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Larch Tree
Larch Tree (lat. Larix ; It. And Span. Larice). The Larch Is One Of The Most Valuable Exotics Which Has Been Introduced Into Britain. In The North Of Scotland It Has Been Grown To A Great Extent, Cultivated With Particular At. Tendon ; And Found To Be One Of The ...

Lard Oil
Lard Oil. In The United States, Where Swine Are Raised So Abundantly, Oil Is Now Very Extensively Separated From Lard. Its Close Connection With The Question Of Disposing Of The Agricultural Products Of The Union, And Especially Of The Western States, Forms A Rea Son For Giving It An Extended ...

Lard
Lard. The Melted Fat Of The Hogs Which Is Much Used For Domestic Purposes And In Cook Ery, For Ointments, Pomatums, And Other Pur 700 Poses. Pure Lard Has Little Or No Taste, And No Odour ; Its Melting Point Is About 97° Fahren Heit. When Long Exposed To The ...

Larkspur
Larkspur (delphinium, From Delphin, A Dol Phin, In Reference To The Supposed Resemblance In The Nectary Of The Plant To The Imaginary Figures..of The Dolphin). All The Species Of Larkspur Are Showy, And Valuable As Border Flowers, Especially D. Ajacis And D. Consolida, Both Of Which Are Universally Grown Among ...

Larva
Larva (lat. A Mask). A Term Applied To In Which An Insect Exists, Immedi• Ately After Its Exclusion From The Egg, And Which Precedes The Pupa State. The Animals Commonly Called Grubs, Maggots, And Caterpillars, Are Larvw. Grub Appears To Be A General Term Analogous To Larva ; The Term ...

Last
Last. An Uncertain Quantity, Varying In Different Countries, And With Respect To Various Articles. The Following Quantities Of Different Commodities Generally Make A Last :-12 Dozen Of Hides Or Skins ; 12 Barrels Of Meal; 10i Qrs. Of Tole Seed; 10 Qrs. Of Corn Or Rape Seed (in Some Parts ...

Lathyrus
Lathyrus (from La, Augmentative, And Thouros, Any Thing Exciting, In Allusion To The Medicinal Qualities Of The Seeds). Ithis Genus Belongs To The Natural Order Leguminew. It Consists For The Most Part Of Very Handsome Plants When In Flower, Well Adapted For Arbours Or Shrubberies, Where They Must Be Supplied ...

Laurel
Laurel (from The Celtic Word Blezer The B Is Dropped, Signifying Green, In Allusion To The Foliage Of The Plants). This Is A Very Hand Some And Interesting Genus Of Plants: Among The Most Interesting And Valuable Of The Hardy Kinds, Is The Bay Tree (l. Nobilis), Which Is In ...

Laurestine
Laurestine, Lauristinus, Or Wild Bay (viburnum Anus, Said To Be Derived From Vieo, To Tie ; Because Of The Pliability Of Some Of The Branches). All The Species Of Viburnum Are Very Elegant, Rather Early-flowering Shrubs. The Hardy Kinds Are Well Fitted For Planting In Ornamental Shrubberies. They Are Increased' ...

Laurus
Laurus (sassafras, Spicewood, &c.). This Extensive Genus Of Shrubs And Small Trees,' Which Afford The Cinnamon, The Cassia, And The Camphor Of Commerce, Is For The Most Part Confined To The Tropical And Temperate Latitudes. One Species (l. Nobilis) Is Found In Europe; Five In Japan ; India Affords Three ...

Lava
Lava_ The Substances Which Flow In A Melted State From A Volcano. They Vary Con Siderably In Texture And Composition. La Vender (lavandula, From Lavo, To Wash, In Allusion To The Use Formerly Made Of Its Dis Tilled Water In Baths, On Account Of Its Fra Grance). The Hardy Kinds ...

Lawn
Lawn. A Space Of Ground Covered With Grass, Kept Short By Mowing, And Generally Situated In Front Of A House Or Mansion, Or Within The View From Such. Lawns, When Once Established, Require Only To Be Kept Neat By The Ordinary Routine Of Rolling, Mowing, And Sweep Ing, Except Keeping ...

