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Barley
Barley (lat. Hordeum). A Species Of Bread Corn, Which In Europe Ranks Next To Wheat In Importance, And Of Which There Are Several Varieties. The Generic Name Seems Either Hordeum, From Horreo, On Account Of Its Long Awns, Or, As It Was Anciently Written, Fordeum, Rather From Cgego, To Feed ...

Barn Owl
Barn Owl (strix Flammea). The White, Or Screech Owl, Unlike Some Of The Species, Is Resident In England Throughout The Year, And Is So Peculiar In The Colour Of Its Plumage, And So Generally Diffused, That It Is Probably The Best Known Of All The British Species Of Owls. It ...

Barn
Barn. A Covered Building, Constructed For The Purpose Of Laying Up Grain, &c. Farms Should Always Be Furnished With Barns Pro Portioned To The Quantity Of Grain They Produce; But Since The Practices Of Stacking And Thrash Ing By Mills Have Become More General, There Is Much Less Need Of ...

Barometer
Barometer. The Word Is Derived From Two Greek Words, Which Signify The Measurer Of Weight. This, The Most Valuable Instrument For Meteorological Observations In The Farmer's Possession, Was Invented About The Middle Of The 17th Century, By Torricelli, An Italian Phi Losopher. Some Observations Of Galileo Had, Perhaps, Led The ...

Barrel
Barrel. A Cask Or Vessel For Holding Liquids, Particularly Ale And Beer. Formerly The Barrel Of Beer In London, Contained Only 32 Ale Gallons = 32i Imperial Gallons. By A Statute Of 1 W. & M., The Ale And Beer Barrels Were Equalized For Every Part Of England, Ex Cept ...

Barren Soils
Barren Soils, In General, Owe Their Sterility To The Presence Of Too Great A Propor Tion Of Particular Earths—saline, Or Organic Mat Ters. No Soil Can Be Productive In Which 19 Parts Out Of 20 Are Composed Of Any One Earth'or Other Substance. The Improvement Of Such Soils Constitutes The ...

Barrows
Barrows. The Common Term For Tumuli, Or Huge Mounds Of Earth Which Were Raised In Former Times Over The Bodies Of Heroes And Warriors : Many Of Which Exist To The Present Day On The Plains Of Wilts And The Downs Of Dorset, Surrey, Sussex, And Other Counties. Barrow Is ...

Bars
Bars. In Farriery, A Term Applied To Those Portions Of The Crust Or Huof Of Horses That Are Reflected Inwards, And Which Form The Arches That Are Situated Between The Heels And The Frog. Bars Of A Horse's Mouth Fleshy Rows That Run Across The Upper Part Of The Mouth, ...

Barter
Barter (span. Baratar ; Fr. Barrater ; Ital. Barratare, Which Signify To Cheat As Well As To Barter : Hence Also Our Word Barratry). The Exchanging One Commodity For Another, With Out The Payment Of Money. The Term Barter Seems To Have Been Derived From The Lan Guages Of Southern ...

Basil
Basil -thyme. Field Thyme (thymus Acina). A Leafy, Small Annual Plant, Much Branched And Spreading, But Scarcely Nine Inches High, With Acute, Bluntly Serrated Leaves, Rough At The Edges, And Slightly Aro Matic. The Flowers Are In Axillary Whorls Of A Bluish Colour, Variegated At The Tip With White And ...

Baskets
Baskets (barged, Welsh ; Bascauda, Lat. Probably From Bass, Of Which Baskets Were Often Made). They Are Made Principally Of The In Terwoven Twigs Of Willow, Osier, And Birch, &c., But Frequently Also Of Grass, Rushes, Splinters Of Wood, Straw, &c. They Are Made To Hold All Sorts Of Dry ...

Bass
Bass. The Material Of Which Packing Mats Are Made. It Consists Of The Bark Of The Lime Tree. The American Bass Wood, Or American Lime, Or Linden (tilia Americana), Abounds In The Forests East Of The Mississippit Exists In Canada, But Is Most Common In The More Northern Portions Of ...

Bastard Alkanet
Bastard Alkanet (corn Gromwell, Lithospermum Arvense). An Annual Weed Com Mon In Waste Grounds And Corn-fields, Espe Cially Among Rye, Flowering In May And June.. It May Be Easily Known By Its Tapering Root, With A Bright Red Bark, Which•communicates Its Colour To Oily Substances, As Well As To Pa ...

