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Honeysuckle
Honeysuckle (lonicera). A Genus Of Very Ornamental Shrubs Which Grow In Any Common Soil, And Are Readily Increased From Cuttings. One Of The Most Hardy Varieties Is The American Trumpet Honeysuckle (l. Sent Pervirene). There Are Two Varieties Of The American, Both Trailing And Needing Support. The Ger Man Or ...

Hoof
Hoof. The Horny Part Which Covers The Feet Of Many Valuable Quadrupeds. It Is Either Cloven, As In Cattle, Or Entire, As In The Horse. In The Horse It Is That Portion Of The Foot Which Is Composed Of The Crust Or Wall, The Bars, The Sole, And The Horny ...

Hop
Hop (homulus Lupulus). This Is A Well Known Climber, Supposed To Be Indigenous To England. Plants Of It Being Found In Hedgerows And Waste Places. The Ancients Were Not Un• Acquainted With The Hop. It Is Mentioned By The Arabian Physician Mesue, Who Lived About 845; And It Was Used ...

Hordeum
Hordeum. The Barley-grasses. Besides The Species Of Cultivated Barley Enumerated In The Article Under That Head, There Are Three In Digenous Species Which Grow Wild In Eng ,and. Hordeum Murinum. Wall-barley, Mouse-bar Ley, Or Way-bennet Grass. This Is An Annual Grass, With A Fibrous Root, Supporting A Number Of Calms ...

Horn Bug
Horn Bug. A Kind Of Beetle. The Largest Of These Beetles, In The New England States, Was First Described By Linnaeus Under The Name Of Lucanus Dapreolus, Signifying The Young Roe Buck; But Here It Is Called The Horn Bug. Its Colour Is A Deep Mahogany Brown ; The Surface ...

Horn Wort
Horn Wort (ceratophyllwnr, From Keras, A Horn, And Phyllon, A Leaf: The Petals Are Cut So As To Appear Like A Stag's Horn). These Are Uninteresting Water Plants, Thriving In Any Pond, And Easily Raised From Seeds. The Com Mon Hornwort (c. Demersum) Is Abundant In Ditches And Fishponds; The ...

Horn
Horn. A Hard Substance, Growing On The Heads Of Various Animals, Which Partakes Of The Chemical Nature Of The Cartilaginous Part Of Bone ; It Consists Chiefly Of Albumen, With Some Gelatin And A Trace Of Phosphate Of Lime. The Horn Of The Ox Is Composed Of An Elon Gation ...

Hornbeam
Hornbeam (carpinus Betulus, From The Celtic Car, Wood, And Pinda, Head, The Wood Being Fit For The Yokes Of Cattle). A Rigid Tree Of Humble Growth, Patient Of Cropping, And Well Suited For Hedges Or Covered Walks In Gardens Of The Old Style, Some Of Which May Still Be Seen ...

Horned Poppy
Horned-poppy (glaucium, From Glaulcos, Alluding To The Hoary Gray Colour Of The Plants) A Genus Of Very Pretty Annuals, Or Biennials, Some Of Which Are Particularly Handsome In The Flower Borders Of The Garden, Where They 635 Flower And Ripen Seed In Abundance, Which Has Only To Be Sown In ...

Hornet
Hornet (vespa Crabro). A Well-known Fierce Insect, Which Is About One Inch In Length, And Builds Its Nest In Hollow Trees. The Sting Of The Hornet Is Severe, And Occasions A Con Siderable Tumour, Accompanied With Intense Pain ; For The Mitigation Of Which, There Is No Better Remedy Than ...

Horse Chestnut
Chestnut, Horse (2esculus Hippocasta Mon). This Ornamental Tree, Now So Common Throughout Europe, Is A Native Of Asia. /the First Plant Is Said To Have Been Brought Into Europe By The Celebrated Botanist Clusius In A Portmanteau. It Is Too Well Known To Require Description. The Wood Is Soft And ...

Horse Chestnut_2
Horse-chestnut. If, Says A Writer In The Anerican Farmer (vol. Xi), The Value Of This Nut Was More Generally Understood, It Would Not Be Suffered To Rot And Perish Without Being Turned To Any Account, As At Present. The Horse-chestnut Contains A Saponaceous Juice, Very Useful, Not Only In Bleaching, ...

