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Farrier
Farrier (fr. Fernier; Lat. Ferrarius). A Person Who Forges Horses' Shoes. As The Errors Committed By Ignorance In This Art Were The Cause Of Many Diseases In The Feet Of Horses, It Naturally Followed That Farriers Were Resorted To For The Cure Of Them. Hence The Whole Of The Diseases ...

Farriery
Farriery. The Art Of Preventing, Curing, Or Alleviating The Disorders To Which Horses And Cattle Are Subject. The Practice Of This Useful Profession In England Was, Until Within The Last Half Century, Almost Entirely Confined To A Class Of Men Who Were Utterly Ignorant Of The Anatomy And Physiology Of ...

Fat
Fat (teut. Vet ; Ice. Felts; Sax. Ter). An Unctuous, Solid Substance, Or, More Properly, A Concrete Oil, Deposited In Little Membranous Cells In Various Parts Of Animal Bodies. It Is Generally White Or Yellowish, With Little Taste Or Smell, And Varies In Consistency According To The Relative Quantities Of ...

Feather Grass
Feather-grass (stipa Pennata). This Is A Doubtful Native; It Is Found Sometimes On Dry, Mountainous Rocks. It Is A Perennial, Flowering In June. The Root Is Fibrous ; Stems A Foot High, Covered With Dense Tufts Of Long, Narrow, Acute, Dark Green, Roughish Leaves ; Sheaths Striated And Very Long; ...

Feathers
Feathers (sax. Pebep; Germ. Federn). A General Name Applied To The Exterior Covering Or Plumage Of Birds, And By Which They Are Enabled To Fly. Feathers Vary In Form, Size, And Function In Different Parts Of The Bird, And Have Accordingly Received Distinct Names In Ornithological Science. The Quill Part ...

Fell
Fell. The Skin Or Hide Of An Animal. . Felling Timber. The Act Of Cutting Down Trees For The Purposes Of Timber. This Term Is Only Used In Respect To Full-grown Trees, And Is Never Applied To Young Trees Nor To Bushes, Underwood, Or Hedges. Much Has Been Written Respecting ...

Fellmongers Poake And Clip
Fellmonger's Poake And Clip Pings. Poake Is The Waste Arising From The Preparation Of Skins, And Is Compounded Of Various Proportions Of Lime, Oil, And Hair. It Is Commonly Used As A Manure, In The State Of Compost With Earthy Substances, And Some Times, When It Is Thought Expedient To ...

Felt
Felt. A Kind Of Stuff Formed Of Fur Or Wool Alone, Or Of A Mixture Of These Articles With Camel's Hair, Which Are Blended Into A Compact Texture Used Principally In The Manu Facture Of Hats. Hare And Rabbit's Fur, Wool And Beaver, Are The Chief Materials Used ; They ...

Fence
Fence. In Rural Economy, Is Any Kind Of Erection Made For The Purpose Of Enclosing Ground ; As A Hedge, Wall, Ditch, Bank, Paling, &c., Or Any Continuous Line Of Obstacle Inter Posed Between One Portion Of The Surface Of Land And Another, For The Purpose Of Separation Or Exclusion. ...

Fences
Fences And Hawthorn. A Great Deal Of Valuable Information Upon The Subject Of Hedges In The United States Will Be Found In Almost Every Agricultural Periodi Cal, In Many Of Which The Merits Of The Virginia Thorn, Newcastle Cock-spur, English Black Thorn, Buck-thorn, Osage Orange, &c. &c., And Their Adaptations ...

Fenugreek
Fenugreek (trigonella, Fanumgracum). Fenugreek Is A Species Of Trefoil Sometimes Cultivated In Fields For Its Seed ; But It Yields A Very Uncertain Crop, Owing To The Variable Na Ture Of The Weather In England. The Stem Is A Foot High, Erect, With Round Branched Stalks, Trifoliate Leaves, Toothed ; ...

Ferment
Ferment (lat. Ferveo, I Boil). Any Sub Stance Employed To Raise Or Produce Fermenta Tion When Mixed With Or Applied To Another. Ferments Are Therefore Either Such Substances As Are Naturally Present In The Vegetable Juice, As In The Grape And Apple : Or Are Added, As In The Manufacture ...

Fermentation
Fermentation. When Certain Vegeta Ble Substances Are Dissolved In Water And Sub Jected To A Temperature Of 65° To 85°, They Un Dergo A Series Of Changes Which Terminate In The Production Of Alcohol Or Spirit ; These Changes Constitute The Phenomena Of Vinous Fermentation. Sugar And Some Ferment Are ...