Bastard Toadflax
Bastard - Toadflax (thesium Lino Phyllum). An English Perennial Wild Plant, With Terminal Clusters Of Whitish Or Yellowish Blossoms, Many-flowered, Erect, Generally Branched Or Subdivided, Flowering In July. Its Root Is 'woody And Yellowish., Stems Widely Spreading, Angular, Leafy, A Span Or More In Length ; Leaves Turned To One ...

Bay Salt
Bay-salt. The Salt Made Naturally On The Sea-shore At St. Ubes And Other Bays, In The Natural Hollows Of The Sea-shore Which Are Only Overflowed At Spring Tides. The Salt Thus Made At A Low Temperature By The Action Of The Sun And Wind Is The Strongest And Best For ...

Bay Tree
Bay-tree (laurus Nobilis). This Plant, The Laurel Of Antiquity, Is A Native Of Classical Ground. We Cannot Ascertain At What Exact Period The Bay-tree Was First Cultivated In This Country ; But In All Probability It Was Planted By The Romans, And Fell With Their Villas. Chaucer, Who Wrote In ...

Bay
Bay (lat. Baclius ; Old Fr. Baye, Bai, Rouge Brun; Ital. Baio). The Term For A Colour In Clining To A Chestnut. In Reference To The Horse This Colour Has Various Shades, From The Very Light Bay, To The Dark Bay, Which Approaches Nearly To The Brown ; But It ...

Beagle
Beagle (fr. Bigle). A Small Well-iiropor. Tinned Hound, Slow But Sure, Having An Excel Lent Nose And Most Enduring Diligence ; Form Erly Much In Fashion For Hunting The Hare, But Now Comparatively Neglected, Its Place Being Occupied, Where Hare-hunting Is Patronized, By The Harrier. There Are Still Several Varieties ...

Beam Tree
Beam-tree. The Pyrus Aria Of Botanists. The White Beam-tree Or Wild Pear-tree, Is A De Ciduous British Tree Of Small Growth Inhabiting The Mountainous Parts Of The Country, And Re Sembling A Small Apple-tree With Berries Like Those Of The Mountain Ash. Its Leaves Are Strongly Veined, In A Plaited ...

Bean Fly
Bean-fly. A Beautiful Bluish Black Fly, Generally Found On Bean Flowers. It Is Some Times Called The Collier. The Aphides Of Beans Are Invariably Brought On By Very Dry Weather; They Are Most Prevalent On The Summits Of The Plants. (see Beans.) The Larvm Of The Lady Bird, Or Lady-cow ...

Beans
Beans ( Vicia Faba). A Well-known Vege Table Of The Pulse Species, Largely Cultivated Both In Gardens And Fields. Sax. Bean ; Vicia Is The Latin Name For The Tare Or Vetch ; Derived, .ccording To Varro; A Viciardo, Because Its Ten Drils Entwine Or Bind Round Other Plants. The ...

Bearers
Bearers, Or Basket-worms, Currant-bush Borer,cutworm Caterpillar,leaf-rollers, Appletree And Nursery Caterpillars, Oak And Walnut Caterpillars, Hod-vine And Grape-vine Caterpillars, Locust Tree And Other Caterpillars Infesting Hickory And Elm Trees, &c.,turyentine Moth, Infesting The Fir And Pine, Caterpillars Living Upon Reeds, Flags, And Other Aquatic Plants, Spanworms, Loopers, Or Geometers, Among Which ...

Bee Moth
Bee-moth. The Following Interesting Details Relative To The Natural History Of The Bee Moth Or Wax-moth, Are From Dr. Harris's Trea Tise On Destructive Insects. This Pernicious Insect Belongs To A Group Called Cambrian, And Was Well Known To The Ancients, As It Is Mentioned Under The Name Of Tinea, ...

Beech
Beech (fagus Sylvatica, Sax. Bece Or Boc). The Beech Is' One Of-the Handsomest Of Our Native Forest Trees, And In Stateliness And Grandeur Of Outline Vies Even With The Oak. Its Silvery Bark, Contrasting With The Sombre Trunks Of Other Trees, Renders Its Beauties Conspicuous In Our Woods ; While ...

Beef
Beef (fr. Begun, Is Used Either Fresh Or Salted. Beef Is Also Sometimes Used For The Name Of An Ox, Bull, Or Cow, Considered As Fit For Food. Formerly It Was Usual For Most Families, At Least In England, To Selves With A Stock Of Salt Beef In October Or ...

