their Growth. Thus Fruit Often Becomes Abortive, In Consequence Of Cold Winds Or Frosts In ...

Abscess
Abscess (latin, Abseesgus). In Veterinary Surgery, A Circumscribed Cavity In An Animal, Containing Matter. In Common Language, An Imposthume Or Gathering.] The Deposition Of Matter In A Solid Part Of The Body Is Always *ceded, And In Some Degree Ac Companied, By Inflammation. The Local Symp Toms Are, Pain On ...

Absorbents
Absorbents. In Veterinary Medicine, Those Drugs Are Termed Absorbents That Are Given Internally For The Purpose Of Neutralizing Any Acid Which Forms In The Stomach And Bowels, In Consequence Of Impaired Digestion. Prepared Chalk Is Generally Used For This Pur Pose. Those Medicines Are Likewise Termed Absorbents Which Are Applied ...

Absorption
Absorption. An Important Process In Vegetable Physiology. As Plants Are Not Fur Nished With Any Individual Organ Similar To The Mouth Of Animals, How, It May Be Asked, Do They Effect The Introduction Of Food Into Their Bodies ; Is It By The General Surface Of Their Stem, Leaves, Or ...

Acacia Tree
Acacia Tree (robinia Pseud-acaeia Lin Nmus). The Acacia Tree Is Well Known In America, From Which It Was Introduced By The Name Of The Locust Tree. It Grows Very Rapidly In The Early Stages Of Its Progress ; So That In A Few Years, From Seeds, Plants Of Eight And ...

Acacia
Acacia. The Rose Acacia (lat. Robinia Hispida). This Graceful Shrub Is A Native Of North America. It Grows Twenty Feet High, When The Soil And Situation Agrees With It, And Its Beautiful Rose-coloured Drooping Flowers Bloom In June. It Often Blows Again In July And August. Its Branches Are Covered ...

Acclimation Of Plants
Acclimation Of Plants. This Term Has Been Applied To The Act Of Accustoming Plants To Support A Temperature Or A Climate Different From That In Which They Are Found Originally Growing. This Differs From Natu Ralization, Which Is The Act Of Transporting Or Transferring A Plant Into A Country Different ...

Acids
Acids (lat. Acetum ; Goth. Aceit; Sax. 50000). Liquids And Other Substances Are Called Acids, Which Commonly, But Not Always, • Affect The Taste In A Sharp, Piercing, And Pecu Liar Manner. The Common Way Of Trying Whether Any Particular Liquor Hath In It Any Acid Particles Is By Mixing ...

Acorns
Acorns. The Seed Or Fruit Of The Oak ; 'morn, Saxon, From Ac, An Oak, And Corn, Corn Or Grain ; That Is, The Grain Or Fruit Of The Oak. The Greeks Had A Tradition, That The Oak Was The First Created Tree ; And Hence, Having A Similar Idea ...

Acorus
Acorus, From The Greek A, Privative, And Ir.ggn, The Pupil Of The Eye. The Botanical Name Of A Plant Of The Thistle Kind, That Produces The Drug Called In The Shop Calamas Aroma Ticus. It Is Found Abundantly In The Neighbourhood Of Freshwater Marshes. The Ancient Practice Of Grewing The ...

Acre
Acre (aecne, Sax. Acre, Lye Says, Is Common To All The European Languages. Sax. Die.). He Might Have Added Further, That It Is An Eastern Word ; And That Agr, Akoro, And Akko Ran, Denote In The Hebrew, Syriac, And Arabic, A Field, A Husbandman. So The Saxon Aeecer Mon, ...

Acrimony
Acrimony (acrinzonia, Lat.). A Sharp Property In Some Plants And Vegetables, By Which They Excoriate And Blister The Tongue, Mouth, Or Other Parts Of The Body, On Being Applied To Them. The Nature Of This Sort Of Acrimony Has Not Yet Been Sufficiently Exa Mined By Chemical Investigation. It Seems ...

Adeps
Adeps. In Veterinary Science, Animal Oil Or Fat. The Fat Differs In Different Animals ; And Hence It Has Received Different Names. In The Horse It Is Called Grease ; In The Ox And Sheep, Tallow, Fat, Suet; And In The Hog, Hog's Lard. At A Low Temperature All These ...