Fermented Liquors
Fermented Liquors Are Those Liquors Obtained By The Process Described In The Pre Ceding Article. See Also Beim, Cider, Wine, Alcohol, &c. All Liquors Which Have Under Gone The Vinous Fermentation Are Considered As Great Antidotes To Putrefaction ; For It Has Been Remarked That Since The Custom Of Brewing ...

Fern
Fern. An Acotyledonous Or Flowerless Class Of Weeds, Of Which There Are Many Spe Cies In Great Britain. They Grow Chiefly In Mountainous Tracts Of Natural Pasture. Fern Is Extremely Difficult To Eradicate, As The Roots In Deep Soils Have Been Found At The Depth Of Seven Or Eight Feet. ...

Ferret
Ferret (mustela Faro, Linn.). A Useful Animal, Which Came Originally From Africa, Whence It Was Introduced Into Spain, And Sub Sequently Into England. It Has Red, Fiery Eyes; The Colour Of Its Whole Body Is Of A Pale Yel Low ; And Its Length From The Nose To The End ...

Festuca
Festuca. A Very Extensive Genus Of Grasses, Of Which The Meadow Fescue (fes Tuca Pratensis) And The Hard Or Smooth Fescue (festuca Duriuscula, Vel Glabra) Are Those Of The Greatest Use In Permanent Pasture. Com Bined With Cock's-foot Or Orchard Grass, And Some Other Of The Natural Grasses, These Two ...

Fetlock
Fetlock. In Horsemanship, The Part Of The Leg Where The Tuft Of Hair Grows Behind The Pastern Joint Of Horses : Those Of Low Size Have Scarcely Any Tuft. In Working Horses, Which Have Them Large With Much Hair, Care Should Be Taken To Keep Them Clean, In Order To ...

Feverfew
Feverfew (pyrethrum; From Pyr, Fire, The Roots Being Hot To The Taste). Of This In Teresting European Genus Of Plants, The Matri Caria Of Linneeus, Three Species Only Are In Digenous To England. 1. The Common Feverfew (p. Parthenium), A Biennial Which Grows In Waste Grounds, Hedges, And Walls, Flowering ...

Field
Field (sax. Rein; Germ. Feld ; Dutch. Veld). A Portion Of Land Enclosed By A Fence, Or Ren Dered Distinct By Some Line Of Separation, And Set Apart Either For Tillage Or Pasture. In For Mer Times, And Until Within The Last Two Cen Turies, Almost All The Land Cultivated ...

Fieldvole
Fieldvole (arvicola Agrestis). A Name Of The Short-tailed Field Mouse Or Meadow Mouse; A Species Which Subsists Exclusively On Vegetable Productions ; And Being, Like The Rest Of The Rat Tribe, Extremely Prolific, Multi Plies Occasionally To Such A Degree, Even In England, As To Become' The Most Injurious Of ...

Figwort
Figwort (scrophularia). There Are, In England, Four Kinds Of Indigenous Figwort, All Perennial ; The Species Found In The United States Is Called S. Marylandica, Maryland S. Or Carpenter's Square : It Is Perennial, Frequent In Fence Rows, Woodlands, &c. The Root Bruised Into The Form Of A Poultice, Is ...

Fir Tree
Fir Tree (lat. Abies ; Sax. Push; Welsh, Fyrr ; Fir-wood). "the Fir, The Pine, And The Larch," Says Mr. Baxter, "constitute A Perfectly Natural Genus Or Family, And, Next To The Oak, Are The Most Valuable Of Our Timber Trees ; But, Independently Of Their Value In This Respect, ...

Fire Blast
Fire-blast. A T6rm Of Very Doubtful Meaning, Like The Word Blight, But Generally Implying An Accident To Which Hops Are Very Liable: It Usually Occurs In The Month Of July, And Sometimes Scorches Up Whole Plantations From One End Of The Ground To The Other, When A Hot Gleam Of ...

Fire Weed
Fire-weed (hieracium-koved Senecio). An American Plant With An Annual Root, Growing In Moist Grounds, And Remarkable For Its Preva Lence In Recent Clearings, Especially In And Around Spots Where Brushwood Has Been Burned, From Whence It Derives Its Popular Name. The Stem Grows 2, 4 Or 5 Feet High, Stout, ...