Beer
Beer (welsh, Bir ; Germ. Bier ; Sax. Bear; Goth. Bar, Barley). A Liquor Made From Malt And Hops, Which Is Distinguished From Ale Either By Being Older Or Smaller. It May Be Prepared From Any Of The Farinaceous Grains, But Barley Is Most Commonly Employed. Beer Is, Properly Speaking, ...

Bees
Bees (sax. Oeo, Lat. Apies). These Indus Trious And Useful Insects Are Worthy The Atten Tion Of All Classes, And Will Repay The Utmost Care That Can Be Taken In Their Management. No Farm Or Cottage Garden Is Complete With Out A Row Of These Busy Little Colonies, With Their ...

Beet
Beet (lat. Celt. Bett, Red; Also Said To Be So Named From The Greek Character Beta, Which Its Seeds Resemble When They Begin To Swell). The Sweet Succulent Root Of Beta Vulgaris, A Chenopodiaceous Plant Of Biennial Duration. It Is Used In The Winter As A Salad, For Which Purpose ...

Beetle
Beetle (scarabceidew ; Sax. Byte°. The Generic Name Of A Class Of Insects, Of Which There Are A Great Many Species, All Of Them Having Elytra Or Sheaths Over Their Wings To Defend Them From Hard Bodies, Which They May Meet With In Digging Holes In The Ground, Or Gnawing ...

Beet_2
Beet (beta Vulgaris). The Turnip-rooted And Long Blood-red Are Generally Esteemed The Best For Table Use. The Turnip-rooted Is Somewhat Earlier Than The Long, And Is Equally Good For White' Use. Sow In Drills From Early In The Spring Till The Commencement Of Summer. The Plants Should Stand 6 Or ...

Belladonna
Belladonna (atropa Belladonna). In Bo Tany, The Deadly Nightshade. It Is An Acro Narcotic Poison. This Name, Belladonna (sig Nifying Handsome Lady), According To Ray, 175 Was Given To It By The Italians, Because The Italian Ladies Make A Cosmetic Of The Juice. The Belladonna, Although Perennial In Re Ference ...

Bene Plant
Bene Plant (sesamum Orientale). The Bene Or Sesamum Has Been Introduced Into Ja Maica And Other West India Islands, Where It Is Quite Extensively Cultivated In Many Places. It Is Commonly Called Van Glo Or Oil-plant, From The Oil Which It Yields To Pressure. The Seeds Are Frequently Used In ...

Bergamot
Bergamot (fr. Bergamotte). A Species Of Citron, The Fruit Of The Citrus Bergamia (ris So). This Tree Is Cultivated In The South Of Europe. It Is A Moderate-sized Tree With Ob Long, Acute, Or Obtuse Leaves, With A Pale Un Derside, And Supported On Winged Footstalks. The Flowers Are Small ...

Biennial
Biennial (lat. Biennis). Any Thing That Continues Or Endures Two Years. This Term Is Usually Applied To Plants Which Grow One Year And Flower The Next, After Which They Perish. They Only Differ From Annuals In Requiring A Longer Period To Fruit In. Most Biennials, If Sown Early In The ...

Bind Weed
Bind-weed (lat. Convolvulus). A Trouble Some Genus Of Weeds, Of Which There Are In Eng Land Three Species, The Smaller, The Great, And The Sea Bind-weed. The Climbing Buckwheat (poly Gonurn Eonvolvulus) Is Also Known By The Name Of Black Bind-weed. The First Or Smaller Bind Weed (c. Urvensis), Frequently ...

Birch
Birch (sax. Birc ; Lat. Betula). The Eng Lish Word Birch Seems, However, To Be Derived From The German Birke, Or The Dutch Beck. All The European Languages Are Similar In The Pro Nunciation Of The Name Of This Tree. A Very Hardy, Ornamental, And, In Some Respects, A Useful ...

Bird Cherry
Bird-cherry (prunus Padus). The Ber Ries Are Eagerly Sought After By Birds, And As The Leaf And Fruit Resemble That Of The Cherry Tree, Hence The Name Of Bird-cherry. In Scot Land It Is Called Hogberry. This Aboriginal Of Our English Woods Possesses Beauties That Should Oftener Secure It A ...

Birdlime
Birdlime. This Glutinous Vegetable Pro Duct Is Procured Either By Boiling Misletoe Ber Ries In Water Until They Break, Pounding Them In A Mortar, And Washing Away The Husky Re Fuse With Other Portions Of Water ; Or, Which Is The Chief Mode In Which It Is Made (chiefly In ...

