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Cutting
Cutting. When A Horse Cuts Or Wounds One Leg With The Opposite Foot. The Best Re Medy Is To Put On The Cutting Foot A Shoe Of Even Thickness From Heel To Toe, Not Projecting An The Slightest Degree Beyond The Crusp, And The Crusp Itself To Be Rasped A ...

Cynosurus
Cynosurus. The Dog's Tail Grass, From Mot, A Dog, And A Tail. There Are Three Commonly Known Varieties Of This Grass In England, And Two In The United States. One Of Which Was Found By Mr. Nuttall In The Plains Of Missourvery Little Value Is Attached To This Grass By ...

Cyperus
Cyperus (cyprus-grass). This Is A Natu Ral Order, Embracing Some Of The Sedge Tribe Somewhat Allied To Grasses. The Stems Are Either Solid Or Filled With A Spongy Pith-like Substance, Generally Without Joints, Or Nodes, Tapering, Cylindric, Or Angular (often Triangu Lar), And The Sheaths Of The Leaves Which Em ...

Cypress Tree
Cypress Tree (cupressus Sempervirens). A Hardy Shrub; Native Of The Levant ; Growing From Fifteen To Twenty Feet High, Which Throws Out Yellow Blossoms In May. Its Wood Is Red, Very Hard, And Sweet-scented. It Likes A Good Soil. It Is The Symbol Of Sorrow All Over Europe, In The ...

Cypresses
Cypresses. The Researches Of Botanists, Says Michaux, Have Made Us Acquainted With Only Seven Species Of Cypresses, Of Which Twc Are Indigenous To The United States, Namely The Cypressus Disticha, Called, In The Southern And Middle States, Bald Cypress, Black Cypress, And White Cypress, The Last Popular Names Being Applied ...

Dairy
Dairy. Pine Cheese.—e. Perkins, Of Herkimer County, New York, A Fine Dairy District, Gives The Following Description Of The Mode Of Mak Ing Those Cheeses Moulded In The Pine-apple Form. These Weigh From 7 To 8 Lbs., And Are Chiefly Made In The Small Dairy Establishments. The Cheese-making Process, Until ...

Dairy_2
Dairy. The Place Where Milk Is Kept, And Butter And Cheese Prepared And Preserved. The Proper Construction And Management Of A Dairy Are Questions Of Considerable Import Ance To The Farmer. It Should Be Situated, If Possible, On A Dry Porous Soil. The Room Should Be Made Of Brick Or ...

Darnel
Darnel (bromus Secalinus). Smooth. Rye Brome-grass. (bromus Mollis, Pl. 7, B.) Soft Brome-grass. Both These Grasses Pass In Eng Land Under The Common Name Of Darnel. Pro Fessor Martyn Supposes The Annual Bearded Rye-grass (lolium Teraulentwm, Pl. 7, C), To Be The Darnel Of The Romans (virg: Georg. 153). Mr. ...

Darnel_2
Darnel (lolium). There Are In England Three Species Of Darnel Enumerated By Smith (eng. Flora,vol. I.p.173). The Perennial Darnel (l. Perewne), Common In Meadows, Pastures, And Waste Ground, And Well Known To The Far Mer By The Name Of Rye-grass Or Ray-grass. It Fields An Early Crop Of Hay Upon ...

Dead Nettle
Dead-nettle (lamiwrn). A Genus Of Perennial Or Annual European Herbs, Of Which Twenty Species Are Described. Among Which, Are The White Dead-nettle (l. Album) And Red Dead-nettle (l. Purpureum) To Which Medicinal Properties Are Ascribed. The Herbage Of The Former Is Scarcely Eaten By Cattle, And Has A Slightly Fetid ...

Deadly Nightshade
Nightshade, Deadly, Or Dwale (.atropa Belladonna). A Plant With Narcotic And Dangerous Qualities, Found Growing In Hedges And Waste Ground On A Calcareous Soil, Fre Quently About Ancient Ruins. The Root Is Fleshy And Creeping. Stems Herbaceous, Annual, 3 Fee Th Igh, Round, Branched, Leafy, Slightly Downy. Leaves Lateral, Mostly ...

Death Watch
Death-watch (anobium Tessellattem ; Termes Pulsatorium, Lin.). The Popular Name In England For A Small Insect That Harbours Chiefly In Old Wood. It Is Produced • From A Very Minute White Egg, Hatched In March ; In The Perfect State These Insects Are About ,moths Of An Inch In Length, ...