Aeration
Aeration. The Process By Which The Soil Is Exposed To The Air And Imbued There N Ith, Air Being Indispensable To The Healthy Growth Of Plants. When A Flower-pot Is Filled With Rather Dry Earth, If It Be Plunged Under Water A Profusion Of Air-bubbles Will He Seen To Rise, ...

Age Of Animals
Age Of Animals. The Age Of A Horse May Be Ascertained By His Mouth, And The Exa Mination Of His Teeth, Till He Is Eight Years Old, After Which The Usual Marks Commonly Wear Out. These Are Usually Forty In All; Of Which Twenty-four Are Double Teeth, And From Their ...

Agistment
Agistment. A Term Seemingly From The The Old Law French Word Gisle, Which Signifies A Lying-place, And Therefore, As Applied To Cat Tle, Supposes Pasturing. Agistment Accord Ingly Is The Pasturing Of Cattle, The Property Of Another, On The Payment Of A Certain Sum Of Money, Or Other Valuable Consideration ...

Agreement
Agreement. A Very Considerable Pro Portion Of The Lands Of England Are Held By Agreements Between The Landlord And The Tenant. See Leases. These Are Best Made In Writing, Although Not Absolutely Necessary For Terms Not Exceed Ing Three Years. (crosby Wordsworth! 6 East, 602.) An Agreement To Make A ...

Agricultural Implements
Implements, Agricultural. Almost All The Operations Of Agriculture May Be Per Formed By The Plough, The Harrow, The Scythe, And The Flail; And These, Or Similar Tools For Performing The Same Work, Are The Sole Imple Ments In The Primitive Agriculture Of All Coun Tries. With The Progress Of Improvement, ...

Agricultural Of The United
Population, Agricultural; Of The United States. By The Census Of 1840, It Appears That The Number Of All The Males, Of 10 Years Old And Upwards, In The United States And Territories, Exclusive Of The Naval Service, Was 5,907,752. The Whole Population Of The Union- Was 17,069,453, Of Which The ...

Agrostis
Agrostis. The Bent Grass. An Exten Sive Genus Of Grasses, Which From Their Gen Eral Character Of Thriving Best On Marshy Or Wet Soils, Are Of Comparatively Little Value To The Farmer. In America They Have Obtained Little Notice; But In England They Are Often Made Of Considerable Account, And ...

Air Vessels
Air Vessels, Of Vegetables, Are Certain Horizontal Vessels Of Large Diameter, That Pass Through The Bark Of Trees To The Alburnum, Or White Internal Bark.] These Horizontal Vessels Dr. Darwin Supposes To Contain Air, Enclosed In A Thin Moist Membrane, Which May Serve The Purpose Of Oxygenating The Fluid In ...

Aira
Aira. A Genus Of Grasses, Of Which There Are But Few Species Capable Of Being Cultivated To Advantage As Field Grasses. Aira Equatica. Water Hair-grass. This Plant Is An Aquatic, Found Naturally Growing In The Mud Of Standing Pools, Or Running Waters In England. It Is, Therefore, Unfit For Cultivation. ...

Airing
Airing. In The Management Of Horses, Implies The Exercising Them In The Open Air, Which Is Of The Greatest Advantage To Them When Performed With Moderation, And Accord Ing To The Circumstances Or State In Which They Are In Respect To Their Health And The Nature Of Their Keep. By ...

Albumen
Albumen Is The Name Given By Chemists To The Impure Glossy Viscid Liquid, Which Forms The White Of An Egg. This White Is Composed Chiefly Of Albumen Mixed With Some Mucus, Soda, And Sulpbut Albumen Unites Readily With Water, And When Heated To 165° It Coagulates Into A White Solid ...

Alburnum
Alburnum. An Integument Composed Of A Soft White Substance, Scarcely Perceptible In Some Sorts Of Trees, Situated Between The Liber And The Wood. In The Oak And Elm It Is Hard And Very Conspicuous. It Is As It Were An Imperfect Wood, Not Having Acquired That State Of Consistence Necessary ...