Birds Eye
Bird's Eye (veronica Cham.xdrys). The Germander Speedwell, Or Wild Germander. A Troublesome Weed In Fields. It Is Found Very Commonly In Groves, Meadows, Pastures, And Hedges. It Is A Perennial, Flowering In May And June. Herbage Light Green. Flowers Numerous, Transient, But Very Beautiful, Bright Blue With Dark Streaks And ...

Birds
Birds. A Few Of The Feathered Tribes May Be Regarded As Mischievous Depredators Upon The Farmer And Gardener, Eating His Fruit, As The Robin ; Pulling Up The Corn When Just Sprouted, Or Eating It From The Ear When Nearly Matured. As Is So Often Done By The Crow, The ...

Biscuit
Biscuit (lat. His, Twice ; Fr. Cuit, Baked, Ital. Biscoto). A Kind Of Hard Dry Bread Cake Biscuits Are More Easily Kept Than Other Kinds Of Bread, And As They Contain No Ferment, They Are Better Fitted Than Loaf Bread For Persons Of Weak Stomachs, And For The Pap Of ...

Bitter Principle
Bitter Principle. This Term Has Been Applied To Certain Products Of The Action Of Ni Tric Acid Upon Animal And Vegetable Matters Of An 'intensely Bitter Taste. (brande's Diet. Of Science.) The Most Important Of The Plants Cultivated With Us For Their Bitter Principle Are The Hop, The Common Broom, ...

Bittersweet
Bittersweet. 2. The Common Or Garden Nightshade (s. Nigrum). This Is Common Everywhere, In Waste As Well As Cultivated Ground. The Root Is Fibrous, Annual In Habit, Occasionally Peren Nial. Herb Fetid, Narcotic, Bushy, With Nume Rous Angular Or Winged Leafy Branches. Stem Herbaceous, Without Thorns. Leaves Undivided, Ovate, Lengthened ...

Black Bog Rush
Bog-rush, Black (sclaxnus Nigricans). Is Found On Turfy Bogs. Root Scarcely Creep Ing, Of Very Long, Strong Fibres, Crowned With Black, Shining, Erect, Folded Sheaths, A Few Of Which Bear Very Narrow, Acute, Upright Leaves, And Embrace The Bottom Of The Otherwise Naked Stem, Which Is From Eight To Twelve ...

Black Gum
Black Gum (nyssa Sylvatica). This North American Tree Is Variously Designated In Different Parts Of The United States By The Names Of The Black Gum, Yellow Gum, And Sour Gum, The Last Of Which Appellation Is Doubtless Derived From The Extremely Acid Taste Of Its Fruit. This Consists Of Deep ...

Black
Black. (sax.) A Common Colour In Horses. Horses Of This Colour Are Most Esteemed When They Are Of A Shining Jet Black, And Well Marked, Without Having White On Their Legs. The English Black Horses Have Generally More White About Them Than The Black Horses Of Other Countries. Those That ...

Blackbird
Blackbird. This Is A Species Of Bird So Generally Known, That But Little Need Be Said Of Its Habits Or Its Haunts. Numbers Are Bred In England Every Season, And Those Thus Reared, It Is Believed, Do Not Mi Grate. Its Food Varies Considerably With The Season. In Spring •early ...

Blain
Blain (sax. Blevne; Dutch, Bleyne, From The Icelandic Blina, A Pustule). In Farriery, In Flammation Of The Tongue, A Disease In Cattle, Which Frequently Affects Them In The Spring Of The Year Or Beginning Of Summer. The Disease (says Clater) Is Neither So Frequent Nor So Fatal In The Horse ...

Blasting Of Stones
Blasting Of Stones. The Operation Of Tearing Asunder Large Stones Or Rocks Which Are In The Way Of The Plough, Or Other Instru Ment Employed In Breaking Up Ground, By Means Of Gunpowder. Logs Of Wood, The Roots Of Trees, And Other Obstructions, Are Removed By The Same Agent. In ...

Bleeding
Bleeding (sax. Bleban), An Operation Frequently Necessary In The Disorders Of Differ Ent Kinds Of Cattle, Particularly Horses. Such Horses As Stand Much In The Stable, And Are Full-fed, Require Bleeding More Than Those Which Are In Constant Exercise; But Especially When Their Eyes Look Heavy And Dull, Or Red ...