Decay
Decay. All Vegetable As Well As Animal Substances Undergo Two Processes Of Decompo Sition After Death. One Of These Is Named Fermentation, The Other Decay, Putrefaction, Dr Eremacausis. The Decay Of Woody Fibre (the Principal Constituent Of All Plants) Is Accom Panied By A Phenomenon Of A Peculiar Kind. This ...

Deciduous
Deciduous (lat. Decido, I Fall Off). In Zoology, A Term Applied To Parts Which Have But A Temporary Existence, And Are Shed During 2 A 2 401 The Lifetime Of The Animals, As Certain Kinds Of Hair, Horns, And Teeth. In Botany, It Is Applied To Such Trees And Plants ...

Decomposition
Decomposition (lat. Decompositus). The Reduction Ur Dissolution Of Any Mixed Body To The Separate Parts Of Which It Is Composed. It Is Of Great Importance To Be Assured, That, In Every Process Of Decomposition, Whether By Heat, Air, Or Putrefaction, Nothing Is Lost, No Thing Is Ultimately Destroyed; The Components ...

Deer
Deer (sax. Deop J Swed. Diver; Lat. Arms). The General Name Of Animals Of The Stag Kind, Of Which There Are Several Species. These May Be Primarily Divided Into Two Groups ; Of Which One Includes Those With Antlers More Or Less Flattened, The Others Those With Rounded Antlers. The ...

Denmark
Denmark. The Agriculture Of Denmark :specially Of The Duchies Of Sleswic, Holstein, Md Lauenherg, Has Been Described By Mr. Darr. A Large Portion Of This Extensive Dis Rict Is Alluvial Soil, Of A Very Fertile Deserip Ion, Composed Of 403 The Size Of The Farms Varies Between 50 And 200 ...

Devils Bit Scabious
Devil's-bit Scabious (scabiosa Succisa). This Perennial Weed, Delighting In Moist Pas Tures, Woods, And Hedgeways, Grows A Foot High, With Slender Stalks And Dark Purplish Blue Flowers, Often Milk White, Resembling The Garden Scabious. It Is Also Frequently Seen' In Grain-fields. The Stalks Are Round, Firm, And Upright, Divided Into ...

Dew
Dew (sax. Neap; Dutch Daaw ; Germ. Than, Moisture). The Deposition Of Water From The Atmosphere Durino. The Night Upon The Ground, Leaves Of Trees, And Plants, Blades Of Grass And Other Objects On Or Near The Surface Of The Earth. The Phenomena Of Dew Have Been Considered By All ...

Diastase
Diastase. When Cold Water Is Poured Upon Barley Newly Malted And Crushed, Is Per Mitted To Remain Over It For A Quarter Of An Hour, Is Then Poured Off, Filtered, Evaporated To A Small Bulk Over Boiling Water, Again Filtered If Necessary, And Then Mixed With Much Alco Hol, A ...

Dibble
Dibble (from Dipfel, Dutch, A Sharp Point). An Instrument Or Conical Stick To Make Holes In The Ground For Setting Grain, Plants, &c. "the Subject Of Drilling By Machinery," Say The Messrs. Ransome Of Ipswich, "naturally Suggests The Consideration Of Whether The Ope. Ration Of Dibbling May Not Be Similarly ...

Dibbling
Dibbling Is A Mode Of Sowing Grain, Es Pecially Wheat, Much Practised In Some Parts Of England. It Is Found To Answer The Best On The Clover Leys Of The Lighter Descriptions Of Land. It Is Performed By A Man Walking Backwards With An Iron Dibble Into Each Hand, With ...

Dill
Dill (..dnethwin Graveolens, From /ividtop, On Ac Count Of Its Running Up Straight). A Plant Kept In Kitchen Gardens In England. It Flowers And Seeds In August; The Stalk Is Round, Hol Low, And Upright, Three Feet High, And Divided Into Many Branches. The Flowers Are Yellow And Small, And ...

Diseases Of Calf
Calf, Diseases Of (sax. Ceatp, Call; Dutch, Kalf). See Cattle. The Most Com Mon Diseases Of Calves Are 1. Navel Ill.—the Hest Treatment For This Dangerous Disease Is, 1st, To Administer Two Or Three Doses (each About A Wine-glassful) Of 250 Castor Oil (linseed Oil Does Just As Well, And ...