Lay
Lay. A Term Applied To Land In The State Of Grass Or Sward. This Kind Of Ground Is Fre Quently Distinguished Into Such As Has Been Long In The State Of Sward, And Such As Is Newly Laid Down To Grass, Or Into Old And New Lays. The Proper Method ...

Layering
Layering. In Gardening, An Operation By Which The Propagation Of Plants Is Effected By Laying Down Or Bending The Shoot, So That A Portion Of It May Be Covered With Earth. A Shoot So Operated On Is Called A Layer, And The Point Which• Furnishes The Layers Bears The Name ...

Leaf Buds
Leaf-buds. Rudiments Ofyoung Branches, Made Up Of Scales Imbricated Over Each Other, The Outermost Being The Hardest And Thickest, And Surrounding A Minute Axis, Which Is In Direct Communication With The Woods And Cel Lular Tissue Of The Stem. When Stimulated By Light And Heat They Extend Into Branches ; ...

Leaf
Leaf (sax.). The Well-known Fine Mem Braneous Part Of A Tree Or Plant, Which Is Put Forth And Unfolded In The Spring, And Which In Some Trees Falls Off In The Autumn. "the Leaf," Says A Writer In The Penny Cyclopedia, "is An Expansion Of The Bark Of A Plant, ...

League
League. A Measure Of Length, Princi Pally Used In Reckoning Distances At Cea. The Sea League Is 3 Nautical Or Geographical Miles, Or The 1-20th Of A Degree, And Consequently About 345 English Miles. The Common Land League Is A Well-known Itinerary Measure On The Continent Of Europe, Chiefly In ...

Lease
Lease (from /wain, Letting, Or Dimissio ; From The French Laisser, E. Dimittere, To Depart With). "a Lease," Says Woodfall, In His Law Of L.ndlord And Tenant, "is A Contract For The Possession And Profits Of Lands And Tenements On The One Side, And A Recompense Of Rent Or Other ...

Leather Wood
Leather-wood (dirca Palustris). This 700 Is.se Low Shrub, And Native Of The United States, Growing In Moist, Shady Places, Seldom Rising More Than Four Feet High, Spreading Into A Head, With Many Small And Very Flexible Branches. The Flowers Are Produced At The Extreme Ends Of The Former Years' Shoots ...

Leather
Leather (germ. Leder ; Dan. Leider). The Prepared Skins Of Animals. The Principal Object Of The Art Of Converting Skin Into Leather Is To Render It Strong And Tough, Durable, And Often Water-proof, And To Prevent Its Destruction By Putrefaction. The Skins Are First Cleansed Of Hair And Cuticle, Then ...

Leaven
Leaven (lat. Levare, To Raise). A Piece Of Sour Dough, Used To Ferment And Render Light Dough Or Paste. It Is A Very Imperfect Substi Tute For Yeast; And As It Communicates To The Bread An Astringent Taste, Which Few Persons Relish, It Ought To Be Used Only Where Yeast ...

Leek_2
Leek (.ffiliwn Porrwm). The Leek Is A Hardy Biennial ; For, Although It Attains Perfection In Size And For Culinary Purposes The First Year, It Does Not Run To Seed Until The Second, The Per. Feeting Of Which It Also Often Survives. The Whole Plant Is Eaten, Being Employed In ...

Legs
Legs. The Extremities That Form The Sup Port Of Animals. Of The Four Legs Of A Horse, The Two Before Have Several Parts, Each Of Which Has A Peculiar Name : Thus, By The Name Of Fore-leg, We Commonly Understand That Part Of The Fore-quarters That Extends From The Hough ...

Leguminous Plants
Leguminous Plants (from Legwmen, Pulse) Are Those Which Bear Legumes Or Pods, Such As Beans, Peas, Tares, &c. The Legwni Nose Are A Very Extensive Natural Order Of Plants, Found In All Parts Of The World, Forming Large Trees And Huge Twiners In The Tropics ; Herbaceous Plants Or Small ...

Lentil
Lentil (erwin Lens, From Erw, Tilled Land In Celtic ; Some Of The Species Arc A Pest In Cultivated Ground, Being Useless And Too Prolific Weeds). Pl. 7, A. An Exotic Plant Of The Vetch Br Tare Kind, Cultivated In Some Parts Of Eng Land As Fodder For Cattle. The ...