Fires
Fires. Sax. Phin England, The Legisla Ture Has Wisely Afforded Very Considerable Fa Cilities To The Insurance Of Farming Stock "the Farmer's Insurance Institution" Insures It At Is. 9d. Per Cent., Without The Average Clause; Thus Easily Repaired Are The Ravages Of The In Cendiary, Of Accidental Fires, And Lightning. ...

Firing
Firing. In Farriery, An Operation Perform Ed On Different Parts Of The Horse, But Which Is Growing Into Disuse. It Is Principally Resorted To In Bad Cases Of Sprains. In Firing About The Sinews And Nervous Parts, Great Care Should Be Taken Not To Go Too Deep, For If The ...

Fish
Fish (lat. Pisces ; Germ. Fische ; Du. Vis Cher ; Dan. And Swed. Fisk). A Term Used In Natural History To Denote Every Variety Of Ani Mal Inhabiting Seas, Lakes, Rivers, Ponds, &c. That Cannot Exist For Any Considerable Time Out Of The Water. The Most Natural And Popular ...

Fish_2
Fish, As A Manure. The Fish Which Are Usually Employed As Manures In England Are Sprats, Pilchards, Herrings, Sticklebacks, And Whale Blubber. These Are Very Rich Fertili Zers; The Fleshy Or Muscular Portions Abound Ing In Oil. The Scales Are Composed Of Coagu Lated Albumen And Phosphate Of Lime ; ...

Fistula
Fistula (let.). A Long Sinous Communicating With A Larger Cavity, And Hav Ing A Small External Opening. All Animals Are Liable To Fistulas, But The Horse More Particularly So ; They Attack The Withers And The Poll. They Are Produced By Blows, By Bruises From The Saddle, And What Ever ...

Fixtures
Fixtures. In Law, &term Generally Ap Plied To All Articles Of A Personal Nature Affixed To Land. This Annexation Must Be By The Arti Cle Being Let Into, Or United With The Land, Or With Some Substance Previously Connected Therewith. Thus A Barn Built On A Frame Not Let Into ...

Flail
Flail (lat. Flagellum). A Wooden Imple Ment For Thrashing Corn By Hand. It Anciently Was Truly A Whip, And Sometimes Had Two Or More Lashes : The Modern Flail Consists Of The Handle Or Handstaff, Which The Labourer Holds In His Hand, And Uses As A Lever, To Raise Up ...

Flax
Flax (lat. Linton, From The Celtic Word //in, A Thread; Whence The Greek Anon, The Ital. And Span. Lino, And Fr. Lin). An Extensive Genus Of Plants, Of Which More Than 70 Species Are Enumerated By Botanists. It Belongs To The Natural Order Limacea. The Plants Are Distin Guished By ...

Flea
Flea (pules). The Flea Tribe (pulicidce) Was Placed Among The Bugs (or Hemiptera) By Fabricius. These Very Annoying Insects Are Destitute Of Wings, Have A Mouth Fitted For Suc Tion, And Are Provided With Several Lancet-like Pieces For Making Punctures. They Undergo A Complete Transformation ; Their Larvae Are Worm-like ...

Fleabane
Fleabane (erigeron, From Er, Spring ; And G Eron, An Old Man ; The Plants Become Old In The Beginning Of The Season). This Exten Sive Genus Comprehends Many Exceedingly Handsome Species, Varying From A Few Inches To Two Feet Or More High, And Producing A Great And Copious Display ...

Fleece
Fleece. The Woolly Covering Shorn From Off The Body Of The Sheep. Mr. James Dickson Of Edinburgh Contributed A Very Able Prize Essay To The Highland Society (trans. Vol. 205), "on The Treatment Of Sheep, With A View To The Improvement Of The Fleece." The Earliest And Rudest Method Of ...

Flesh
Flesh. Muscular Flesh, Which Is Too Well Known To Need Any Particular Description, Is Composed Of A Number Of White Or Red Fibres, Compounded Of Still Smaller Fibres. It Is United In Ordinary Cases With A Variety Of Substances, Such As Blood, Fat, Ligament, Sinew, And Nerves. It Has Been ...

Flies A
Flies. "a Host Of Flies," Says Harris, "forming Nearly One-third Of The Whole Num Ber Of Species In The Order Diptera, Will Be Found To Have A Short And Soft Proboscis, End Ing With Large Fleshy Lips, Enclosing Only Two Bristles, And Capable Of Being Drawn Up Within The Cavity ...