Blemish
Blemish. In Farriery, Any Kind Of Imper Fection In A Horse Or Other Animal. In Horses, They Consist Of Broken Knees, Loss Of Hair In The Cutting Places, Mallenders And Sal Lenders, Cracked Heels, False Quarters, Splents, Or Excrescences Which Do Not Occasion Lame Ness; And Wind-galls And Bog-spavins, Where ...

Blight
Blight. The General Name For Various Received By, And Diseases Incident To, Corn, Fruit-trees, Plants, &c. The Terms Blight And Blast, Are Indiscriminately Applied To Plants Injured By Fungi, Insects, Disease, Frost, &c. Blight Originating In Cold, Which, Congealing The Sap Of The Tender Shoots And Leaves Of Plants, Causes ...

Blindness
Blindness. A Deprivation Or Want Of Sight, Originating From Various Causes ; A Com Plaint More Frequent In Horses Than In Neat Cattle Or Sheep. Blindness In Horses May Be Discerned By The Walk Or Step Being Uncertain And Unequal, So That They Dare Not Set Down Their Feet Boldly ...

Blister Liquid
Blister Liquid Is Composed Of Pow Dered Alkanet Two Ounces, And A Gallon Of Spi• Pit Of Turpentine ; Adding, On The Fourth Day, A Pound Of Powdered Spanish Flies ; And Mace Rating The Whole For A Month, When The Clear Fluid Will Form A Strong Liquid Blister. If ...

Blister Ointment
Blister Ointment. One Ounce Of Powdered Spanish Flies ; Half An Ounce Of Powdered Euphorbium; Four Ounces Of Lard. One Ounce Of This Well Rubbed In Is Sufficient To Blister A Horse's Leg. That Commonly Sold By Farriers Generally Contains Oil Of Vitriol (sulphuric Acid), To Make It Raise The ...

Blood
Blood (sax. Bled; Old French, Bloed). The Fluid Which Eirculates In The Bodies Of All Ani Mals. Blood, When Drawn From The Body, And Allowed To Rest, Speedily Separates Into Two Portions, Viz. The Fluid, Or Serum, And The Solid Clot, Crassamentum, Or Cruor. In Quadrupeds, In General, The Temperature ...

Bloodwort_2
Bloodwort (rumex Sanguineus). This Is A Beautiful Dock, Growing Wild In Many Parts Of England, But Introduced Lately Into Gardens, For Its Fine Deep-red Appearance. It Grows From Two To Three Feet High, And The Stalks Are Firm, Stiff, Reddish, And Branched. The Leaves Are Long And Narrow, Heart-shaped At ...

Bloom Or Blossom
Bloom Or Blossom. A General Name For The Flowers Of Plants, But More Especially Of Fruit-trees. The Office Of The Blossom Is Partly To Afford Protection, And Partly To Draw Or Supply Nourishment To The Fertilizing Organs Of The Plant, For The Perfecting Of The Embryo, Fruit, Or Seed. Bloom ...

Blue Bells
Blue-bells (scilla Nutans). A Common Name Given To A Bulbous-rooted Plant Of The Hyacinth Kind, Frequently Met With In Woods And Other Places. Its Bulb Is Globular, White, And Coated; Its Leaves Linear, Channelled, Shining, And Drooping In Their Upper Half; The Flowers Form A Cluster On An Upright Stalk, ...

Blue Bird
Blue-bird. Mr. Nuttall Describes Three Species Of The Blue-bird (sialia), Found In America. That Which Is Most Familiarly Known In The United States (the Sylvia Sialis Of Wilson), Is An Insectivorous Bird, Inhabiting Almost Every Section Of The Continent East Of The Rocky Mountains, From The Forty-eighth De Gree Of ...

Blue Grass
Blue-grass, Wire-grass (poa Compressa, Compressed Or Flattened Poa. Plate 7, H). A Very Common Perennial Grass In The United States, Found In Fields, Pastures, &c. It Affords A Good Nutritious Pasture For Cattle, But Is Not So Much Esteemed As The Green Meadow-grass, (poa Pratensis). Its Great Tenacity Of Life ...

Board Of Agriculture
Board Of Agriculture. A Society Established In London In 1794, Under The Pa Tronage Of His Majesty, Geo. Iii., " For The Encouragement Of Agriculture, And Internal Improvement," Consisting Of A President, And Thirty Ordinary Members, With Proper Officers For Conducting The Business Of The Institution. The Plan And Design ...