Leopards Bane
Leopard's Bane (doronicwat). An Or Namental Genus, And From The Plants Flowering Early In Spring, They Are Well Deserving Of Cul Tivation; They Grow In Any Garden Soil, And May Be Increased With Facility By Dividing At The Root. The Great Leopard's Bane (d. Perdalianehis), Is A Perennial, Native Of ...

Lettuce
Lettuce (lactuca Saliva). The Early Cab. Bage, Browndutch,royal Cabbage,curledlndia And Tennisball Are Good, And Stand The Climate. Of The Cos Varieties, Which Are Very Crisp And Tender, But Soon Shoot To Seed, The Egyptian Green Cos Can Be Recommended. Sow In Seed Bed From Commencement To Middle Of Protect The ...

Lettuce_2
Lettuce (lactuca, From Lac, Milk, On Ac Count Of The Milky Juice Which Exudes From The Plants When Broken). There Are In Eng Land Three Indigenous Species Of Lettuce, All Biennials. 1. Strong-scented Lettuce (l. Viroaa), Which Grows About Hedges, Old Walls; And The Borders Of Fields On A Chalky ...

Lever
Lever. In Mechanics, An Inflexible Rod Or Bar, Movable Upon A Fulcrum% Or Prop, And Hav Ing Forces Applied To Two Or More Points. The Lever Is One Of The Mechanical Powers ; And Being The Simplest Of Them All, Was The First That Was Attempted To Be Explained. Examples ...

Liber
Liber (lat. Bark). In Botany, The Interior Lining Of The Bark Of Exogenous Plants. It Con Sists Of Woody Tissue In Great Quantity, And Very Thick-sided, Intermixed With Cellular Tis Sue. It Appears To Be Formed Annually, At The Same Time As The Concentric Zones Of Wood, And Is Intended ...

Lice On Animals
Lice On Animals. There Is Not An Animal That Does Not, Under Suitable Circum Stances, Nourish In Its Hair, Wool, Feathers, Or Its Skin, Some Kind Of Louse ; And Sometimes More Than One Kind Of These Parasites Lodge And Prey On The Same Animal. In Ordinary Cases, They Do ...

Lichens
Lichens. Plants Of A Very Low Organize, Tion, Which Grow On The Bark Of Trees Or Rocks, When They Form A Kind Of Incrustation, Or Upon The Ground, When They Consist Of Irregular Lobes, Parallel With The Earth's Surface. Occa Sionally, In All Situations, They Are Found In A Branched ...

Lightning
Lightning. The Identity Of Lightning With Electricity, Though Previously Suspected, Was First Demonstrated By Dr. Franklin, In The Year 1749, In His Celebrated Experiment Of Hoisting A Kite During A Thunder-gust. It Has Since Been Proved That, Even In The Absence Of Clouds, The Atmosphere Is Gen Erally In An ...

Lignin
Lignin (lat. Lignum). The Woody Fibre. This Most Important Proximate Principle Of Vegetables Exhibits Itself In A Variety Of Forms, Constituting The Different Textures Of Hard And Soft Wood, And Various Fibrous Products, Such As Hemp, Flax, Cotton, &c. When By Fine Me Clunk:al Division It Is Reduced To A ...

Lilac
Lilac (syringa, From Syrinx, A Pipe. The 90 Branches Are Long And Straight, And Are Filled With Medulla; Hence The Old Name Of The Lilac, Pipe-tree. The English Name Of The Genus Is From Lilac Or Lilag, The Persian Word For The Flower). The Species Of Lilac Are Well Known ...

Lily Of The Va Lley
Lily-of-the -va Lley (convallaric Ma Jalis, From The Latin Convallis,.a Valley). This Very Elegant Sweet-scented Indigenous Peren Nial Is Not Reckoned Among The Lily Tribe. It Grows In Woods, Heaths, And At The Foot Of Hills, Flourishing And Shedding Its Fragrance In May And June. The Roots Are Thread-shaped, Creep ...

Lily
Lily (lilium, Derived From The Celtic Word /i, Signifying Whiteness; On Account Of The Beautiful White Flowers Of The Original Species). This Is A Fine Ornamental And Well-known Ge Nus Of Exotic Plants, Almost All Of Which Are Remarkable For The Delicacy And Beauty Of Their Flowers. Most Of The ...