Flies Destructive To Barley
Flies Destructive To Barley. Several Communications Respecting A Disease Of Bar Ley-straw, Produced By The Punctures Of In Sects, Were Published In Fessenden's New England Farmer, In 1829 And 1830 (vol. 8th). In One Of These, From The Hon. J. Merrill, Of Newburyport, It Is Stated That The Barley In ...

Flint
Flint. Common Flints Are Nearly Pure Silica, Which Is Composed Of 'a Metal (silicium) And Oxygen Gas; It Is Tasteless, Insoluble In Water, Or Fluorin Acid, Ate. Dissolvable Only By Means Of Potash. Flints Usually Occur In Irregular Nodules In Chalk. They Abound Considerably In Some Sorts Of Soils. Sand ...

Flour Of Mustard
Mustard, Flour Of. The Seeds Of Both Vlack And White Mustard Are Employed In Mak Ing The Ordinary Flour Of Mustard For Dietetical Use. In The Dry State, Mustard Is Inodorous, 898 And, Were It Possible To Taste Without The Aid )f Moisture In It Would Also Be Taste. Less; ...

Flour
Flour (span. For ; It. Fore; Fr. Fleur De Farnie). The Meal Of Wheat Corn Or Other Grain, Separated From The Husk Or Bran, And Finally Ground And Sifted. There Are In England Three Qualities Of Flour, Denominated First, Seconds, And Thirds, Of Which The First Is The Purest. (see ...

Flowers
Flowers. The Most Beautiful Parts Of Plants And Trees, Which Contain The Organs Of Fructification. (see Botany.) From Their Frequent Utility As Medicinal Drugs, As Well As Their External Beauty, The Cultivation Of Flowers In Our Gardens Becomes An Object Of Some Im Portance. Flowers Are Many Of Them Excel ...

Fluke Worm
Fluke Worm (distoma Hepatica/m; Fas Ciola Hepatica, Linn). A Small Flat Entozoon Or Worm, About An Inch Long, Which Infests The Ducts Of The Liver And Gall-bladder Of Different Animals, Especially Sheep. In Those That Have Died Of The Rot, It Is Generally Found Fixed By Two Points, One At ...

Fly In Turnips
Fly In Turnips (4ltica Nemorum). A Species Of Flea-beetle, Which In England Attacks The Turnip Crop In The Cotyledon, Or Seed Leaf, As Soon As It Appears : It Is Sometimes Called The Black Jack, And Sometimes The Flea, Or Black Fly. All The Species Are Among The Smallest Insects ...

Fly In Wheat
Fly In Wheat (tipula Tritici, Kirby ; Cecidomyia Tritici, Latr.). See Pl. 2, In Eng Land When The Wheat Is In Blossom, It Is Some Times Attacked By This Small Beautiful Fly, With An Orange-coloured Body And White Wings, Which Lays Its Eggs In The Middle Of The Blos Som, ...

Fly
Fly. The Well-known Sheep Tick Has No Wings ; The Fore Part Of Its Body Is Very Small, But The Abdomen Is Large. Its Colour Reddish. With White Lines On The Side Of The Abdomen. The Farmer Will Find The Following An Excellent Receipt For A Sheep-dipping Wash, By Which ...

Foal
Foal (su. Goth. Foie; Sax. Rola). The Young Of The Horse Kind ; The Male Being Term Ed A Colt Foal, And The Female A Filly. The Foal And Its Mother Should Always Be Well Fed, And Two Feeds Of Corn, At Least, Be Added To The Green Food Which ...

Foaling
Foaling. A Term Applied To The Act Of Parturition, Or Bringing Forth Young In The Mare. Good Feeding And Moderate Exercise Are Found To Be The Best Preventives Against Slinking, Which Is Most Prevalent When Half The Time Of Pregnancy Has Elapsed. See Anon T/on. If A Mare Has Been ...

Fodder
Fodder (germ. Furter ; Sax. Pincer; From Roeban, To Eat; Irish, Foder, Straw ; Icel. Fodr). In Agriculture, The Ordinary Food Given To Cat Tle, Which Consists Of The Stems And Leaves Of Plants, Such As Clover, Hay, Chopped Straw, Dried Blades And Tops Of Indian Corn, &c.; The Culmiferous ...