Diseases Of Sheep
Sheep, Diseases Of. .rpoplexy.—bleed Copiously ; Then Give 2 Ounces Of Epsom Salts In A Quarter Of A Pint Of Water. The Bowels Open With Bum Salts ; And Give A Tea-spoonful Of Elixir Of 992 Vitriol, Or Sulphuric Acid, Diluted With 7 Parts Of Water, In An Infusion Of ...

Dishley Breed
Dishley Breed. This Name, Applied To Certain Well-known Breeds Of Cattle, And Espe Cially Sheep, Is Derived From The Title Of The Paternal Estate Of The Celebrated Robert Bake Well. The Dishley, Is, Therefore, Synonymous With The Bakewell Breed. The Name Of This Celebrated Original Im Prover Of Stock Is ...

Distemper
Distemper Is Frequently Used In The Same Sense As Disease, Hut Is Particularly Applied To Cattle. In Racing Stables It Is The Distinguish Ing Names For Epidemic Catarrh Or Influenza In Horses. Bleeding In The Early Stage Is Re Commended, Audit Is Important That The Bowels Should Be Evacuated, And ...

Diuretics
Diuretics. In Farriery, Such Remedies As Nave The Power Of Forcing Urine, That Is, Of Stimulating The Kidneys To A Moderate Degree, So As To Augment Their Secreting Power. Nitre, Iodide Of Potassium,. Turpentine, Oubebs,• And (uniper Are Diuretics. See Ball. . Dock (rumex). A Large Genus Of Peren Nial ...

Dodder
Dodder (cuscuta Fatropeca). Pl. 10, E. The Name Of A Species Of Bird-weed, Which Is Not Very Commonly Met With. This Curious Plant Is Unlike All Others In Appearance, Having No Leaves. The Thread-shaped,. Red, Or Purple Stalks, Twining About Other Plants, Headed With Small Reddish Flowers, Are Easily To ...

Dog
Dog (lat. Canis). An Extensive Genus Of Animals, Consisting Of More Than Thirty Species, Of Which. That Most Generally Known Is The Mestic Dog ' The Arrangement. Of M. Cu•ier Classes The Dogs Of The Present; Day Into Three Groups, Dogs Properly So Called, Wolves, And Jackals, It Will Be ...

Dogs Bane
Dog's-bane (cynanchwm Monspeliacum). A Perennial, Native Of Montpelier, Which Loves Warmth And A Good Soil. Blows Pale Pink Flowers In July And August. Cover The Roots In Frosts. Propagate By Suckers. A Plant Under The Same Popular Name Is Described By Dr. Darlington, As Found In Chester County, Pennsylvania. (flor. ...

Dogwood
Dogwood. A Name Applied To Two Differ Plants: In England To Any Of The Shrubby Species Of Comm ; In The West Indies To The Piscidia Erythrina. The Former Are Of Hale Interest, Except As Ornamental Shrubs ; The Latter Is A Powerful Narcotic, The Real Value Of Which In ...

Dovecote
Dovecote. A Structure Usually Erected Of Wood For The Accommodation And Rearing Of Tame Pigeons ; The Only Essential. Difference Between Which And A Common Poultry House Is, That The Entrance For The Birds Must Be Raised To. A Considerable Height From The Ground, Because Pigeons Fly Higher In The ...

Dradiin
Dradiin 4 And 5 Have Been Found Very Useful The Drainage Of Peat-bags Or Quicksands. 211j Are All, However, For Most Purposes Inferior To The Draining Tile. In The Formation Of A Shovel Taper Ing To A Point, And Scoops Of A Peculiar Shape, Are Commonly Used. These Are Represented ...

Draining Auger
Auger, Draining. An Instrument Em Ployed For The Purpose Of Boring Into The Bot Toms Of Drains Or Other Places, In Order To Discover And Let Off Water. It Is Nearly Similar To That Made Use Of In Searching For Coal Or Other Subterraneous Minerals. The Auger, Shell, Or Wirnhle, ...

Draining
Draining. The Very First Care Of The Farmer, That On Which The Success Of His Future. Crops Almost Entirely Depends, Is The Removal Of Unnecessary Supplies Of Water—whether Arising From The Tenacity Of The Surface Retain Ing Too Mach Water, Or From Springs Exuding To The Surface. For It Is ...

Draining_2
Draining. Sertions That They Are Always Necessmy. What Ever May Be The Nature .of The Earthy Bottom To. Be Oocupied Byrthe Tiles, These Should-always Have Soles, Or Something Equivalent, The -earth From The Destructive Effects Of Water, Where Soles Are Employed Their Width Must Deter Mine The Width Of-the Bottom ...