Lime The
Lime The R Ti ' . Ar.iifor The Most Part Ertra O Tyteitvrft Trees, Well Suited For Avencl Parks. They Thrive In Any Soil, And Are Increased By Layers Or Seeds; If By Layers, The Tree Must Be Cut Down Close To The Ground, And From Its Roots A Great ...

Lime
Lime (germ. Leiin, Glue). This Very Useful Earth Is The Of A Metal Called Calcium. In England It Is Obtained Chalk And Other Kinds Of Limestone, Or Carrbonates Of Lime, To A Red-heat,—an Operation Generally Conduct Ed In Kilns Constructed For The Purpose: The Carbonic Acid Is Thus Expelled, And ...

Lime_2
Lime As A Manure. There Is Some Reason To Infer That Lime Has Been Used As A Manure From A Very Remote Period. M. P. Cato, In The Oldest Agricultural Treatise Which Has Escaped To Us, Describes, In His Sixteenth And Thirty-eighth Chapters, With Much Minuteness,the Best Means Of Preparing ...

Linen
Linen (germ. Lienwand). A Species Of Cloth Woven With The Fibres Of The Flax Plant. The Linen Manufacture Has Been Prosecuted In England For A Very Long Period; But Though Its Progress Has Been Considerable, Particularly Of Late Years, It Has Not Been So Great As Might Have Been Anticipated. ...

Ling
Ling (calluna Vulgaris). A Species Of Heath. To Avoid The Inconvenience Of Giving A New Generic Appellation To The Hundreds Of Plants Familiar To Everybody As Erica Or Heaths, Mr. Salesbury Has Judiciously Called Our Ling Calluna, From Zioaliveo; Which Is Doubly Suitable, Whether With Mr. Salisbury And Dr. Hull ...

Liniment
Liniment (lat. Lino, I Anoint). In Farrie Ry, A Semi-fluid Ointment, Or A Soapy Application To Rub Upon Painful Joints. The Term Is Also Applied To Spirituous And Other Stimulating Ap Plications For External Use. Liniments Are In Tended Either To Lubricate Or To Stimulate ; But In Either Case ...

Linseed Oil
Linseed Oil Is An Excellent Purgative For Sheep, From 2 To 3 Ounces ; For Horses, In Doses Of From 16 To 24 Ounces; For Cattle, From 16 To 20 Ounces. The Quality Of Linseed Oil May Be De Termined In The Following Manner: Fill A Phial With It, And ...

Linseed Or Flaxseed
Linseed Or Flaxseed (lat. Lini Semen ; Germ. Leinsaat). The Seed Of The Flax Plant. See Flax. This Seed Is Small, Oval, Oblong, Flattened Laterally, Acute At The Extremities, Glossy, Brown ; But Internally White. It Is In Odorous, And Tastes Mucilaginous And Oily. The Husk Or Testa Yields Much ...

Liquid Manure
Liquid Manure. Liquid Manure Is Not A Mode Of Fertilizing The Land Altogether Of Modern Origin, For A Fermented Mixture Of Wa Ter And Night-soil Has, From A Very Early Period, Been Employed By The Chinese Farmers ; Those Of Italy Certainly Practised Irrigation In The Days Of Virgil (georgics, ...

Liquorice
Liquorice (glycyrrhiza, From Glnkus, Sweet, And Rhiza, A Root ; The Sweetness Of The Root Of Liquorice Is Well Known). A Deep, Light, Sandy Loam Suits All The Species Of This Genus, And They Are Readily Increased By Slips From The Roots With Eyes, And Planting Tam In Spring. Common ...

Live Stock
Live-stock. See Horses, Cattle, Sheep, &c. In Great Britain, The Live-stock Forms The E.hief Wealth Of A Farm. The Term Implies Ole ; Out Poultry. Too, Is Strictly Live-stock; And "32 In Some Countries, Fish, Game, Bees, &c., Are Of That Importance That They Are Considered To Be Live-stock. In ...

Liverwort
Liverwort (.anemone Hepatica, Hepatica .iimericoma, Or Three-lobed Liverwort) Is Very Com Mon In The Open Woodlands Of The United States, Where It Flowers In Pennsylvania In May, And Matures Its Seed In May And June. This Plant Has Acquired Much Notoriety, Of Late Years, As A Remedy In Pulmonary Consumption ...