Fog
Fog (dan. Fog). In Meteorology, A Dense Vapour Near The Surface Of The Land Or Water. Fogs In General Are The Consequence Of The Nocturnal Cooling:of The Atmosphere. The Air, By Its Rapid Cooling, Becomes Surcharged With Moisture ; A Part Of Which Being Condensed In The Form Of A ...

Fogging
Fogging. A Peculiar Practice In The Ma Nagement Of Grass-lands, Confined Chiefly To The District Of South Wales. It Consists In Keep Ing The Whole Growth Of Grass In Upland Mea Dows Free From Either Scythe Or Stock, And Eat Ing It In The Following Winter. Arthur Young States, That ...

Fold
Fold (sax. Rearne). A Temporary Pen Or Enclosure For Keeping Cattle Or Other Agricultu Ral Animals Together, Either For The Purpose Of Confinement During The Night, Or Jointly For Protection And Feeding. Sometimes, Also, Sheep Are Folded For The Purpose Of Manuring. Sheep Folds Are Of Two Kinds ; Either ...

Folding
Folding. The Practice Of Confining Sheep And Other Animals Upon Land, By Means Of Hur Dles, &c., For The Purpose Of Feeding On And Manuring It. The Practice Of Folding Sheep On Naked Follows, With A View To Manuring Them, 498 Is Still Common In Several Parts Of England; But ...

Food Of M Herbiverous
Herbiverous Animals, Food Of M. Dumas, In A Paper Recently Read Before The French Academy, States, That He Has As Certained The Quantity Of Fat In Animals In A Healthy' State Does Not Depend On Some R Ecu Liar Process In The Digestion, But Upon The Quantity Of Fatty Matter ...

Food
Food (sax. Ton). All Substances Suscepti Ble Of Digestion And Assimilation May Come Under The Denomination Of Food. Animals Require, For Their Support And Developement, Atoms Or Elements Highly Organized. The Food Of All Animals, Under All Circumstances, Con Sists Of Portions Of Organized Matter. Vegeta Bles, On The Contrary, ...

Fools Parsley Dog Poison
Dog Poison, Fool's Parsley (lethis Sa Cynapiwm). Pl. 10, Q. An Umbelliferous Plant, Frequently Found In Gardens. It Is Easily Distinguished From The Other Umbellifera By The Partial Umbels, Consisting Of Three Narrow, Long, Linear Leaflets, Which Hang Down. The Leaves Have Short Sheathing Footstalks, Are Doubly Pinnate, With Decurrent, ...

Fools Parsley
Fool's Parsley. Common Lesser Hem Lock (zethusa Cynapium). Pl. 10, Q. A Numbel Liferous Plant, Common In Gardens, Waste Grounds, And Cultivated Fields, And So Called From Its Resembling Parsley Enough In Appear Ance To Deceive Ignorant Persons. It Is An An Nual Weed, With A Tapering Whitish Root ; ...

Foot Rot
Foot-rot. See Sheep, Diseases Of. Foot-trenches. A Term Signifying Small Superficial Drains, About A Foot Wide. Forcing. In Horticulture, The Art Of Ac Celerating The Growth Of Plants So As To Obtain Fruit, Vegetables, Or Flowers At Seasons When They Are Not Produced Naturally In The Open Air. The Practice ...

Foot
Foot (sax. For. Germ. Fuss ; Dutch Jute). A Linear Measure, Which, Since The Term Is Em Ployed In Almost All Languages, Has Doubtless Been Derived From The Length Of The Human Foot. Though The Denomination Is The Same, The Measure Itself Varies Considerably In Dif Ferent European Countries. In ...

Forcing Pits
Forcing Pits. Instead Of Forming Hot Beds With Open Sides, Pits Of Brick-work And Other Materials Are Very Generally Constructed For Containing The Fermenting Mass Of Dung Necessary For Forcing. Mr. Flanagan, Gardener To Sir T. Hare, Of Stow Hall, Norfolk, And Mr. West, Who Holds The Same Situation Under ...

Foreign Coins
Coins, Foreign. The Following Tables Will Show The Values And Weights Of Various Foreign Coins In Federal Money Of The United States : By The Mint Laws 'passed By Congress In 1837, The Eagle Is To Weigh 258 Troy Grains, The Half And Quarter In Proportion; The Dollar 412i Grains, ...

Forest
Forest (germ. Forst ; Fr. F&tet ; Ital. Fon Esta). Strictly An Extensive Surface Covered Naturally By Trees And Undergrowth, As Op Posed To A Plantation Which Has Been Made By Art, But Indiscriminately Used For Any Very Ex Tensive Tract Covered With Trees. The Utility Of Timber Plantations To ...