Alcohol
Alcohol Is The Name First Given By The Alchemists (it Came Originally From Arabia) To The Liquid Obtained By The Distillation Of Wine, Beer, And Other Fermented Spirits. These Seem To Have Been Known In The Earliest Ages : Noah, Who Planted A Vineyard, Drank Wine ; And The Heathen ...

Alder Tree
Alder Tree (alnus Glutinosa, Gaertner; Betula Alnus, Linn.). The Common Alder Of England] Appears Generally As A Shrub ; But If Allowed To Attain Maturity It Will Grow To A Stately Tree. The Bark In Old Trees Is Blackish, And Full Of Clefts ; On The Young Shoots It Is ...

Alderney Cows
Alderney Cows. This Admired Breed Of Cows Is In General Fine-boned, But Small And Ill-made, And Of A Light Red Or Yellowish Colour. Cows Of This Breed Are Most Frequently Met With In England About The Seats Of The Opulent, From Their Milk, Though Smaller In Quantity, Being More Rich ...

Ale
Ale (sax. Eale). A Liquor Obtained From The Infusion Of Malt And Hops By Fermentation. Ale Differs From Beer Chiefly By Having A Smaller Proportion Of Hops. There Are Differ Ent Sorts Of Ale Brewed, Such As Strong Ale, Table Ale, Pale Ale, And Brown Ale. The Pale Ale Is ...

Alehoof
Alehoof (hedera Terrestris. From Ale, And Hport, Head). Ground-ivy, So Called By Our Saxon Ancestors, As Being Their Chief In Gredient In Ale. This Wild Plant Creeps Upon Hedge Banks, At The Foot Of Trees, And In Every Shady Place, Flowering In Spring. It Takes Root At Every Joint, Like ...

Alexander
Alexander (hipposelinum). This Gar Den Vegetable Has Been Superseded By Celery, Yet It Is An Excellent Vegetable, And Grows Abundantly Wild Almost Everywhere In Eno. „ Land. The Seeds And Root Are Hot And Dry Like Those Of Parsley, And Preparations Of Thein Are Much In Use As A Popular ...

Aliment
Aliment (lat. Alimentum). That Which Nourishes, Nutriment Or Food. Of Alimentary Roots, Some Are Pulpy And Very Nutritious, As Turnips And Carrots. These Have A Fattening Quality. (arbuth. On Aliments.) See Gases, Earth, Water, &c. The Food Of Animals, Whether Of A Solid Or Liquid Kind, Should Be Adapted To ...

Alkali And Its Uses
Alkali And Its Uses. In General, Says Dr. Thomson, Three Times As Much Ashes Are Obtained From Shrubs As Frog Trees. An Equal Weight Of The Branches Of Trees Produce More Ashes Than The Trunk, And The Leaves More Than The Branches. Herbs Ar Rived At Maturity Produce More Ashes ...

Almond Tree
Almond Tree (amygdalus, Linnmus ; Amand, Fr.). Derived By Menage From Amandala, A Word In Low Latin ; By Others From Allemand, A German, Supposing That Almonds Came To France From Germany. But The Spanish Have Almendra ; And Perhaps Amend, Amandola, • And This, Are All Referable To Amygdalum, ...

Almond
Almond, Silver-leaved (lat.. Amygdalus Ar A Beautiful Shrub Originally From The Levant. It Grows From Eight To Ten Feet High, And Blows Rose-coloured Flowers In April. Its Leaves Are Covered On Both Sides With A Sil Very-coloured Down, But They Do Not Appear Till The Flowers Arc Gone. All The ...

Alopecurus
Alopecurus. A Genus Of Grasses Of The Foxtail Kind, Of Which There Are Several Species, Some Of Which May Be Cultivated To Advantage In The Field. Alopecurus Agrestis. Slender Foxtail-grass. (alopecurus Myosuroides, Curt. Lond.) One Of The Most Inferior Species Of This Grass. The Herbage It Produces Is Comparatively Of ...

Alpaca
Alpaca. A Peculiar Breed Of Peruvian Sheep, For Whose Introduction Into England Considerable Efforts Have Been Recently Made. A Very Excellent " Memoir " Upon These Inte Resting Animals Has Recently (1841) Been Pub Lished By Mr. William Walton, From Whose Work Are Gathered The Following Interesting Facts :—" When ...