Load
Load. A Term Used In The United States Rather Vaguely, And Meaning Different Amounts Or Measures In Different Places. The General Meaning Of A' Load Of Manure, According To Buel, Is What Can Be Drawn By Two Horses, Or Two Oxen, To The Field Where It Is To Be Applied. ...

Loam
Loam. By This Term Is Generally Under Stood Dark-coloured, Rich Mould, Principally Composed Of Dissimilar Particles Of Earth And Decomposed Vegetable Matter, Moderately Co Hesive, And Therefore Neither Retentive Of Mois Ture, Like Clay, Nor Too Ready To Part With It, Like Sandy Soil. According As The Different In Gredients ...

Lobelia
Lobelia (lobelia, In Honour Of Matthew Lobel, Author Of Various Botanical Works. He Was A Native Of Lisle ; Became Physician And Botanist To James I., And Died In London In 1616). This Is An Extremely Interesting Genus Of Plants, On Account Of The Beauty Of The Blos Soms, And ...

Loblolly Bay
Loblolly Bay (gardenia Lasyanthus). This American Tree Is Comprehended Within The Same Limits With The Long-leaved Pine, Being Confined To The Maritime Parts Of The Southern States, To The Two Floridas, And To Lower Loui Siana. It Is Very Abundant In The Branch Swamps, And Exists In Greater Proportion Than ...

Locust Tree Caterpillars
Locust Tree Caterpillars. These Are Produced From The Eggs Of A Butterfly Be Longing To A Tribe Which, From Their Habit Of Flying But A Short Distance At A Time With A Jerking Motion, Have Acquired The Name Of Skippers (hesperiadce Or Hesperions). They Frequent Grassy Places, Low Bushes, And ...

Locust Tree
Locust Tree (hyrnencea, From Hymen, The God Of Marriage ; In Reference To The Two Leaflets). The Species Of Locust Tree Are Highly Ornamental ; They Delight To Grow In Loam And Peat, And Cuttings Will Root In Sand Under A Glass In Heat. The Young Plants Should Be Planted ...

Locust
Locust. A Name Given By The English To The Large Grasshoppers, Hut Which, In The United States, And Indeed Almost Universally, Is Applied To The Group Of Insects Which Naturalists Have Termed Cicadians, And Which Are Also Called Harvest-flies. These Insects Are Readily Distinguished By Their Broad Heads, The Large ...

Loosestrife
Loosestrife (lysimachia, From Lusis, Dis Solution, And Mache, Strife). A Very Pretty Ge Nus Of Plants, With Mostly Yellow Flowers. All The Species Are Of The Easiest Culture, And May Be Propagated By Except L. Dubia And L. Linwm-stellatum, Which Must Be In Creased By Seeds. Great Yellow Loosestrife (l. ...

Lousiness
Lousiness. In Farriery, An Affection Of The Skin, Arising, In Cattle Or Other Animals, From The Irritation Of Lice Or Other Animalcules, Which May Be Distinguished By The Naked Eye. Most Animals, And Even Insects, Are Subject To This Annoyance. Lousiness In Live-stock Is Produced By Neglect And Low Keep. ...

Lovage
Lovage (ligusticum, So Named Because Some Of The Species Grow In Liguria). A Ge Nus Of Hardy, Herbaceous, And Biennial, Aro Matic Plants, Which, As Flowers, Are Not V N.th Cultivating. They Will Grow In Any Sof , And Are Increased By Seeds. The Scottish Lovage Or Sea Parsley (l. ...

Lupine
Lupine (lupines, From Lupus, A Wolf; In Allusion To Its Exhausting Or Devouring The Soil). The Species Of This Genus Are Among The Most Beautiful Of Border Flowers. They Will Flourish In Almost Any Soil, But A Rich Loam Suits Them Best. They Perfect Their Seeds Very Freely, From Which ...

Machine
Machine (gr.). In A General Sense This Word Signifies Any Thing Which Serves To In Crease Or Regulate The Effect Of A Given Force. Machines Are Either Simple Or Compound. The Simple Machines Are Usually Reckoned Six In Number ; Namely, The Lever, The Wheel And Axle, The Pulley, The ...