Drainjng
Drainjng. By Its Escape, That 1 Is Preserving A Proper £a1when The Drain Is Cut To The Xequisite_ Depth, He Proceed To Fill It Up With The Materials Through Which The Drainage Wa Ters Are To ,flow, To Within Such A Distance Only As Is Out Of The Reach Of ...

Drench
Drench. In Farriery, A Large Drink Or Draught Of Any Liquid Remedy Given To An Ani Mal, Usually By Means Of A Horn Properly Cut For The Purpose. A Very Able Paper On Drench Ing Horses, By Mr. John Stewart, Veterinary Sur Geon, Appears In The Quart. Journ. Of Agr. ...

Drill Husbandry
Drill-husbandry. The Practice Of Sow Ing Or Planting Grain And Other Seeds Or Roots With A Machine, In Regular Rows Or Drills In Place Of Scattering Them By The Hand, By Which Means They Are Dropped At More Equal Dis Tances, And Lodged At Better Depths, Than Can Be Done ...

Drill Machines
Drill-machines. Implements For Dis Tributing Seed And Manure Easily, And At Regu Lar Distances. A Rude Kind Of Drill Has Been Used In Agriculture From A Very Remote Period. The Cultivators Of China, Japan, Arabia, And The Carnatic, Have Drilled And Dibbled In Their Seed From Time Immemorial. (the Chinese ...

Drill Roller
Drill-roller. A Roller So Contrived As To Form Regular Small Incisions Or Drills In The Ground At Proper Depths For The Seed. It Is Merely A Common Cylinder Roller, Generally Of Iron, About Seven Feet Long, Around Which Are Put Cutting-wheels Of Cast Iron, Each Of Which. Generally Weighs About ...

Drill_2
Drill. Admitting The Truth. Of These Experiments, That One-half The Quantity Of Organic Manures Usually Spread On The Land Is Sufficient, When Applied By The Drill, In Immediate Contact With The Seed, What A Field Is Thus Opened For The Manuring Of Much Larger Breadths Of Land Than Has Hitherto ...

Drill_3
Drill. The Ridge Or Scotch Method Is Used With Success, Especially On Inferior And Thin And Has Its Decided Advantages. The Ridges Are Made Either With A Single Cast Of The Double Mould-board Plough, Or A Double One Of The Common Or Ribbing Plough, And From 20 To 28 Inches ...

Drosometer
Drosometer (from The Greek). An, In Strument Constructed For Measuring The Quan Tity Of Dew That Collects On The Surface Of A Body Exposed To The Open Air During The Night. The First Instrument For This Purpose Was Proposed By Weidler. It Consisted Of A Bent Balance Which Marked In. ...

Drudge
Drudge. An Implement Of The Rake Or Harrow Kind, Peculiar To West Devonshire. It Is A Sort Of Long Heavy Wooden-toothed Rake, The Teeth Being Broad, And Placed With The Wide Or Flat Side Foremost. It Is Drawn By Horses Or Oxen, And Made Use Of, In Paring And Burning ...

Duck
Duck (dutch Ducker, To Dip ; Lat. Aaas). There Are Many Varieties Of Ducks Described By Naturalists, But Only Two Are To Be Found In Our Farm-yards ; Namely, The Common Duck And The Muscovy Duck. The Common Duck Is A Useful And Economical Bird, Requiring Little Care. It Is ...

Duckweed
Duckweed (lonna). A Genus Of Minute, Herbaceous, Floating Plants, Consisting Of Four Species, All Of Which Are Natives Of England, And Grow Abundantly In Ponds, Ditches, And Stagnant Waters. They Are In Flower From June To August. Duckweed Is A Small Green Herb, Consisting Of Little Roundish Leaf-like Disks. It ...

Dynamometer
Dynamometer (gr. Etodan, Power, And Patgov, Measure). An Instrument For Measur Ing Power Of Any Kind, As The Strength Of Men And Animals, The Force Of Machinery, &c. Some Interesting Results Relating To The Average Strength Of Men At Different Ages, And Of Dif Ferent Weights And Sizes, Have Been ...

Ear Leaved Coreopsis
Coreopsis, Ear-leaved, (coreopsis Au Riculata). A Hardy Perennial, A Native Of North America. It Grows Three Or Four Feet High, And Its Yellow Flowers Bloom In August. The Co Reopsis Delphinifolia Is Also A Native Of North America, Growing About Eighteen Inches High, With Yellow Flowers. Blooms From July To ...