Bone Spavin
Bone Spavin (fr. Espavent ; Ital. Spava No), In Horses, Is A Disease Of The Hock Joint, Usually Brought On By Over-exertion, Accele Rated By Bad Shoeing. When This Is Forming, There Is Commonly Lameness, But This Dimi Nishes Or Ceases When The Bony Matter, Whose Deposit Causes The Spavin, ...

Bones Farm Yard Manure
Farm-yard Manure, Bones, Omalk, Lima, Green Sand, &c. The Application Of Manures Became One Of The Sustaining Arts Of Life As Soon As Man Was Ordained To Earn His Bread By The Sweat Of His Brow. From That Time To The Present, The Art Of Manuring The Soil Has Been ...

Bones Night Soil
Night-soil, Bones, Liquid Manure, Fish, &c. A Very Elaborate Paper By Dr. C. Spren Gel, Translated By Mr. Hudson, Will Be Found In The Journal Of The Roy. Ag. Soc. Of Eng., Vol P. 455, And To That I Am Indebted For Most Of The General Observations On Animal Manures ...

Bones
Bones (sax. Ban ; Su. Goth. Been ; Germ. Bein). The More Solid Parts Of The Body Of Ani Mals. When Crushed, A Valuable Manure. The Introduction Of Bones As A Fertilizer Is Perhaps One Of The Most Important And Suc Cessful Agricultural Efforts Of Modern Days, And Has Been ...

Bones_2
Bones, The Soil On Wnich The Bone Manure Had Ne Such Beneficial Effect, Contained, In 400 Parts, The Mode Of Applying Them, Adds The Don Caster Report, Is Either By Sowing Broadcast Or By The Drill ; Either By Themselves, Or, What Is Much Better, Previously Mixed With Earth And ...

Book Keeping
Book-keeping. As The Merchant, The Manufacturer, And The Tradesman All Find It Necessary To Keep A Set Of Account Books Which Shall Show Them The Amount Of Capital Em Ployed, The Debts Owing To And By Them, And The Profit Or Loss Arising From Their Different Transactions, So To The ...

Borage
Borage (borago Officinalis). Supposed To Be Derived From Corago, Or Car, The Heart, And Ago, To Give, Alluding To The Renovating Power Of Which It Was Supposed To Be Possessed. This H A Well-known Plant In All Gardens, Growing Two Feet High, With Large Leaves, And Bright Blue Flowers. The ...

Borecole
Borecole (brassica Nleracea Fimbriata.) A Species Of Winter Cabbage, Of Which The Follow Ing Are The Principal Varieties Commonly Cul Tivated In The Garden :-1. Brussels Borecole. 2. Green Borecole (brassica Oleracea Selenisia). 3. Purple Borecole (b. O. Laciniata). 4. Varie Gated Borecole. 5. German, Or Curled Kale Or Curlies. ...

Borer
Borer. Several Caterpillars Belonging To The Family Of Tiger-moths Are Very Destructive To Vegeta Tion, As, For Example, The Salt-marsh Caterpillar, The Yellow Bear Caterpillar Of Our Gardens, And The Fall Web-caterpillar. These Well-known In Sects Are Covered With Coarse Hairs, Spreading Out On All Sides Like The Bristles Of ...

Borers
Borers. The Wood-eating Worms Called Borers, Are Grubs Of Various Species Of The Beetle Tribe, Several Of Which Have Been Already Referred To. Some Live Altogether In The Trunks Of Trees, Boring Into The Most Solid Wood; Others Take Up Their Residence In The Limbs. Some Devour The Wood, Others ...

Boring Auger
Auger, Boring. An Implement For Bor Ing Into The Soil. An Auger Of The Above Kind, When Made Of A Large Size, And With Different Pieces To Fix On To Each Other, May Be Very Usefully Wile.. To Try The Nature Of The Under Soil, The Discovering Springs, And Drawing ...

Bot Fiaes
Bot-fiaes. The Various Insects, Impro Perly Called Bot-bees, Are Two-winged Flies, Be Longing To The Order Diptera And The Family (estricke. Bat-flies Do Not Seem To Have Any Mouth Or Proboscis ; For, Although These Parts Do Really Exist In Them, The Opening Of The Mouth Is Extremely Small, And ...

Botany
Botany (from The Gr. Proitm, An Herb), In The Most Confined Sense Of The Term, Is The Science Which Teaches Us The Arrangement Of The Members Of The Vegetable Kingdom In A Certain Order Or System, By Which We Are Enabled To Ascertain The Name Of Any Indivi Dual Plant ...