Madder
Madder (rubio, From Ruber, Red, In Allusion To The Colour Of The Roots). This Is A Genus Of Interesting Plants ; Any Common Garden Soil Suits Them, And They Are Easily Increased By Seeds Or Divisions Of The Roots. The Root Of R. Tinctorum Is One Of The Most Valuable ...

Magnesia
Magnesia (fr. Magnesie ; It. Magnesia). One Of The Primitive Earths Having A Metallic Basis. It Is An Oxide Of Magnesium. It Is Sometimes Found Native, Nearly In A State Of Purity ; But Is Generally Prepared By Calcining The Common Carbonate Of Magnesia. It Is In Odorous And Insipid, ...

Magnolia
Magnolia (named By Plumier After Pierre Magnol, Prefect Of The Botanic Garden At Mont Pelier, And Author Of Several Works On Plants ; He Died In 1715). This Is A Genus Of Very Ele Gant And Showy Plants When In Flower, And Well Worthy Of Extensive Cultivation. The Hardy Kinds, ...

Maiden Hair
Maiden Hair (adiamtwm, Derived From Adiantos, Dry. Pliny Says, It Is In Vain To Plunge The Adiantum In Water, For It Always Remains Dry). These Are Elegant Species Of Ferns With Beautiful Leaves. They Succeed Well In A Mixture Of Loam And Peat ; But They Appear To Thrive Best ...

Maiz Maize
Maize, Maiz, Or Indian Corn (zea Mays, From Zaa, To Live, In Reference To The Nutritive Properties Of The Plants Belonging To The Genus). A Gigantic Herbaceous Annual Plant, Belonging To The Family Of Grasses Cultivated For Their Grains (graminea). Although, In Europe, The Word Corn Is Synonymous With Wheat, ...

Malic Acid
Malic Acid. This Vegetable Acid Exists In The Juices Of Many Fruits And Plants, Alone, Or Associated With The Citric, Tartaric, And Oxalic Acids; And Occasionally Combined With Potash Or Lime. Unripe Apples, Pears, Sloes, Barber Ries, The Berries Of The Mountain-ash, Elder Berries, Currants, Gooseberries, Strawberries, Raspberries, Bilberries, Brambleberries, ...

Mallow
Mallow (malva, Altered From The Greek Malache, Soft, Which Comes From Malacho, To Soften, In Allusion To The Emollient Qualities Of The Species). This Is An Extensive Genus Of Plants, Some Of The Species Of Which Are Very Ornamental. Among The Most Interesting Of The Hardy Herbaceous Species, Are M. ...

Malt Dust
Malt-dust. The Dust Or Substance That Separates From The Malt In The Act Of Drying, Or During Its Preparation. It Is Sometimes Called Malt-combs, And Has Been Found Useful As A Manure Or A Top-dressing When Sown Over The Cereal Grasses In The Early Spring Season. The Proper Quantity Of ...

Malt
Malt (fr. Mat ; Ital. Malto ; Lat. Maltum). The Term Malt Is Applied To Designate Grain Which, Being Steeped In Water, Is Made To Ger Minate To A Certain Extent, After Which The Pro Cess Is Checked By The Application Of Heat. This Evolves The Saccharine Principle Of The ...

Malting Mentation
Mentation, Malting, And Brewing.) It Is Only Necessary To Add Here That Malt Requires The Best And Heaviest Barley, With Its Germinat Ing Powers Entire. Barley Was Formerly In General Use In }and As Bread Corn : It Is Still, For This Pur Pose, Much Used On The Continent. It ...

Malus
Malus (lat. Rnalurn, An Apple). The Wild Crab (pyres Malus, See Crab-tree) Is The Only Apple Indigenous To England, And It Is On This Stock That Most Of Our Valuable Apples Have Been Grafted And Raised By The Ingenuity Of The Gardeners, Who Have, By Sowing The Seeds And Studying ...

Mandrake
Mandrake (mandragora; The Name Is Derived From Mandra, An Ox-stall, Something Relating To Cattle, And Agauros, Cruel; On Ac Count Of Its Poisonous Effects On Cattle, When Accidentally Gathered With Their Fodder In The Countries Where The Plants Abound). These Plants, Which Are Natives Of The South Of Eu Rope, ...