Alternate Husbandry
Alternate Husbandry. That Sort Of Management Of Farms, Which Has One Part In The State Of Grass Or Sward, While The Othet Is Under The Plough, So As To Be Capable Of Being Changed As There May Be Occasion, Or As The Nature Of The Land May Require. This Sys.. ...

Altitude
Altitude (lat. Alitudo, From Alt Us, High). In Vegetable Physiology, Altitude Or Elevation Of Surface Above The Level Of The Sea Is Equiva Lent To A Receding, Whether North Or South, From The Line Of The Equator, 600 Feet Of Altitude Being Thought To Be Equal To A Degree Of ...

Alum
Alum (lat. Alumen). The Sulphate Of Alumina And Potash Of The Chemist, Or Com Mon Alum], Is Composed, According To The Ana Lysis Of Berzelius (ann. De Chim. 82-258), Of Sulphuric Acid - - 3423 Alumina - - 10'86 Potash - - Water - 4500 9990 In Veterinary Practice, Alum ...

Alumina
Alumina. The Pure Earth Of Clay, Was So Named From Having Been Obtained In A State Of The Greatest Purity From Alum, In Which Salt It Exists Combined With Sulphuric Acid, And Potash. This Earth When Pure Has But Little Taste, And No Smell. The Earthy Smell Which Clay Emits ...

Amble
Amble. In Horsemanship, Is D. Peculiar Kind Of Pace, In Which Both The Horse's Legs Of The Same Side Move At The Same Time. In This Pace The Horse's Legs Move Nearer To The Ground Than In The Walk, And At The Same Time Are More Extended: But What Is ...

Ameliorating Crops
Ameliorating Crops. In Husbandry, Are Such As Are Supposed To Improve The Lands On Which They Are Cultivated. Carrots, Turnips, Artificial Grasses, Such As Contain A Large Pro Portion Of Nutritious Materials, And Many Other Green Vegetable Products, Especially If Fed Off, Or Ploughed In,] Are Considered As Ameliorating; But ...

American Bison
Bison, American (bos Americanua). This Species Of The Ox Kind Is Peculiar To The Temperate Latitudes Of North America, Where It Is Universally, Though Incorrectly Called The Buffalo, A Name Properly Belonging To A Differ Ent Species Of The Ox Tribe Common To Eastern Asia. The Bison Was Found By ...

American Blight
American Blight. A Popular, But Very Inappropriate Name Used In England To Designate The Injurious Effects Upon Apple Trees Caused By A Species Of Plant-louse Or Aphis, (the Eriosoma Moll, Of Leach, And The Aphis Lanigera, Of Illiger.) Ias American Origin Is Rendered Doubtful From The Fact That Nursery Men ...

American Cress
American Cress (lepidiuns Virgin Rum). From ?arts, A Scale, On Account Of The Form Of The Seed-vessel. For The Winter Stand Ing Crops, A Light Dry Soil, In An Open But Warm Situation, Should Be Allotted To It, And For The Summer, A Rather Moister And Shady Border Is To ...

American Ivy
Ivy, American, Virginia Creeper (ans Pelopsis Hederacea). Ivy-like Ampelopsis. The Stem Of This Climbing Plant Sometimes Grows 30 Or 40 Feet Long, Branching Diffusely, Climb Ing Fences, Trees, And Walls, And Clinging To Them By Adhesive Expansions At The Points Of The Tendrils. The Leaves Are Digitate In Clusters Of ...

American Nettle Tree
Nettle Tree, American (celtis Occi Dentalis). Sugar-berry. This American Tree, Michanx Says, If Not Rare, Is Little Multiplied In Comparison With The Oaks, The Walnuts, And Maples. As It Is Scattered Thinly Through The Forest, It Is Difficult To Fix The Point At Which It Ceases Towards The North, But ...

American Violet
Violet, American (erythronitera .a9neri Canton). Sometimes Called Dog's-tooth Violet. This Very Pretty Plant Is Found Throughout The Atlantic States On The Lowest Alluvial Banks Of Streams, And In Most Moist Places, Where It Puts Forth Its Beautiful Violet Flowers In April And May. It Has A Perennial Bulbous Root, Rather ...