Bowel Diseases
Bowel Diseases (mod. Fr. Boyaux ; Old Fr. Boogies). The Horse And Other Quadru Peds Are Liable To Various Diseases Affecting The Bowels. Of Inflammation Of The Bowels There Are Two Kinds ; That Of The External And That Of The Internal Coat. The Former Is A Very Frequent And ...

Box Free
Box 'free (sax. Box ; It. Bosso ; Fr. Buis ; Lat. Buxus Sempervirens). We Consider The English Name Of This Plant To Be A Corruption Of The Latin Word Buxus, Or From The Spanish Box, And That It Gave The Name To The Wooden Cases Made By The Carpenter ...

Brake
Brake. The Name Of A Wooden Instru Ment For Dressing Hemp And Flax, Used Or Break The Bun Or Stem, &c. In Order To Separate The Cortical Part Or Rind From It. It Is Sometimes Applied To A Thicket, Or The Place Where Fern Grows; And Is Another Name For ...

Bramble Or Bramble Berry
Bramble Or Bramble-berry (sax. Brzembel, Formerly Written Bremb/e ; Lat. Ru Bus). The Bramble, Or Blackberry, The Generic Name Of A Large Family Of Shrubs Which Creep Along The Hedge In Every Soil. The Common Bramble (rubus Fruticosus) Derives Both Its La Tin And English Common Name From The Colour ...

Bran
Bran (old Fr. Bren; Ital. Brenna). The Hin Skin Or Husks Of Corn, Particularly Wheat, Ground And Separated From The Meal By A Sieve Or Boulter. It Is Generally Laxative; Owing To The Mechanical Irritation It Excites. An Infu Sion Of It, Under The Name Of Bran Tea, Is Fre ...

Brawn
Brawn. The Flesh Of The Hoar, After Being Boned, Rolled Up, Or Collared, Boiled, And Pick Led. Brawn Is Made Of The Flitches, And Some Other Parts, The Oldest Boars Being Chosen For Purpose, It Being A Rule That The Older The B Ar The More Horny The Brawn. The ...

Bread Root
Bread -root (psoralea Esculenta). A Shrubby Or Herbaceous Perennial Plant Found On The Elevated Plains Of The Missourits Roots Are Eaten Both Ra1v And Boiled, The Latter Being The Most Common Way Of Cooking It Adopted By The Indians. By Cultivation It Is Made To Produce Abundant Crops. The Taste ...

Bread
Bread (sax. Bpeop; Ger. Brod). This Forms An Important And Principal Article In The Food Of Most Civilized Nations, And Consists Of A Paste Or Dough Formed Of The Flour Or Meal Of Different Sorts Of Grain, Mixed With Water, With Or Without Yeast Or Ferment, And Baked. Bread May ...

Breaking
Breaking (goth. Brilcan ; Sax. Tmececen). In Rural Economy, The Bringing Of An Animal Under Subjection. The Breaking Of A Colt Is Commonly, Especially For Race-horses, Com Menced When He Is Much Too Young; For This, As For All Other Breeds Of Horses, Too Much Caution And Gentleness Can Hardly ...

Breeding In And In
Breeding In And In. The Breeding From Close Relations. "this Plan," Says Pro Fessor Youatt (cattle, P. 525), "has Many Advantages To A Certain Extent. It May Be Pursued Until The Excellent Form And Quality Of Are Developed And Established. It Was The Source Whence Sprung The Fine Cattle And ...

Breeding Ponds
Breeding-ponds. Such Ponds As Are Employed For Breeding Fish. The Qualities Of A Pond, To Make It Profitable For Breeding Fish, Are Very Different From Those Which Are Suffi Cient For The Feeding Of Them ; Inasmuch As Some Particular Ponds Serve Only For One Of These Purposes, And Others ...

Brewers Grains
Grains, Brewers', Are Very Extensively Used In The Feeding Of Live-stock. They Con Sist Chiefly Of The Husk, And Other Insoluble Matters Of The Corn Employed In The Operation Of Brewing. 'when Speaking Of The Large Dai• Ries Of The Metropolis, Mr. Youatt Remarks, " The Principal Food Of The ...

Brewing
Brewing. The Process Of Obtaining The Saccharine Solution From Malt, Or Other Mat Ters, And Converting This Solution Into Spiritu Ous Liquors, Ale, Porter, Or Beer. There Is Little Doubt Of The Antiquity Of This Art. The Egyp Tians Are Said To Have Been The Inventors Of Beer. The Early ...