Horse Dealers
Horse Dealers. Persons Whose Busi Ness It Is To Buy And Sell Horses. Each Person Carrying On The Business Of A Horse Dealer Is Required To Keep A Book, In Which He Shall Enter An Account Of The Number Of Horses Kept By Him For Sale And For Use, Specifying ...

Horse Fly Or Forest Fly
Horse-fly Or Forest-fly (hippobosca Equina, Linn.). In England This Fly Lives Chiefly On Horses, But Sometimes Also Attacks Horned Cattle And Other Mammalia. The Male Is Scarcely So Large As The House-fly ; The Female Is Larger. The Insect Generally Attaches Itself To The Abdomen Of The Animal, Which Is ...

Horse Mint
Horse Mint (menthe Sylvestris). A Spe Cies Of Wild Mint, Growing Freely In Waste ' Ground, Especially In Watery Places. It Is A Perennial, Blowing Dense Crowded Whorls Of Small, Pale Purple Flowers In August And Sep Tember In England. The Whole Herb Is Of A Hoary Or Grayish Green, ...

Horse Power Dynamometer
Dynamometer, Horse-power, Thrashing Ma Chine. Strength Of Materials.—there Are Four Differ Ent Ways In Which The Strength Of A Solid Body May Be Exerted: First, In Resisting 11 Longitu Dinal Tension, Or Force Tending To Tear It Asuu Der; Secondly, In Resisting A Force Tending To Break The Body By ...

Horse Power
Horse Power, In Steam-engines, Is Esti Mated By Mr. Watt At 32,000 Pounds Avoirdu Pois Lifted One Foot High Per Minute For One Horse. M. D'aubuisson, From An Examination Of The Work Done By Horses In The Whims Or Gigs (machines A Molettes) For Raising Ore From The Mines At ...

Horseradish
Horseradish (cochlearie Armafacia From Cochlear, A Spoon, The Form Of The Leaves Being Rather Hollow, Resemble An Old-fashioned Spoon). The Horse-radish Delights In A Deep, Mouldy, Rich Soil, Kept As Much As Possible In A Moderate But Regular Degree Of Moistness ; Hence The Banks Of A Ditch, Or Other ...

Horsetail
Horsetail (equisetusn, From Equus, A Horse, And Seta, Hair, In Allusion To The Fine Hair Like Branches). Although The Plants Of This Genus Are Looked Upon As Mere Weeds, They Have A Very Interesting Aspect When Seen Growing In Their Natural Situations ; They Are And In Boggy Places, And ...

Horticulture
Horticulture (lat. Horths, A Garden, And Colo, I Cultivate). The Culture Of The Kitchen Garden And Orchard. The Chief Dif Ference Between Horticulture And Agriculture Is, That In The Former Art The Culture Is Per Formed By Manual Labour In A Comparatively Limited Space, Called A Garden ; While In ...

Hot Walls
Hot Walls. In Gardening, Walls For The Growth Of Fruit Trees, Which Are Built With Flues Or Other Contrivances For Being Heated In Severe Weather, So As To Facilitate The Ripening Of The Wood Or The Maturity Of The Fruit. The Advantages Of Hot Walls Are Well Illustrated By Their ...

Hounds Tongue
Hounds'-tongue (cynoglossum). A Genus Of Herbaceous Plants, Of Which Only Two Species Grow Wild In Great Britain. The Cul Tivated Foreign Species Are Pretty Border Plants, Succeeding In Any Common Soil, And Readily Multiplied By Division. 1. Common Hound's-tongue (c. Officinale) Is Found Abundant In Waste Ground And By Roaii ...

Houseleek
Houseleek (sempervivum, From Semper Vivo, To Live Forever ; The Tenacity Of Life In The Houseleek Is Well Known). There Are Seven Species Of Houseleek Mentioned By Miller (but These Are Only A Few Of This Extensive Genus). They All Thrive Best On Dry Rocky Situations. These Interesting Plants Are ...

Humus
Humus. A Modern Term Given By Some Chemists To The Very Finely Divided Organic Matters Which All Cultivated Soils Contain, And Which Is Generally Regarded As The Chief Ele Ment Of Fertility, The Source From Which Plants Are Directly Nourished. Woody And Vegetable Fibre In A State Of Decay Constitutes ...

Hurdle
Hurdle (from The Sax. T4pcsi, To Keep, On The Germ. Burden). The Hurdles Of The Ancients (crates) Were Somewhat Similar To Those Of The Moderns ; They Were A Kind Of Wicker-work, And Used For Various Purposes. When Employed For Drying Figs Or Grapes, They Were Called Flea Ria : ...