Ammonia
Ammonia. The Name Given By Chemists To The Volatile Alkali, From Its Being First Pre Pared In The East From Camels' Dung Near To A Temple Dedicated To Jupiter Ammon. It Is Known In Commerce Under The Name Of Harts Horn, Sal Volatile, &c., And Is Prepared By The Dry ...

Analysis
Analysis (gr.t,vciisuais). In A General Sense, Signifies The Resolution Of Compound Bodies Into Their Original Or Constituent Principles. Analysis Of Soils.—the Means Of Ascertain Ing The Nature, Properties, And Proportions Of The Different Materials Of Which They Are Com Posed. The Chemical Examination Of The Soil Affords Perhaps More Certain ...

Angelica
Angelica (angelica Archangelica). This Plant Was Formerly Blanched And Eaten Like Celery ; But At Present Its Tender Stalks Are The Only Part Made Use Of, Which Are Cut In May For Candying. It Grows In Gardens, And Altho Wild. It Flowers In July And August In England, And The ...

Angle Berry
Angle-berry. In Farriery, A Sort Of Fleshy Excrescence, To Which Cattle And Some Other Animals Are Subject Under Different Circum Stances ; And Are Supposed To Proceed From A Rupture Of The Cutaneous Vessels, Which Give Vent To A Matter Capable Of Forming A Sarcoma, Or Fleshy Excrescence. They Frequently ...

Animal Poisons
Animal Poisons. Several Animals Are Furnished With Liquid Juices Of A Poisonous Nature, Which,when Injected Into Fresh Wounds, Occasion The Disease Or Death Of The Wounded Animal. Well Known Examples Are Furnished By The Sting Of Serpents, Bees, Scorpions, Spi Ders, &c. The Poison Of The Viper Is A Yellow ...

Animal
Animal. A Creature That Is Endowed With Life, And Commonly With Spontaneous Motion, Though In Some Cases Without It. They Are Distinguished In General From Vegetables By Having Motion, Though This Gives Us No Perfect Definition, As There Are Entire Classes Of Ani Mals Which Are Fixed To A Place, ...

Anjou Cabbage
Anjou Cabbage. An Excellent Vege Table Both For The Kitchen And The Food Of Cattle. The Great Anjou Cabbage, Said The Marquis De Turbilly, Is One Of The Most Useful Legumin Ous Plants For Country Use. It Will Grow In Almost Any Soil, Not Excepting Even The Most Indifferent, Provided ...

Ant Hills
Ant-hills. The Habitations Of Ants, Con Sisting Of Little Eminences, Composed Of Small Particles Of Sand Or Earth, Lightly And Artfully Laid Together. These Hills Are Very Detrimental To The Farmer, Depriving Him Of As Much Land As The Hills Cover, Which May Often Be Com Puted At A Tenth ...

Ant
Ant. A Sort Of Insect, Extremely Injurious To Pasture Lands And Gardens ; In The Former By Throwing Up Hills, And In The Latter By Feed Ing On The Fruit, &c. The Best Methods Of Keeping Them From Trees, Are Those Of Having The Earth Round Them Constantly Dug Up, ...

Anthoxanthum Odoratum
Anthoxanthum Odoratum. The Sweet-scented Vernal Grass. See Plate 6, A.] This Grass Constitutes A Part Of The Herbage Of English Pastures On Almost Every Kind Of Soil, Attaining Its Greatest Perfection On The Deep And Moist, Loving Shady Places, Such As The Skirts Of Woods. Its Very Early Growth And ...

Appetite
Appetite. Horses, More Than Most Other Creatures, Are Subject To Diseases Of The Sto Mach, Parucularly To A Want Of Appetite, And A Vitiated Or Voracious Appetite. Want Of Appetite Is When A Horse Feeds Poor Ly, And Is Apt To Mangle His Hay, Or Leave It In The Rack, ...

Apricot
Apricot (armeniaca Vulgaris). The Name Of The Apricot Has Been Thought To Be Derived From Apricus, Open And Exposed To The Sun, Or From Prmoox, Early Ripe ; But There Can Be No Doubt That The Word Is A Corruption Of The Ara Bic Name Of The Fruit. In England, ...