Fowl
Fowl. Cock And Hen (phasianus Gallus). Fowls Were Originally Natives Of Persia And India. They Are Most Valuable To The Farmer As Yielding Profit In Eggs, Broods, And Feathers. The Varieties Of The Common Fowl In England Are Very Numerous, And Are Distinguished From One Another By Their Size, Colour, ...

Fox Tail Grass
Fox-tail Grass (setaria Glauca). A Common American Grass, With A Bristly Head, Found In Cultivated Grounds, Old Stubble-fields, Orchards, &c., Flowering In July. Its Root Is Annual, And The Stem Grows 2 Or 3 Feet High. When Mature It Has A Tawny, Or Orange Colour. Another Species Of Fox-tail Is ...

Franklinia
Franklinia (gordania Pubescens). This Species Of Gordonia, Appears To Be Restricted By Nature, Within Very Narrow Bounds, Having Hitherto, Says Michaux, Been Found Only On The Banks Of The Altamaha, In The State Of Georgia. It Was Discovered There In 1770, By John Bar. Tram, Who Gave It Its Specific ...

French Honeysuckle
Honeysuckle, French (hedysarton). Almost All The Species Of This Genus Are Very Handsome Flowering Plants, Producing Racemes Of Very Beautiful Pea Flowers, Particularly Adapted For Borders Or Rock-work. Miller Men Tions Nineteen Sorts. The Greater Number Are Perennials. The Most General Species In Eng Lish Gardens Is The H. Coronariwm, ...

Fringe Tree
Fringe-tree (chionanthus Virginica), A Beautiful, Small, American Tree, Abounding In The Southern States, And As High Up As The Vi Cinity Of Dover, In The State Of Delaware. It Has Been Even Met With On The Banks Of The Brandywine. The Specific Name Is Derived From Its Snow-white Flowers, Which ...

Frog Hoppers
Frog-hoppers. The Familiar Name Ap Plied To Singular Insects (cercopidide), Which Pass Their Whole Lives On Plants, Upon The Sterns Of Which The Eggs Are Deposited In Au Tumn. "the Following Summer They Are Hatched, And The Young Immediately Perforate The Bark With Their Beaks, And Begin To Imbibe The ...

Frogs
Frogs (rana, Linn.). A Genus Of Amphi Bious Reptiles, Consisting Of 17 Species, But Two Only Require, To Be Here Noticed: 1. The Common Frog (r. Temporaria), Which Is Too Well Known To Need Description. Some Of Its Properties Are Very Singular, Particularly Its Powers Of Leaping And Swimming. Its ...

Frost
Frost. In Meteorology Is The Cause Of The Congelation Of Water Or The Vapours Of The At Mosphere. Water Begins To Freeze When The Temperature Of The Air Is Such That Fahrenheit's Thermometer Stands At 32°. At This Tempera Ture Ice Begins To Appear, Unless Some Circum Stance, For Example, ...

Fruit Maggots
Fruit Maggots. The Little White Mag Gots Often Found In Our Ripe Whortleberries, Raspberries, Cherries, And Other Fruits, Are The Young Of Small Two-winged Flies, Some Of Which Family Deposit Their Eggs In The Stems, Buds, And Leaves Of Plants, Thereby Producing Large Tumors Or Galls Wherein Their Young Re ...

Fruit
Fruit (fr. Fruit ; It. Frutta ; Span. Fruta ; Lat.frveturn). In Botany, Comprehends Many Kinds Of What Are Commonly Called Seeds ; As Those Of Corn, Buckwheat, Caraway, Parsley, &c., As Well As The Succulent Inflorescence Of The Pine-apple, Which Is A Mass Of Ovaria And Envelopes In A ...

Fuel
Fuel (norm. Fr. Fuayle). Any Combusti Ble Substance Which Is Used For The Production Of Heat Constitutes A Species Of Fuel ; But The Term Is More Properly Limited To Coal, Coke, Charcoal, Wood, And A Few Other Substances. In England, Coal, From Its Abundance And Cheapness, Is The Commonly ...

Fullers Thistle
Fuller's Thistle (dipsacus Fullonum). A Name Sometimes Applied To A Plant Used By The Makers Of Cloth. See Teasel. • Fuller's Earth. A Native Sapona Ceous Mineral Of The Aluminous Kind, Found In Many Parts, But The Best Comes From The South Of England And Saxony. It Is Much Used ...