Husbandry
Husbandry. A Comparatively Primitive Term, Including Both Agriculture And Gardening, Or All Those Country Occupations Which The Fa Ther Of A Family Is Expected To Perform In The Country. The Term Is Very Commonly Used As Synonymous With Agriculture. The Berwick Shire Husbandry, The Alternate Husbandry, And The Convertible Husbandry, ...

Hybernation
Hybernation (lat. Hybernus, Wintry). The Act By, Or The State In, Which Certain Ani Mals Exist During The Season Of The Year When Excess Of Cold, Or Lack Of Food, Prevents Their Going Abroad, And Performing Their Customary Functions. The Bat And The Hedgehog, Lizards, Snakes, Frogs, Toads, &c., Are ...

Hybrids
Hybrids (gr.). The Produce Of A Female Plant Or Animal Which Has Been Impregnated By A Male Of A Different Variety Of Species. The Most Common Hybrids Are Those Which Result From The Connection Of Different Varieties Of The Same Species, As The Produce Of The Wild Boar And Domestic ...

Hydrangea
Hydrangea (hydrangea Arborescens). A Hardy Perennial, Native Of North America, Which Flowers In July And August. It Loves A Moist Soil, And Should Be Kept Free From Weeds. Its Roots May Be Parted In October. If A Severe Winter Attacks The Plant, It Will Only Die Down To The Ground. ...

Hydrogen
Hydrogen. A Chemical Element, Which Derives Its Name From Two Greek Words That Signify "a Generator Of Water," Because It Is One Of The Constituents Of That Fluid, Which Is Always Formed When Hydrogen Gas Is Burned In Combination With Atmospheric Air, Or With Oxygen Gas. It Is Known To ...

Hygrometer
Hygrometer (gr. Ern Gc, Moist, And Mergov, Measure). An Instrnmentwhich Indicates The De Gree Of Moisture Or Vapour Present In Tife Atmo Sphere, Or Its Relative Degrees Of Dampness And Dryness. Hygrometers Are Of Several Forms, And A Rude Hygrometer Is Easily Made By Means Of A Long Hair, Or ...

Ice House
Ice-house. A House Or Vault For The Preservation Of Ice In Summer, Should Not Be Regarded As Merely Administering To Purposes Of Luxury, Since Ice Contributes So Much To The Convenience, Comfort, And Even Health, As To Make It Almost An Indispensable Article Of Do Mestic Economy. The Effects Of ...

Ice
Ice (sax. Ir; Dutch, Eyse). Water In A State Of Congelation. Ice Is About One-eighth Part Lighter Than Fresh Water ; Hence It Swims In That Element; And, Owing To This Property, The Icebergs And Ice-islands Are Floated Down To Southern Latitudes From The Arctic Circle. Wa Ter, Which Freezes ...

Ichneumon Flies
Ichneumon Flies. Insects Belonging To The Natural Order Hymenoptera, Which In Cludes Bees, Wasps, Ants, Saw-flies, &c. The Injury Caused By This Whole Order Is So Small, And The Benefits Derived From Many Of Them So Great, That Instead Of Being Enumerated Among Destructive Insects, They May Be Pronounced The ...

Ignis Fatuus
Ignis Fatuus (lat. Vain Or Foolish Fire ; A Translation Of The French Feu Fond.) A Kind Of Luminous Meteor, Which Flits About In The Air A Little Above The Surface Of The Earth, And Appears Chiefly In Marshy Places, Or Near Stag Nant Waters, Or In Churchyards, During The ...

Ignition
Ignition (lat. Ignia, Fire). The Act Of Setting Fire To, Or Of Taking Fire, As Opposed To Combustion, Or Burning, Which Is A Conse Quence Of Ignition. The Term "spontaneous Ignition" Is Applied To Cases In Which Sub Stances Take Fire Without Previous Application Of Heat. This Is Illustrated In ...

Imbricated
Imbricated. In Botany, A Term Used In Speaking Of The Arrangement Of Bodies, To De Note That Their Parts Lie Partly Over Each Other In Regular Order, Like The Tiles Upon The Roof Of A House, As The Scales Upon The Cup Of Some Acorns ; Also Applied In Speaking ...