Arbor
Arbor Vitie (thuja). The Generic Name Of This Tree Is A Corruption From Ok Of Theophrastus, Or Thya Of Pliny, Which Were Derived From The Verb Thy6, I Perfume ; As The Thya Of The Ancients Gave Out An Aromatic Smoke When It Was Burnt. It Is Called Arbor Vita', ...

Arbutus
Arbutus. A Genus Of Evergreen Shrubs Which Is Characterized By Its Fruit Being A Berry, Containing Many Seeds. The Only Va Riety Necessary To Be Enumerated In These Nag,es Is The Arbutus Unedo, Or Strawberry Tree. In Pliny's Time, When Rome Abounded In Wine And Oil, They Called The Tree ...

Aromatic Reed
Aromatic Reed (acorns Ealamus). The Common Sweet-flag. A Marshy Perennial Plant Of The Easiest Culture, Flowering From June Till August, Which Grows Among Rushes In Moist Ditches And Watery Places, About The Banks Of Rivers, But Not Very General. Root, Thick, Rather Spongy ; Leaves, Erect, Two Or Three Feet ...

Arrow Grass
Arrow-grass (trighwhin). Perennial Marsh Herbs, Of Which There Are Two Kinds, The Marsh Arrow-grass And The Sea Arrow-grass, Both Perennials, Flowering From May Till Au Gust. They Grow In Wet Boggy Meadows And Salt Marshes, &c., Abundantly, And Are Very Grateful To Domestic Cattle, The Herbage Con Taining A Large ...

Artesian Wells
Artesian Wells Have Been So Named From The Opinion That They Were First Used In Artois, In France. These Wells Have Been Found Extremely Beneficial In The Low Lands Of Essex And Lincolnshire, And In Some Other Districts Where Good Water Is Scarce, And That Of The Surface Of Indifferent ...

Artichoke
Artichoke (cynara). From Ac 'cording To Columella, Because The Land For Artichokes Should Be Manured With Ashes. 1 " A Plant Little Cultivated In America, But Very Well Worthy Of Cultivation. In Its Look It Very Much Resembles A Thistle Of The Big Blossomed Kind. It Sends Up A Seed ...

Artificial Manures
Manures, Artificial. A Great Many Fertilizing Compounds Are Now Prepared In Large Manufacturing Establishments Specially Devoted To The Purpose, And These Are Exten Sively Used Upon The Various Field Crops To Which They Have Been Found Best Adapted. The Basis Of Many Of These Is Night-soil, Such As Poudrette, &c. ...

Arundo
Arundo. A Genus Of Grasses In Which A Number Of Useful Species Was Once Compre Hended; But In Consequence Of The Altered Views Of Botanists Regarding The Limits Of Ge Nera, It Is Now Confined To The Arundo Donax, And The Species Most Nearly Agreeing With It. These Are Grasses ...

Ash
Ash (frdxinus Excelsior). This Tree Was Called By The Greeks Pals, And By Some ,oak. The Latins, It Is Thought, Named It Fraxinus, Yuia Futile Frangitur, To Express The Fragile Na Ture Of The Wood, As The Boughs Of It Are Easily Broken. We Are Thought To Have Given The ...

Ashes
Ashes (goth. Atzgo, Azgo, Dust ; Sax. Area ; Dutch And Germ. Asche ; Su. Goth. Aska). "ashes Contain A Very Fertile Salt, And Are The Best Manure For Cold Lands, If Kept Dry, That The Rains Cloth Not Wash Away Their Salt." (mort. Husb. ; Todd's Johnson.) The Use ...

Asparagus And Its Use
Asparagus And Its Use. (from The Greek Don-ipx.)4s, A Young Shoot R Before It Expands). There Are Only Two Varieties, The Red-topped And The Green-topped; The First Is Principally Culti Vated. There Are A Few Sub-varieties Which Derive Their Names From The Places Of Their Growth, And Are Only To ...