Ear
Ear (sax. Eane; Lat. Auris). The Organ Of Hearing In Animals. In A Horse, The Ears Should Be Small, Narrow, Straight, And The Substance Of Them Thin And Delicate. They Should Be Placed On The Very Top Of The Head ; And Their Points, When Stiled Or Pricked Up, Should ...

Early Knappia
Knappia, Early (knappia Agrostidea). It Was Named By Sir J. Smith In Compliment To Mr. M. Knapp, A Writer On British Grasses. Of This, One Of The Least Of The British Grasses, Only One Species Is Known; Although Common On The Coasts Of France, It Is Very Rare In Eng ...

Earnest
Earnest (sax. Eorioert ; Fr. Arrhes ; Dan. Ernitz Penge). In Commercial Law, The Sum Ad Vancea By The Buyer Of Goods In Order To Bind The Seller To The Terms Of The Agreement. As To What Amounts To Sufficient Earnest, Blackstone Lays It Down, That " If Any Part ...

Earth Buildings
Earth-buildings. Buildings Formed By Rammed Or Compressed Earth Or Clay. This Kind Of Building Is Supposed To Have Been Known At A Very Early Period, And Is Still Much In Use In The Southern Parts Of France. Not Only The Walls Of The Houses, But Garden Walls Are Formed In ...

Earth Nut
Earth-nut (bwriiwrn Flexuoswm). The Common Earth-nut, Kipper, Or Pig-nut, For It Is Known By All These Names, Is A Perennial Plant Growing In Sandy Or Gravelly Meadows, Pas Tures, Orchards, And Woods ; Flowering In May Or June. The Root Is Eatable, Nearly Globular, Black, Internally White, Aromatic, Sweet, And ...

Earth Worms
Earth-worms (lwmbricus, Linn.). Well Known Molluscous Animals, Which Are Common In All Parts Of The Country, At Little Depths Be Neath The Surface Of The Earth. White, In His Nat. Hist. Of Selborne, Speaking Of Their Effects On The Soil In Promoting Vegetation, Says, " The Most Insignificant Insects And ...

Earth
Earth (sax. Calla.). This Word Was An Ciently Employed To Signify One Of The Four Elements Of Which All Matter Was Supposed To Be Formed; Namely Air, Fire, Water, And Earth. In The Present Period, The Word In Common Lan Guage Has Two Meanings ; It Implies Either The Globe ...

Earths
Earths, Their Use To Vegetation. In The In Vestigation Of The Use Of The Earths To Vegeta Tion, Not Only As Regards Their Position As Necessary Portions Of All Cultivated Soils, But As Forming The Essential Constituents Of Most Vegetable Substances, Several Very Important Circumstances Will Present Themselves To The ...

Earthy Manures
Earthy Manures. These Are The Most Universal Of All Fertilizers. In England They Are Chiefly Limited Ro Three, Viz. Chalk And Lime, Clay Or Alumina, Sand Or Silex. In The United States, Where No Chalk Is Found, Its Place Is Well Supplied By Lime And Calcareous Marls, Which Last, In ...

Earwig
Earwig (forficula Auricularis, Linn.). A Well-known Insect, Which Is Common In Damp Places, And Often Found In Numbers Under Stones, And Beneath The Bark Of Trees. They Do Much Damage In Gardens, By Preying Upon The Fruit. The English Common Name, And Also The French Pierce-oreille, Relate To A Habit ...

Eating Of Earth
Earth, Eating Of. Stall-fed Cattle, And Horses Which Have Not The Opportunity Of Plucking Up The Roots Of Grass, Evince A Great Partiality For Earth. It Is Seldom That A Cow Will Pass A Newly-raised Mole-hill Without Muzzling Into It, And Devouring A Considerable Portion Of It. This Is Particularly ...

Egg Plant
Egg-plant (solanum Melongena). This Is A Tender Annual, A Native Of Africa. It Loves A Light Rich Soil, And Blows Violet Flowers In June And July, Which Are Succeeded By Fruit, Shaped And Coloured Like An Egg. The Plant Is Propagated By Seed. In French And Italian Cookery It Is ...

Eggs
Eggs (fr. Qufs; Germ. Ei ; Lat. Ova). The Ova Of Birds And Oviparous Animals. The Shell Of The Egg Is Lined Throughout With A Thin But Tough Membrane, Called Pellicula Ovi ; Which, Dividing At Or Near The Obtuse End, Forms A Small Bag—the Air Follicule. This Membrane Weighs ...