In Cattle Cancer
Cancer, In Cattle (lat.; Sax. Can Cone.) A Virulent Swelling Or Sore. Cancer Of The Eye, Or A Perfect Change Of Its Nism Into A Fleshy Half-decomposed Substance, That Ulcerates And Wastes Away, Or From Which Fungous Growths Spring That Can Never Be Checked, Is A Disease Of Occasional Occurrence ...

In Horses Feet Corns
Corns, In Horses' Feet. This Dis Ease Is Produced By Some Hard Substance Press Ing On The Sole At The Quarters, As From Shoes Left On Till The Heels Become Buried In The Hoof; The Fibrous Substance Which Lies Between The Sensible Foot And The Absolute Horny Hoof Be Comes ...

Incisors Or Incisores
Incisors Or Incisores (lat. Incido, I Cut). The Teeth Implanted In The Inter-maxillary Bones Of The Upper Jaw, And In The Correspond Ing Place In The Lower Jaw, And Which Arc Generally Shaped For The Purpose Of Cutting Or Coarsely Dividing The Food. The Ruminating Animals, Including The Bull And ...

Incubation
Incubation (lat. Incumbo, I Brood Over). Hatching Or The Laying Down Of An Animal Upon Her Own Or Another's Eggs, Communicat Ing To Them Heat, And Maintaining Them At Her Own Temperature A Condition Essential To Their Developement. In Many Animals The De . Velopement Of The Foetus Takes Place ...

Indian Cress
Cress, Indian, Or Major Nasturti Um (tropnolum Majus, Diminutive Of Tropceum, A Trophy ; And T. Minus). The Major Nasturti Um.being The Most Productive, As Well Of Flow Ers And Leaves As Of Fruit, Is The One That Is Usually Cultivated In The Kitchen Garden; The Fruit Being Used In ...

Indian Hemp
Hemp, Indian (.dpocynium Cannabinum). An American Plant With A Perennial Root, Found In The Borders Of Woodlands And Other' Situations In The Middle States, Flowering In August. The Stems Grow From 2 To 4 Feet High, Smooth, Purple, Slightly Glaucous, With Rather Erect Branches. The Leaves Are From 2 To ...

Indian Millet
Indian Millet (sorghum Vulgare). Sot-. Ghi Is The Indian Name, According To Bauhitt. The French Call It Grand Millet, The Italians Saggena Or Sorgo, And The Spaniards Alcandia. It Is Much Cultivated In Arabia And Most Parts Of Asia Minor, And Has Been Introduced Into Italy, Spain, Switzerland, And Some ...

Indian Rubber
Indian Rubber, Gum Elastic, Or Cacut Ehouc, Is A Well-known Tough And Yielding Sub Stance, Obtained In South America And Java From The Sap Of A Tree Called The Siphonia Cahuca. To Procure The Sap, Incisions Are Made Through The Bark In Many Places, And The Milky Juice Which Exudes ...

Indian Turnip
Indian Turnip (arum Triphylltnn), Wake Robin, &c. An American Plant, Distinguished By Its Head Of Beautiful Red Berries Growing Upon A Single Stem, And Its Perennial Bulbous Root, Resembling A Small Rough Turnip, Possess Ifig Such An Extremely Acrid Juice As, When Bitten Or Chewed, Causes Violent Inflammation In The ...

Indigo
Indigo (indigofera, From Indigo, A Blue Dye Stuff, A Corruption Of Indicum, India, And Fero, To Bear; Most Of The Species Produce The Well Known Dye Called Indigo, The Finest Of All Vege Table Blues). This Is An Extensive Genus Of Rather Elegant Plants, The Shrubby Kinds Of Which Are ...

Inert Vegetable Matter
Inert Vegetable Matter. The Inert Vegetable Matters Of The Soil Are Those Which Decompose Very Slowly, And Consequent Ly Afford Very Little Nourishment To The Growing Plant. Of This Kind Are Woody Fibre, Tanner's Bark, Peat, &c., All Of Which, If Not Previously Rendered More Easily Soluble By Being Mixed ...

Inflammation
Inflammation. In Farriery, Is A Disease Or Affection Consisting In An Increased Heat And Action In Any Part Of An Animal, Arising From Various Causes, External Or Internal, Local Or Universal. In Animals, The Chief Causes Are Wounds, Bruises, And Sudden Or Excessive Cold, And The Application Of Heat Afterwards. ...

Inflorescence
Inflorescence (lat. Inflorescere, To Flou Rish). The General Arrangement Of The Flowers Upon A Stem Or Branch. It Consists Of The Fol Lowing Principal Kinds : Viz., The Spike, The Ra Ceme, The Panicle, The Capitulum, The Cyme, And The Umbel. The Spike Is A Long Rachis Of Flowers Sessile, ...