Asparagus
Asparagus (asparagus Officinalis). Sow Early In The Spring ; Having Previously Soaked The Seed In Warm Water For 24 Hours, Then Drill It Thinly, In Rows Sufficiently Wide Apart To Admit The Hoe ; When Two Years Old, Transplant Into Permanent Beds, Which Should Be So Situate As To Cast ...

Aspen Tree
Aspen Tree (populas Tremolo). This Is A Branch Of The Poplar Family, Which Derives Its Latin Name From The Incessant Trembling Of Its Leaves. The English Name Is From The German Espe, Which Is The General Name For All Poplars. The Heart-shaped Leaves Adhcro To The Twigs By A Long ...

Ass
Ass (fr. Ane ; Ger. Esel ; It. Asino ; Lat. Asinus). A Well-known And Useful Domestic Animal, Whose Services Might Be Rendered Even Still More Useful For Various Purposes Of Hus Bandry, If It Were Properly Trained And Taken Care Of. Buffon Has Well Observed, That The Ass Is ...

Atmosphere
Atmosphere. The Name Given To The Elastic Invisible Fluid, Which, To A Considerable Height, Surrounds Our Globe. It Is Composed' Chiefly Of Two Simple Or Undecomposed Gases, Viz.:— It Contains, Also, About Of Its Weight Of Carbonic Acid Gas, Or Fixed Air, A Considera Ble Portion Of Aqueous Vapour (which ...

Atmospheric Elevation
Elevation, Atmospheric. The Height Of Land Above The Sea Or Common Level, Exerts A Very Great Influence Upon The Growth Of Plants. One Of The Main Causes Operating Un Der Such Circumstances To Diminish The Size Of Plazas, Professor Dobereiner Believes To Be The Diminution Of Atmospheric Pressure. Experi Ments ...

Autumn Apples
Autumn Apples. 22. Brabant Belle Fleur. Very Large And Handsome ; Of Great Solidity ; Shape Rather Co Nical ; Slightly Ribbed ; Yellow With Reddish Stripes ; Juicy And Of Very Pleasant Flavour. A Fine Fruit.—november. 28. Emperor Alexander. The Fruit Of This Russian Variety Is Very Large, Cordate, ...

Avena
Avena. A Genus Of Grasses ; The Oat Grass. Some Of The Species May Be Cultivated To Advantage In Suitable Situations, Intermixed With A Due Proportion Of Other Grasses. Avena Flavescena. Golden Oat, Or Yellow Oat Grass. This Is One Of Those Grasses Which Never Thrives When Cultivated Simply By ...

Avenue
Avenue (fr.). An Alley Or Walk Planted: On Each Side With Trees. These Kinds Of Walks Were Formerly Much More The Fashion Than They Are At Present. When They Are To Be Made, The Common Elm Answers Wery Well For The Purpose In Most Grounds, Except Such As Are Very ...

Azalea
Azalea. American Honey-suckle ; The White-flowered (lat. Azalea Viecoea). A Hardy Shrub Growing Three Feet High, And Blowing Its White Flowers In June And July. Azalea Nudi A•a, Also A Native Of North America, Grows Three Feet High, With Red Flowers, Blooming In May And June ; And Azalea Pontica, ...

Azote
Azote Is As Commonly Known By The Name Of Nitrogen. The Name Of Azote (derived From The Greek A, From, And ?oo, Life), Was Given To It By The French Chemists, From Animals Being Unable To Breathe It In A State Of Purity.] This Gas, Which Constitutes 79.16 Parts Per ...

Back
Back, The Spine. The Back Of A Horse Should Be Straight, In Order That It May Be Strong : When It Is Hollow, Or What Is Termed The Animal Is Generally Weak. Back Sore. A Complaint Which Is Very Com Mon To Young Horses When They First Travel. To Prevent ...

Bacon
Bacon. Probably From Bakers, That Is, Dried Flesh. Dr. Johnson Says, And Mr. Horne Tooke Contends, That It Is Evidently The Past Participle Of The Saxon Boffin, To Bake Or -dry By Heat. (di Of Par. Vol. Ii. P. 71.) I May, However, Refer Perhaps As Strongly To The Old ...

Baking Of Land
Baking Of Land. A Term Applied To Such Kinds Of Land As Are Liable, From The Large Proportions Of Clayey Or Other Matter Which They Contain, To Become Hard And Crusty On The Surface. In Order To Prevent This, The Best Practice Is To Lessen The Tenacity Of Such Soils ...