Eglantine
Eglantine (rosa Rubiginosa ; Fr. Eglantin). The Old English Name Of The Sweetbrier Rose. The Odour Which Is So Agreeable, Is Exhaled From Reddish, Viscid Glands, Which Cover The Under Surface Of The Leaflets. This Odour En- I Ables It To Be Readily Recognised From All Our Other Wild Roses, ...

Eippopathology
Eippopathology. The Science Of Vete Rinary Medicine Which Comprehends The Dis Eases Of The Horse. Among The Writers On This Subject, Within The Last Century, May Be Enume Rated Gibson, Clater, Blaine, Lowson, White, Klydge, Coleman, Dick, Sewell, Percivall, White, Rydg,e, Stewart, Youatt, And Many Others ; And Although A ...

Elder
Elder (sambucus Nigra). It Appears (says Phillips) That We Have Taken The Word Elder From Holder, The Dutch Name Of This Tree. The Common Elder Tree Is A Native Of England, And Is Found Also In Most Parts Of Europe, As It Will Grow On Any Soil, And In Situations ...

Elecampane
Elecampane (inula Helenivon). Called By The French ..dwnde. This Is A Plant With A Perennial Root And Annual Stem, Which Has Been Naturalized In The United States, Where, In The Old Settled Parts, It Is Frequent About Houses, Road-sides, &c., Flowering In July And August. The Stem Or Stalk Is ...

Electricity
Electricity. The Application Of This 439 Science To The Cultivation Of The Earth Has Hitherto Not Been Very Practically Useful. Its Operations—the Very Nature Of Electricity—are As Yet Much Too Little Understood For The Culti Vator To Derive Instruction From Its Study. "electrical Changes," Said Davy (elements Of /1 Gr. ...

Elm
Elm (ulmus). A Genus Of Forest Trees, Common In Great Britain, Of Which There Are Several Varieties. The Characters Of The Genus Are Flowers, Bisexual ; Calyx, Bell-shaped, Four To Five Toothed, Coloured Persistent ; Stamens, Three To Six ; Stigmas, Two, Fruit, Sub-globular, With A Broad Membranous Margin. Sir ...

Elymus
Elymus. The Lyme Grass. A Genus Of Large, Rigid, Or Coarse Grasses, Mostly Peren Nial, Growing Frequently On The Sea-coast. Smith (eng. Flora, Vol. P. 177), Describes Three Native Species :-1. Upright Sea Lyme Grass (e. Arenarius). 2. Pendulous Sea Lyme Grass (e. Geniculatus). 3. Wood Lyme Grass (e. Ewropeus). ...

Embankment
Embankment. A Large Mound Or Bank Of Earth, Thrown Up For The Purpose Of Protect Ing Or Reclaiming Lands From Being Injured Or Inundated By The Water Of The Sea, Rivers, Or Lakes. Mr. P. Howard Narrates In The Coon. To The Board Of .dgr. Vol. Vp. 148, The Methods ...

Enchanters Nightshade
Enchanter's Nightshade (circea). Of This Perennial Herbaceous Genus Of Plants There Are Two Indigenous Species, The Common Enchanter's Nightshade (c. Lutetiana), And The Mountain Enchanter's Nightshade (c. Alpina). The Former Grows In Moist, Shady Places,hedge. Bottoms, Church-yards, Orchar, &c.: The Root Is Tenaciously Creeping ; The Stem 18 Or 20 ...

Endive
Endive (cichorium Endivia). This Plant Is Too Well Known To Require Description. There Are Three Varieties. The Green-curled Is The Only One Cultivated For The Main Crops. When The Larger Seedlings Have Been Transplanted, The Smaller Ones Which Remain May Be Cleared Of Weeds, And Have A Gentle Watering; By ...

English Beans
Beans, English (vicia Faba). Plant Very Early In The Spring, In Rows. Broad Windsor And Mazagan Are The Best Varieties. Bush Beans (phascolus Vulgaris). The Early Six Weeks, China Red-eye, And Red Speckled Valentine, Are Among The Earlier ; The Valen Tine, Mohawk, And Marrow Are Very Superior Varieties. They ...

Entomology
Entomology. A Term Signifying The Knowledge Of Insects. The Importance Of Such Knowledge Tp Those Interested In Agricul Ture Or Rural Affairs, Must Be Obvious To Every One Who Reflects Upon The Advantages Derived From The Useful Labours Of Some Insects, And The Devastations Committed By Others. The First Step ...