Brewing_2
Brewing. (brande's Dirt. Of Science, &c.) To Illustrate These Facts Let Us Suppose That The Following Substances Are Put Together To Undergo Fermentation :-300 Parts Sugar, 600 Parts Water, 60 Yeast ;—the Products Will Be 771.5 Parts Of Weak Spirit, Of Which 171.5 Is Alcohol Of Spec. Gray. 0.822; 94.6 ...

Bricks
Bricks Are Building Materials Often Em Ployed By The Farmer For The Construction Of Drains, Besides The Ordinary Purposes, For Which They Answer Very Well ; But They Are More Expensive Than Draining Tiles, Which See. By The 17 G. 3, C. 42, Under A Penalty Of 20s., And 10s. ...

Bridle
Bridle. A Contrivance Made Of Straps Or Thongs Of Leather, And Pieces Of Iron, In Order To Keep A Horse In Subjection, And Direct Him In Travelling. The Several Parts Of A Bridle Are, The Bit Or Snaffle; The Head-stall, Or Leather From The Top Of The Head To The ...

Brining Of Grain
Brining Of Grain Is The Practice Of Steeping It In Pickle, In Order To Prayent Smut Or Other Diseases. The Steep Is Made With Common Salt And Water, Of Sufficient Strength To Float An Egg ; Or Of Sea-water, With Salt Added To It Till It Is Of The Requisite ...

Bristles
Bristles (dut. Borstels; Ger. Boreten). The Strong Glossy Hairs Growing Upon Me Back Of The Wild Boar And The Hog. Those 17.r The Use Of Brushmakers, Saddlers, Shoemakers, &c, Are Imported To A Very Considerable Extent From Russia, Those Of The Ukraine Being The 225 Best. At An Average Of ...

Brittle Hoof
Brittle Hoof Is An Affection Of The Horse's Hoof, Very Common, Especially In Sum Mer, In England, From Bad Stable Management. A Mixture Of One Part Of Oil Of Tar And Two Of Common Fish Oil, Well Rubbed Into The Crust And The Hoof, Will Restore The Natural Pliancy And ...

Briza Media
Briza Media. See Plate 6, N. Common Quaking Grass; Ladies' Tresses : A Perennial Grass, Flowering In May And June. It Is Dis Tinguished By The Panicle Of Short Spikelets, Tinged With Purplish Brown. The Spikelets Are Ovate, On Very Slender Stems, Which Makes The Panicle Tremulous. This Grass, Says ...

Broad Cast Sowing
Broad-cast Sowing. The Primitive, Rapidly Diminishing Method Of Putting Grain, Turnip, Pulse, Clover, Grasses, &c., Into The Soil, Performed By Means Of The Hand. This Mode Of Sowing Seems Better Adapted To The Stony And More Stiff Kinds Of Land Than That By Ma Chines; As In Such Grounds They ...

Broad Wheeled Wagon
Broad-wheeled Wagon. A Four Wheeled Carriage, In Which The Parts Of The Wheels That Act Upon The Road Are Of Considers, Ble Breadth. By The Acts 3 G. 4, C. 126, S. 12, And 4 & 5 W. 4, C. 81, Wagons, Wains, And Other Four-wheeled Carriages, Whether On Springs ...

Broccoli
Broccoli (brassica Oleracea Botrytis). The Varieties Of This Cabbage Are Now And Are Chiefly The Fruits Of The Great Attention Which Has Been Paid To Its Cultivation Of Late Years. For An Uninterrupted Supply, Scarce Any Of These Varieties Can Be Dispensed With; But The Purple And White Are Those ...

Broken Wind
Broken-wind, In Horses, Is, Says Pro Fessor Yonatt, The Rupture, Dilatation, Or Run Ning Together Of Some Of The Air Cells,—the Inspiration By One Effort, And The Expiration By Two; And Is Thus Easily Distinguishable From Thick Wind, In Which The Inspirations And The Expirations Are Equal In Amount. In ...

Bromus
Bromus. The Brome Grasses; A Genus Of Which The Chief Species Are As Follow :— .bromus Arvensis, Taper Field Brome Grass, Has A Spreading, Drooping, Compound Panicle, With Lanceolate, Sharp-pointed Spikelets. Each Spikelet Consists Of Eight Imbrioated, Smooth Florets, With Two Olose Ribs At Each Side. The Leaves Are Hairy, ...