Influence Of Moon
Moon, Influence Of. The Following 830 Observations Upon This Subject Are Taken From A Lecture Delivered Before The Franklin Insti Tute Of Pennsylvania, By G. Emerson, M. D., Of Philadelphia. There Is, Perhaps, No Opinion Relative To The Phenomena Of The Natural World, More Uni Versally Maintained, Than That The ...

Influenza
Influenza. An Epidemic Catarrh, At Tended By Febrile And Other Symptoms, Which Often Run Very High, And Assume A Variety Of Aspects, Dependant Upon The Seasons And Other Causes. The Possibility Of The Existence Of A Peculiar State Of The Atmosphere, Although We Have No Means Of Detecting It, Is ...

Insects Attacking Cucumber
Cucumber, Insects Attacking. In The United States The Vine Of The Cucumber Is Preyed Upon At All Ages, But More Especially When Very Young And Tender, By Various In Sects, Which Make It Necessary To Replant Fre Quently, And Very Often Entirely Destroy The Hopes Of The Gardener And Truckman. ...

Insects Injurious To Trees
Insects Injurious To Trees And Fruit. Among The Insects That Have Been Brought To America With Other Productions Of Europe, May Be Mentioned The Spple-worm, As It Is Com Monly Called, Which Has Become Naturalized Wherever The Apple Tree Has Been Introduced. This Mischievous Creature Has Been Sometimes Mistaken. For ...

Insects
Insects (lat. Imsecta). A Very Extensive And, To The Cultivators Of The Earth, Important Class Of Animals. Insects Are Distinguished From Worms By Always Having Feet In Their Perfect Or Winged State, As The Beetle, Butterfly, 662 &c. Worms Crawl On Their Bellies, And Have No Feet, As The Earth-worm, ...

Insurance
Insurance. One Means Of Security Against Fire. The Farmer Being Constantly Sur Rounded By Much Combustible Matter, Should Never, When Possible, Omit Rendering Himself Safe By Insuring His Stock Of Every Kind In Some Public Office, Instituted For This Pur Pose. In England, The Legislature Has Wisely Afford Ed Very ...

Integument
Integument. The Outer Covering Or ..kin Of An Animal : It Is Also Used In The Same Eense As A Synonyme For Testa, For The Husk Or Exterior Covering Of Seeds. • Inventory (fr. Inventaire ; Lat. Invent°, Rium). A Detailed Account Taken Of Any Thing Upon A Farm. Inventories ...

Iris
Iris (from Iris, The Rainbow; Alluding To The Variety And Beauty Of The Colours Of The Flower). This Extensive Genus Has Long Been, As It Still Continues To Be, A Great Favourite In The Flower Garden. "the Sword-leaved Sorts (says Sweet) Do Best In A Light Loamy Soil, And Increase ...

Irrigation Hay
Hay, Irrigation, And Mansit. In England Some Meadows Of Great Extent, Belonging To A Community Or District In Which Every Inhabitant Has A Right To Send His Cattle To Graze Under Certain Regulations, Are Never Mown. When The Number Of Those Who Have A Right Of Is Not Very Great, ...

Irrigation
Irrigation (lat. Irrigio, To Water). In Agriculture, The Watering Of The Earth, To In Crease Its Productiveness. The Term, However, Is Confined To That Species Of Flooding Which Consists Of Spreading A Sheet Of Water Over A Field Or Meadow, In Such A Manner That It Can Be Easily Withdrawn. ...

Isnardia
Isnardia (named In Memory Of Anthony Isnard, Member Of The Academy Of Sciences). These Plants Are Mere Weeds, Or Creeping Aquatic Herbs, Growing In Marshy Situations. The Marsh Isnardia (l Palustris) Is The Only Indigenous Species. It Is An Annual, Growing In Ponds And Wa Tery Places, Blowing Axillary, Solitary, ...

Iso
Iso Ence To Be Correct ; Therefore, The Roots Should Not Be Grubbed Up Too Hastily. This Tree Should Never Have A Branch Taken From It But In The Spring. The Directions For Raising These Trees From Seed Are Given In The Same Manner By All Writers On The Subject, ...