Epidemic
Epidemic (gr. In Andliit.40:; Fr. Epiclimique). In Farriery, A Term Applied To Such Fevers, Or Other Distempers Of Cattle, As Attack Great Num Bers At Certain Seasons, Or Any Time, If Many Suffer In The Same Manner. The Term Is Fre Quently Confounded With Infectious, Which Is Perfectly Distinct, And ...

Epidermis
Epidermis (gr. Earl And Pp,ua, The True Skin). In Botany, The Exterior Cellular Coating Of The Bark, Leaf, Or Stem Of Plants And Trees. It Is Composed Of Cells Compacted Together Into A Stratum, Varying In Thickness In Different Spe Cies, And Is Often Readily Separable By Gentle Violence. It ...

Eremacausis
Eremacausis (from Kip; Slow, And ,savors, Combustion). A Term Applied In Organic Che Mistry To Denote One Of .the Changes Which Vegetable And Other Organic Matters Undergo After Death. The Conversion Of Wood Into Humus, The Formation Of Acetic Acid Out Of Alcohol, Nitrifi Cation, And Numerous Other Processes, Are ...

Ergot
Ergot (spermerdia Clavus). A Parasitic Fungus, Which Most Frequently Appears Upon The Ears Of Rye, But Sometimes Upon Other Plants Of The Gramineous Order. It Most Corn. Monly Appears In Hot, Damp Summers. It Is Known To Be Present By The Change Which The Affected Grains Assume; But These Seldom ...

Eryngo
Eryngo (eryngium). A Genus Of Plants Consisting Of Eleven Species, Two Of Which Are Perennials, Natives Of England, Viz., 1. The Sea Holly, Or Sea Eryngo (e. Maritimum), Which Grows On The Sandy Sea-shore, Where It Strikes Its Long Creeping Roots Eighteen Or Twenty Feet Deep Into The Soil ; ...

Espaliers
Espaliers (fr. Espalier), In Horticulture, Are Trees Trained By Lattice-work Or Other Sup Ports On The Borders Of Beds, Or As Hedges To Enclose Plots Of Ground. They May Serve To Defend In A Great Measure Many Tender Plants From The Inclemencies Of Wind And Weather. The Trees Chiefly Planted ...

Estate
Estate (fr. Estat), In Common Parlance, Is Applied To The Landed Property Held By Indivi Duals ; And A Man Is Said To Be Of Good Or Of Small Estate, According To The Magnitude Of His Landed Property. Estates Vary Exceedingly In Size And Value, In Most Parts Of England. ...

Eudiometer
Eudiometer. The Name Of Any Appara Tus Or Contrivance By Which The Purity Of The Air Can Be Tested. It Implies A Measure Of Purity, And Is Chiefly Employed To Determine The Pro Portion Of Oxygen Which The Air May Contain. Evaporation Is The Process By Which Substances In The ...

Extracts
Extracts (fr. Extraits; Ger. Extracten). The Older Apothecaries Used This Term To De Signate The Product Of The Evaporation Of Any Vegetable Juice, Infusion, Or Decoction ; Whe Ther The Latter Two Were Made With Water, Alcohol, Or Ether; Whence Arose The Distinc Tion Of Aqueous, Alcoholic, And Ethereous Ex ...

Exuvue
Exuvue (lat.). The Cast-off Parts Or Co Vering Of Animals, And Also The Shells And Other Marine Productions Met With In The Bowels Of The Earth, Having Been Deposited There For A Vast Iength Of Time. The Lobster Casts His Shell, The Toad And Snake Shed Their Skin Periodically, Leeches ...

Eye Bright
Eye-bright (eisphrasia Officinalis). An Elegant Plant, Indigenous To England, Very Com Mon In Mountainous Pastures And Dry Heaths, Varying In Height From One To Six Inches. It Flowers From July To September ; Its Stalk Is Square And Hard ; The Leaves Of A Bright Green, Flat, Broad, And Indented ...

Eye Of The Horse
Eye Of The Horse. The Eye Of The Horse Appears To He Naturally More Disposed To Disease Than That Of Any Other Animal. The Diseases Of The Eye, Although Few In Number, Are Frequent In Their Appearance, Obstinate, And Generally Baffle All The Skill Of The Vete Rinarian. The Following ...