Fumitory
Fumitory (fumaria, From Fume, Smoke, Alluding To The Disagreeable Smell Of The Plant, Our English Word Fumitory Is Derived From The French Name Of The Genus Fumeterre). There Are Six Indigenous Species Of Fumitory, Among Which Are Common Iumitory (f. Officinalis), An Annual, Very Common In Cultivated Ground And About ...

Fungi
Fungi (lat.). A Large Natural Tribe Of Plants Of A Very Low Organization, Consisting Chiefly Of Cellular Tissue, Sometimes Intermixed With Flocculent Matter, And Very Rarely Furnished With Spiral Vessels. They Form, As It Were, Link Between The Animal And Vegetable King Doms. They Inhabit Dead And Decaying Organic Bodies, ...

Furrow
Furrow (sax. Turn; Dan. Far; Lat. Fo Rus). In Agriculture, A Term Not Very Properly Defined, As It Has Three Or Four Distinct Signifi Cations ; Viz. 1. The Soil Turned Up By The Plough ; 2. The Trench Left By This Operation ; 3. The Interval Between Two Ridges; ...

Gall Nuts
Gall Nuts (fr. Gallis ; It. Galle). Excres Cences Produced By The Cynips, Or Diplolepsis Gale Tinctoria, A Small Insect Which Deposits Its Eggs In The Tender Shoots Of The Quercus Infects• Ria, A Species Of Oak Abundant In Asia Minor, &c. When The Maggot Is Hatched, It Feeds On ...

Gallic Acid
Gallic Acid. An Acid Obtained From Galls And Several Other Vegetable Astringents, Chiefly From The Bark. The Following Table Will Serve To Show The Proportions Of This Acid In Different Plants :— The Ivantities Of Gallic Acid Mentioned, Yet It Is Incertain Whether They Actually Contain Any Ready Formed. Gallic ...

Gallon
Gallon. An English Measure Of Capacity, Containing 4 Quarts. By Act Of Parliament The Imperial Gallon Is To Contain 10 Lbs. Avoirdu Pois Of Distilled Water Weighed At The Tempe Rature Of 62° Of Fahrenheit, And The Barometer Standing At 30 Inches. This Is Equivalent To 277.274 Cubic Inches. The ...

Gallop
Gallop. In Horsemanship, A Well-known Pace To Which Horses Are Trained, And Of Which Many Kinds Are Enumerated, But Two Only Are Worthy Of Regard, Namely The Hand Gallop And The Full Gallop. And These Distinctions Are Founded On The Different Degrees Of Velocity In Which The Animal -is Impelled, ...

Galls
Galls. In Farriery, A Term Signifying An Abrasion Or Rubbing Off Of The Skin By The Har Ness, Saddle, &c. The Little Tumours Resulting From The Pressure Of The Saddle Are Called War Bles, And When They Ulcerate They Frequently Be Come Sit-fasts. For Saddle Galls There Is No Better ...

Gama Grass
Gama Grass (tripsacum Dactyloides), Fin Ger-like Tripsacum, Called Also Sessame Grass And Rough-seeded Gama Grass. (see P1. 7, N.) This Stout And Very Remarkable Grass Has A Perennial Root. The Culm Rises To The Height Of 4, 5, Or 6 Feet, Is Somewhat Compressed, Channelled On One Side, Smooth, Solid ...

Garden Chervil
Chervil, Garden (chcerophyllum Sati Vuni). This Herb Grows In Gardens, And Sometimes Wild In Waste Ground; Perhaps The Outcast Of Gardens. The Flowers Are White, And Bitter-tasted ; The Seeds Are Smooth, Fur Rowed, And Large ; Altogether The Plant Resem Bles Parsley, Only The Leaves Are Paler And More ...

Garden Sage
Sage, Garden (salvia Ojficinalis ; From Salved, To Be Safe, On Account Of The Sanative Properties With Which It Was Supposed To Be Fraught). Sage Is Now Used Principally In Cu Linary Preparations. There Are Several Varie Ties, As, 1. The Common Green. 2. Worm Wood. 3. Green, With Variegated ...

Garden Thyme
Thyme, Garden (thymus Vulgaris, From .3v/a;, Courage, Being Considered A Reviver Of The Spirits ; Or From 3-óv, To Sacrifice, Being Employed As Incense). The Varieties Are,— The Broad-leaved Green, Narrow-leaved Green, Variegated, And Lemon-scented. The Varie Gated Is Grown Almost Solely On Account Of Its Ornamental Foliage. A Poor, ...