Israelites The Agriculture Op
The Agriculture Op The Egyptians, Israelites, And Other Early Eastern Nations. Every Family Of These Primitive 12.itivis Had Its Appointed District For Pasturage, It Pur Sued A Pastoral Life ; Or Its Allotted Enclosure, If It Was Occupied By Tilling The Earth. There Was No Distinction In This Respect Between ...

Its Influence On Vegeta
Light, Its Influence On Vegeta Tion. That Light Has A Considerable Influence Upon The Growth Of Plants, Is An Observation That Must Have Been Very Early Made By Man Kind. The Inferior Green Colour Of Plants Growing In The Shade, As In Woods, Or When Covered With Earth, Or Inverted ...

Ivy
Ivy (hedera Helix). The Name Appears To Be Derived From Hedra, A Celtic Word Signifying A Cord ; And The English Name Ivy Is Derived From Ivo, A Word In The Same Language Signify Ing Green.) A Hardy Evergreen Climber, Corn Mon Everywhere In Europe, Which Is Excel Lent As ...

Jacobs Ladder
Jacob's Ladder, Bmgs Or Greek Vale Rian (polemaniwm Cceruleum). This Plant Is A Common Ornament Of Flower Borders In Rustic Gardens, Of No Particular Qualities, Notwith Standing Its Name Of Valerian, Derived Perhaps From The Leaves, Which Resemble Those Of Some Of The Valeriance. The Root Is Fibrous, Not Creeping, ...

Jerusalem Artichoke
Artichoke, Jerusalem (helianthus Tuberosus, From `hxios, The Sun, And Enbos, A Flower). It Flourishes Most In A Rich Light Soil, With An Open Enclostre. Trees Are Particularly Inimi Cal To Its Growth. As It Never Ripens Its Seeds In England, The Only Mode Of Propagation Is By Planting The Middle-sized ...

Jethro Tull
Tull, Jethro. The Science Of Agricul Ture, Although The First In Importance To Man Kind, Is Yet Remarkable For The Few Great Names 133 Whose Discoveries Or General Abilities Adorn Its History. For An Explanation Of This Fact,we Must In Some Measure Be Contented With The Com Mon Observation That ...

Jointed Glasswort
Glasswort, Jointed (salicornia ; From Sal, Salt, And Corms, A Horn). Of This Genus Of Plants There Are, In England, Four Indigenous Species, Which Are Found Very Common In Salt Marshes And Muddy Sea-shores That Are Fre Quently Overflowed By The Tide. 1. The Common Jointed Glasswort, Sea-grass, Or Marsh ...

Judas Tree
Judas Tree (cercis). This Is A Beauti Ful Genus Of Ornamental Trees, Flowering Early In Spring, And Looking Very Pretty Planted Singly On A Lawn, Or Trained To A Wall Or Trellis; They Grow To The Height Of 20 Feet, Prefer An Open Loamy Soil, And May Be Plentifully In. ...

June Berry
June Berry (mespilus Arborea Of Michaux) With The Exception Of The Maritime Parts Of 678 The Carolinas And Georgia, This Tree, As Michaux Informs Us, Is Spread Over The Whole Extent Of The United States And Canada. But It Is Most Multiplied Upon The Alleghany Moun Tains, And Upon The ...

Juniper
Juniper (.1"wniperus, Derived From The Celtic Juniperus, Rough Or Rude, In Allusion To The Stiff Habit Of The Shrubs). This Genus Is Too Well Known To Need To Be Particularized Here. All The Species Will Grow In Sandy Loam, And Some In Any Common Garden Soil. They Are Mostly Raised ...

Jury
Jury (from The Latin Jurare, To Swear). A Body Of Men Sworn To Decide A Certain Fact Or Facts According To The Evidence Produced Before Them. This Noble Institution, Like Many Others As Dearly Cherished By All Lovers Of Freedom, Com Menced Among The Northern Nations Of Europe At A ...

Kalmia
Kalmia. American Laurel. A North Ame Rican Genus Of Hardy Shrubs, Remarkable For The Beauty Of Their Flowers. The Leaves Are Considered Poisonous To Cattle, And Are Par Ticularly Fatal To Sheep.. The Honey Gathered From The Flowers Is Also Charged With Possess Ing Deleterigus Qualities. The Plants Do Best ...

Kennel
Kennel (fr. Chenil, From Mien, A Dog). The Hole Of A Fox Or Other Wild Beast. In Rural Economy, A Habitation For Dogs, Especially Those Of The Hound Kind : It Should Be Situated A Good Distance From The House. Large Ken Nels Require To Be Kept Clean, Well Aired, ...