Fair
Fair (old Fr. Fiere ; Lat. Ferice Or Forum). A Public Place Where Merchants, Traders, And Other Persons Assemble From Remote Parts On Some Fixed Day In The Year To Buy And Sell Commodities, And To Partake Of The Diversions Usually To Be Met With On Such Occasions. See Market. ...

Fairy Rings
Fairy Rings. Whoever Has Passed Over Our Down Lands In Search Of The Vegetable Treasures Of Creation, Or In Pursuit Of The Ra Tional Employments Of A Country Life, Cannot Fail To Have Noticed, Says The Re G. Smith, The Circles Of Verdant Grass, And Correspondent Circles Of Fungi, Most ...

Fallow
Fallow. Such Land As Has Been Re Peatedly Ploughed Over, And Exposed To The Influence Of The Atmosphere, For The Purpose Of Rendering It Friable, Clearing It From Weeds ; .eaving It To Rest After The Tillage Before It Is ;gain Sown. 450 Fallows Have Different Names Given To Them, ...

Farcy
Farcy. In Farriery, A Disease Of The Ab Sorbents Affecting The Skin And Its Blood-vessels, By Which, When Inveterate, Their Coats Inflame And Are So Thickened That They Become Like So Many Cords. Farcy Is Intimately Connected With Glanders, And They Will Frequently Run Into Each Other. The Treatment Varies ...

Farm Accounts
Farm Accounts. The Necessity And Utility Of Correct And Detailed Particulars Of All Matters Concerning The Farm, Have Already Been Spoken Of Under The Head Booa-xsarine. Let Any Farmer Make The Experiment, And He Will Find It Both Interesting And Useful, To Know From Year To Year The Actual Products ...

Farm Buildings
Farm Buildings. In The Construction Of Farm Buildings, The First Thing To Be Regarded Is Th Convenience Of Their Situation; And To This End Must Be Considered The Best Shelter, Feeding And Watering Of Livestock; The Carriage Of The Crop, And Of Manure, And The Preservation Of The Produce. To ...

Farm House
Farm-house. The Dwelling Occupied By A Farmer. The Principal Objects To Be Attended To In Erecting A Farm-house Are, Convenience And A Salubrious Situation. Besides The Gene Ral Salubrity Of The Spot Where Dwellings Are To Be Erected, The Air, Water, And Soil Also Re Quire To Be Particularly Attended ...

Farm Yard Manure Tannic Acid
Farm-yard Manure. 'tannic Acid. This Term Has Been Espe Cially Applied To A Substance Obtained By Pe Longe, By Acting Upon Bruised Galls By Common Unrectified Ether, In A Long, Narrow Funnel Or Percolater. Tannic Acid Is A White Uncrystal Line Powder, Very Astringent, Little Soluble In Water, And Reddening ...

Farm Yard Manure
Farm-yard Manure. Of All Fertilizers The Most Universal And Most Valuable To The Cultivator, And Yet The Most Generally Misma Naged, Is Farm-yard Manure, Which Has Been Often Well Described As The Farmer's Sheet An Chor. From This Fertilizer, Man Must Have Derived Some Benefits, Even Before He Was Compelled, ...

Farm
Farm. A Portion Of Ground Cultivated For The Purpose Of Profit. There Are Different Kinds Of Farms. Where The Principal Part Of The Land Is Under The Plough, They Are Termed Arable Farms; But Where The Fattening Of Cattle Or Other Live-stock Is More Immediately The Object, They Are Distinguished ...

Farmer
Farmer (sax. Reoronep, Fr. Fermitr). A Person Whose Business Or Employment Is The Cultivation Of Land, The Breeding, Rearing, And Feeding Of Different Sorts Of Live Stock, And The Management Of The Various Products Which Are Afforded By Them; Hence Those Engaged In This Way May Be Further Distinguished Into ...

Farmers Libraries
Libraries, Farmers'. Collections Of Books On Agricultural And Horticultural Sub Jects Are Now Becoming Very General Through Out The Country, Through The Instrumentality Of Farmers' Clubs. They Cannot Fail Of Being Eminently Useful To The Cause Of Agriculture, By Diffusing Among The Cultivators Of The Soil The Latest Discoveries And ...

Farming
Farming. The Business Or Management Of A Farm, Comprehending The Whole Circum Stances And Conduct Of It. It Is A Practice That Demands Constant Care And Attention, As Well As Much Activity And Judgment, To Conduct It In A Proper And Advan Tageous Manner. It Requires An Intimate And Practical ...