Ball
Ball. Whatever Was Round Was Called By The Ancients Either Bal, Or Bel, And Likewise Bal And Bill. In Farriery, A Well-known Form Of Medicine, For Horses Or Other Animals, Which May Be Passed At Once Into The Stomach. They Should Be Made Of A Long Oval Shape, And About ...

Balsam Tree
Balsam Tree (tacamahacca). This Tree Possesses Considerable Medicinal Virtues. It Is Known Among Us As The. Tacamahac Tree, From Its Similitude To The Real Tree Of That Name, Which Is A Native Of The East And Of America. The Leaves Of Our Balsam Tree Are Long, Of A Dusky Green ...

Balsam
Balsam (impatiens Balsamina). This Fa Vourite Flower Is A Native Of The East Indies And Japan, Where The Natives, According To Thunberg, Use The Juice Prepared With Alum For Dyeing Their Nails Red. It Is A Tender An Nual, Rising From One To Two Feet High, With A Succulent Branchy ...

Bands
Bands. The Cords By Means Of Which Sheaves And Trusses Are Tied. They Are Formed Of Twisted Straw Or Hay. Bands, Where The Straw Is Tender, Should Be Made In The Morning, That They May Not Crack; For The Straw Will Not Twist So Well After The Sun Is Up. ...

Bane Berries
Bane Berries (actma), And Black Bane Berries (herb Christopher). Pe Rennial Herbs, Natives Gf Cold Countries, With Compound Or Lobed Cut Leaves And Clustered White Flowers. The Berries Of The Former Are Black, Red, Or White, Of The Latter, Purplish, Black, Juicy, The Size Of Currants, And Have Fetid, Nauseous, ...

Banks
Banks, Of Rivers And Marshes, &c., (banc, Sax.). In Agriculture, Are Heaps Or Mounds Of Earth Piled Up To Keep The Water Of Rivers, Lakes, Or The Sea, From Overflowing The Grounds Which Are Situated Contiguous To Them On The Inside. (see Embankments.) The Common Law Of England Is Very ...

Barb
Barb. A General Name For Horses Import Ed From Barbary. The Barb, One Of The Most Celebrated Of The African Racers, Is To Be Met With Throughout Barbary, Morocco, Fez, Tri Poli, And Bornou. It Seldom Exceeds Fourteen Hands And A Half In Height. The Countenance M 132 Of The ...

Bark Lice
Bark-lice. The Mischiefs Effected Through These Minute Insects, To Fruit And Other Valuable Trees, Are Far Greater Than Is Generally Supposed, And Hence Every Farmer And Gar Dener Must Be Interested In Becoming Inti Mately Acquainted With The Nature And Habits Of So Formidable An Enemy. For The Following Exceedingly ...

Bark
Bark (dan. Barck ; Dutch, Berck; From The Teutonic Bergen, To Cover). The Rind Or Cover Ing Of The Woody Parts Of A Tree. The Bark Of Trees Is Composed Of Three Distinct Layers, Of Which The Outermost Is Called The Epidermis, The Next The Parenchyma, And The Innermost, Or ...

Barking Of Trees
Barking Of Trees. The Operation Of Stripping Off The Bark Or Rind. It Is Common To Perform The Operation Of Oak-barking In The Spring Months, When The Bark, By The Rising Of The Sap, Is Easily Separated From The Wood. This Renders It Necessary To Fell The Trees In These ...

Barley Hummeller Instrument
Hummeller Instrument , Barley. An Instrument For Separating The Awns Of The Barley Plant From The Seed. There Are Various Modes Of Taking Off The Awns: A Common One Is By Tread Ing It By A Horse Walking Over It ; Another, By Rolling It With A Grated Roller, An ...

Barley Hummeller
Barley Hummeller. This Is An In Strument Worked By The Hand, Which Is Em Ployed When The Threshing Machine Is Not In Use, Or Performs Its Work Imperfectly. It Con Sists Of A Set Of Parallel Iron Plates Fixed To A Frame, And Worked By The Hand Like A Paver's ...