Kernel
Kernel (sax. Ckrinel, A Gland). In General This Word Signifies The Substance Within A Shell; But It Has Different Meanings, Some Times Implying Anything Included In A Husk Or Integument, As The Seed Of Pulpy Fruits, The Grain Of Oats, &c. In Horticulture The Hardy Fruits Are Generally Arranged Under ...

Kidney Bean
Bean, Kidney (phassolus Vulgaris, From Its Pods Resembling A Species Of Ship, Supposed First To Have Been Invented At Phaselis, A Town Of Pamphylia). Of This Vegetable There Are Two Species, The One Being A Dwarf Bushy Plant, The Other A Lofty Climbing One. The Soil For Them May Be ...

Kidney Vetch
Kidney-vetch (dinthyllis; Derived From Oil On,' A Flower, And L000s, Down, In Reference To The Flowers Being Usually Covered With A Soft Or Silky Pubescence). The Species Are, For The Most Part, Elegant And Free-flowering, Plants Proper For Ornamenting Rock-work. The Hardy Perennial And Annual Kinds Thrive Well In A ...

Kiln
Kiln (sax. Cktn). A Kind Of Furnace Or Stove For Admitting Heat, In Order To Dry Sub Stances Of Various Kinds, As Corn, Malt, Hops, &c. It Also Signifies A Fabric Or Building Con Structed For The Purpose Of Burning Limestone, Chalk, And Other Calcareous Stones, Into Lime. Kilns Are ...

Kitchen Garden
Kitchen Garden. A Piece Of Ground Laid Out For The Cultivation Of Fruit, Herbs, Pulses, And Other Culinary Vegetables. The Kitchen Garden Is The Most Important Object Of The Horticulturist's Care, Inasmuch As Its Productions, Next To Those Of Agriculture, Fend Most To The Support Of Mankind. It Often Affords ...

Knapweed
Knapweed (centawrea). This Is A Large Herbaceous Genus Of Plants, Which Jussieu, After Tonrnefort, Has Divided Into Several, By The Structure Or Termination Of The Calyx Scales. Linnmus Has Kept It Entire, And Decandolle Has Not Disturbed It. Smith (eng. Flora), Also, Makes One Family Of Them. The Following Are ...

Knawel
Knawel (scleranthus, From Olangoc, Hard, And Etrecs, A Flower; In Allusion To The Dry, Juice Less Calyx). These Are Dry, Rigid Herbs, Which Can Only Be Considered As Useless Weeds. The Genus Is European. There Are 3 Spe Cies, One Of Which, Called S. Annulus, Is So Abun Dantly Naturalized ...

Knot Grass
Knot-grass. The Common Oat-like Soft Grass (holrus Avenaceus), From Its Bulbous Roots Is Often Called By Farmers Knot-grass ; But In A Botanical Sense The Following Are The True Knot Grasses. This Grass Is Preyed Upon In Europe By A Species Of Leaf-beetle (chrysomela Polygoni), And Likewise In The United ...

Labour
Labour (fr. Labour; Lat. Labor). In A Gene Ral Sense, Labour Implies The Exertion Of Human Strength In The Performance Of Any Kind Of Work. Without Entering Into An Abstruse Treatise On The Science Of Political Economy, It May Not Be Out Of Place To Examine Shortly The Subject, For ...

Lactic Acid
Lactic Acid. This Substance, In The Opinion Of Berzelius And Some Other Chemists, Exists In Milk, And In Larger Proportion When It Has Become Sour; But Others Imagine That It Is The Product Of Its Decomposition. It Was First Recognised As A Peculiar Acid By Scheele, But He Did Not ...

Lactometer
Lactometer (lat. Lac, Milk, And Met Rum, A Measure). A Term Applied To A Glass Tube For Ascertaining The Proportion Which The Cream Bears To The Milk Of Any Particular Cow, Or The Produce Of A Whole Dairy. Lactometers Of Different Kinds Have Been Invented ; The Best Is Called ...

Ladder
Ladder. A Framework Of Steps Between Two Upright Pieces. Ladders Of Various Length Are Essential Requisites On A Farm, Whether For Use In Repairs To Buildings, For Reaching Stacks, Or In Cases Of Fire. "garden Ladders Are Of Three Kinds : The Common Wall Tree Ladder, Which Differs From Those ...