Gardening
Gardening. There Is Not In The Arts And Sciences One Link Of Their Circle So Suitable For The Occupation Of Man In A State Of Innocence, As That Which Embraces The Cultivation Of Plants ; And It Is An Instance Of The Beneficent Providence Of The Deity, That He Assigned ...

Garget
Garget. In Farriery, A Disease In The Ud Ders Of Cows, Arising From Inflammation Of The Lymphatic Glands. It Is Also A Distemper Inci Dent To Hogs ; And Which Is Known By Their Hanging Down Their Heads, And Carrying Them On One Side, Moist Eyes, Staggering, And Loss Of ...

Garlic
Garlic Plliwrn, From The Celt.; All, Hot Or Burning). Under This Name Sir J. Smith, (eng. Flor. Vol. Ii. P. 133) Enumerates Seven Native Species ; Viz.:— 1. The Great Rounded-headed Garlic, (4. Am Pelopraswm). A Rare Plant, Found Occasionally In Open Hilly Places. The Stem Is Two Or Three ...

Gas Works
Gas-works, The Refuse Matters Of, As Fer Tilizers. It Is Only Within These Few Years That The Attention Of The Farmer Has Been Attracted To The Various Matters Produced By The Gat, Works Now So Common In All Parts Of England. This Attention, However, Is Confined At Present To Only ...

Gases
Gases, Their Uses To Vegetation. It Is Not, I Think, Necessary, In Drawing The Cultivator's Attention To The Uses Of That Great Ortion Of The Food Of Plants Which They Imbibe In The State Of Gas, Or Of Aqueous Vapour, To Enlarge Upon The Importance Of The Question, Since That ...

Gates
Gates. Good Gates Are No Less Essential To The Respectable Appearance Of A Farm Than They Are Necessary For The Convenience Of An Occupier. There Are Few Outgoings That Cost So Much And Are So Little Thought Of, As The Re Pairing And Renewing Gates Upon Enclosed Farms. The Most ...

Gathering And Preserving The
Gathering And Preserving The Fruit. Various Theories Have Been Offered For Pre Serving Apples In A Sound State For Winter Use, Or For Distant Voyages. Some Have Proposed Gathering The Fruit Before It Is Ripe, And Drying It On Floors Before It Is Put Up ; This Has Been Tried ...

Gavelkind
Gavelkind. An Ancient Custom Or Te Nure Annexed To All Land In The County Of Kent (not Especially Exempted), And Some Other Parts Of England, And Which Extensively Pre Vails In Ireland, By Which The Land Of The Father Is Equally Divided At His Death Among All His Sons, Or ...

Gelatin
Gelatin. In Chemistry The Name Given To An Abundant Proximate Principle In Animals. It Is Confined To The Solid Parts Of The Body, Such As Tendons, Ligaments, Cartilages, And Bones, And Exists Nearly Pure In The Skin ; But It Is Not Contained In Any Healthy Animal Fluid. Its Leading ...

Gentian
Gentian This, In England, Is An Extremely Beautiful Genus Of Plants ; The Roots Of Which Form One Of The Principal Bit Ters Of European Growth. The Stems And Roots Of Most Of The Species, Especially The Autumnal Gentian (g. Amarella), The Field Gen Tian (g. Campestris), And Some Of ...

Geology
Geology (p, The Earth ; Noyes, A Dis Course). The Use Of This Science To The Culti Vator Is Considerable. The Farmer Is, In Fact, Obliged To Vary His Modes Of Tillage With The Different Strata Which He Tenants, And Hence He Is Often Following In Practice The Very Rules, ...

Geology_2
Geology. The Best Kinds Of Manure For This Sort Of Land Are Marl, Or Any Stiff Clay, Cow-dung, Chalk, Mud, And Composts Formed Of Rotten Straw From The Dung-hill. "gravels," Says Professor Low, In His Re Marks On Soils (el. Of .rgr. P. 8), "like Sands, Have All The Gradations ...

George Sinclair
Sinclair, George. An Able And Suc Cessful Writer And Experimentalist On The Arts Ficial And Other Graises. He Carried On A Be. 995 Grass Garden At Woburn Abbey, Under The Di Rection Of The Duke Of Bedford, The Results Of Which He Gave To The Wcrld, In His Justly Cele ...