Ladies Mantle
Ladies' Mantle (alchemilla). The Spe Cies Of This Genus Of Plants Are All Astringent In Their Root, And Somewhat Mucilaginous. Vulgaris Is Slightly Tonic. Many Of Them Are Ornamental, And Well Adapted For Planting In Gardens Near The Front Of Borders, Or For Adorn Ing Rockwork. They Succeed Well In ...

Ladies Slipper
Ladies' Slipper (cypripediwm, From Cypris, One Of Venus's Names, And Podion, A Slipper ; Hence The Name Venus's Or Ladies' Slipper). The Species Of This Genus Are Re Markably Handsome When In Flower, And On That Account Deserve A Place In Every Collec Tion. They Are All Of The Easiest ...

Ladies Smock
Ladies' Smock (cardamine). An Inte Resting Genus Of The Simplest Culture And Pro Pagation, Natives Of Various Countries, Gene Rally Preferring Watery Situations. The Native Species Are•five In Number: 1. Daisy-leaved Ladies' Smock (c. Bellidifolia). This Perennial Species Grows In Moist, Grassy, Lofty, Alpine Pastures. The Root Is Rather Woody, ...

Ladies Traces
Ladies' Traces (neottia, A Bird's Nest, In Allusion To The Interwoven Fibres Of The Roots). This Is A Pretty Genus Of Orchidaceous Plants. The Hardy Species Will Succeed Well In Chalky Soil, Or A Mixture Of Loam, Peat, And Sand ; They Are All Increased By Divisions. (paxton's Bot. ..dict.) ...

Lamb Skins
Lamb Skins (germ. Lammsfelle). The Value Of Lamb Skins Varies According To The Fineness, Brilliancy, And Colour Of The Wool. Black Lamb Skins Are More Generally Esteemed Than Those Of Any Other Colour. English Lamb Skins Are Seldom To Be Met With Perfectly Blank ; But Since The Introduction Of ...

Lameness
Lameness. In Farriery, An Affection In The Feet Or Limbs In Horses And Other Animals, By Which Motion Is Rendered Less Perfect. In The Horse, It Is Brought On From Various Causes— Sprains, Over-exertion, Diseases Of The Foot, &c. The Muscles Of The Shoulder Are Occasionally Sprained, And In This ...

Lammas Day
Lammas Day. In The English Calendar, The 1st Of August. Dr. Johnson Supposes 'his Term To Be A Corruption Of Lattermath, Signifies A Second Mowing Of Grass. Others Derive It From A Custom Which Once Prevailed In'some Parts Of England, Of Bringing A Lamb Alive On This Day Into The ...

Lamp Black
Lamp Black. A Colouring Substance Which Is In Very General Use For Several Pur Poses. The Finest Lamp Black Is Produced By Collecting The Smoke From A Lamp With A Long Wick, Which Supplies More Oil Than Can Be Perfectly Consumed, Or By Suffering The Flame To Play Against A ...

Land Springs
Land Springs. Land Springs Are Sources Of Water Which Only Come Into Action After Heavy Rains ; While, Constant Springs Which Derive Their Supplies From A More Abundant Source, Flow Throughout The Year. All Springs Owe Their Origin To Rains. In The Case Of Land Springs, The Water When It ...

Land Steward
Land Steward. A Person Who Has The Care Of A Landed Estate, And Whose Duties Vary In Different Countries, According To The Mode In Which Landed Property Is Managed. In Eng Land, Where The Landlord Very Commonly Under Takes To Keep The Buildings And Fences Of His Tenants In Repair, ...

Land
Land (germ.), In The Widest Acceptation Of The Word, Is Used To Denote The Solid Matter Of Which The Globe Is Composed; In Contradis Tinction To The Liquid Matter Or Water (see Logy) : But In Its Most Restricted Signification It Is Confined To Arable Ground. The Latter Is The ...

Landmark
Landmark, Signifies In A General Sense Any Thing By Which The Boundary Of A Property Is Defined. In Ancient Times The Correct Division Of Lands Was An Object Of Great Importance ; And Various Means Were Adopted To Give Dis Tinctness And Permanency To The Boundaries Of Every Man's Property. ...

Landscape Gardening
Landscape Gardening. The Art Of Laying Out Grounds So As To Produce The Effect Of A Natural Landscape. Its Principles Are The Same As Those Upon Which The Landscape Painter Proceeds In Composing A Picture ; And Though It Is An Art Of Which, Like Many Others, Every Body Thinks ...