Mange
Mange. A Cutaneous Disease, Which At Tacks Several Domestic Animals, Especially The Dog, And Which Is Attended With An Eruption And Loss Of Hair. In The Horse It Is Known To Exist By The Animal's Constantly Rubbing Or Biting Himself, So As To Remove The Hair, And Sometimes Pro Duce ...

Manger
Manger. A Trough Or Crib In The Stable, In Which Corn Or Cut Provender For The Horse Is Placed. The Usual Method Is To Have Them The Whole Breadth Of The Stall ; But This Is Unneces Sary, As, If 18 Or 20 Inches In Length, And 14 Or 16 ...

Manhaden
Manhaden (clupea Menhaden). A Species Of Herring Frequenting The Waters Of The New England. States And Long Island, Where It Goes Under The Various Names Of Bony Fish, Moss Or Marsbanker,hardhead, And Pauhaugen. The Usual Length Of The Manhaden Is From 10 To 14 Inches. From July To The Last ...

Manna
Manna (fr. Manne ; It. Manna). The Con Crete Juice Of The Fraxinus Ornus, A Species Of Ash Growing In The South Of Europe. The Juice Exudes Spontaneously In Warm, Dry Weather, And 'concretes Into Whitish Tears ; But The Greater Part Of The Manna Of Commerce Is Ob Tained ...

Manures
Manures. The Word Manure, According To Todd, Is Derived From The French Manouvrer Lemon Gives The Derivation As Follows : "ma, Nure, Amnia A Manu Operando.'" Skinner,— " All Improvements In Agriculture Brought In By The Hand." Webster, Eng. Diet., Says, "ma Nure, Fr. Manouvrer, But In A Different Sense; ...

Manures_2
Manures, On Rendering Them More Portable And Applicable By The Drill.--the Application Of Ma Nures In A More Concentrated Form Than That In Which They Naturally Present Themselves For The Cultivator's Service, Was An Effort Reserved For Modern Agriculturists ; An Improvement Chiefly Induced By The Increase Of Population, Which ...

Maple
Maple (acer, From The Celtic Ac, A Point, The Wood Having Formerly Been Much Sought After For Manufacturing Into Heads Of Pikes And Lances). The Maples Are For The Most Part Beautiful Trees, Of Considerable Size, Gene. Rally Employed In Forming Avenues Or The Back Of Shrubberies. The Soil They ...

Marigold
Marigold (calendula, Named From Calendre, The First Day Of The Month ; There Being Flowers Almost Any Month In The Year). A Genus Of Showy Plants, Among Which Is The Old And Well-known Common Marigold (c. Offici Nalis). This Species Was Formerly Used In Soups And Broths, But Is Now ...

Marjoram
Marjoram (origanum, From Oros, A Mown. Tain, And Banos, Joy ; The Delight Of The Moun Tain, In Allusiun To The Habitation Of The Plants). A Genus Of Well-known, Pungent, And. Grate Fully Aromatic Herbs. The Plants Are All Of Easy Cultivation ; The Shrubby Kinds Are In Creased By ...

Mark
Mark. A Term Applied To A Horse, Which Is Said To Mark When He Shows His Age By A Black Spot, Like The Eye Of A Common Bean, Which Appears At About 5i Years Old In The Cavities Of The Corner Teeth, And Is Gone When 791 He Is 8 ...

Market
Market. In English Law The Liberty Or Franchise, Whereby A Town Is Enabled To Set Up And Open Shops, &c., At A Certain Place Within Its Limits For Buying And Selling, And Better Provision Of Such Victuals As The Subject Want Eth. The Establishment Of A Market, With The Grant ...

Marl
Marl. Marl Implies, Properly Speaking, A Natural Mixture Of Chalk, Shells, Or Carbonate Of Lime, In Some Of Its Forms, With Clay Or Sand, Or Both. Its Application To Land, As A Fertilizer, Is Of Very Ancient Date, As It Was Much Used By Our English Forefathers As A Manure; ...

Marsh Mallow
Marsh-mallow (althav, Derived From Alike°, To Cure ; From The Medicinal Qualities Of Some Of The Species). This Is A Genus Of Tall, Free-flowering Plants : The Biennial And Annual Kinds Should Be Sown In The Open Border In Spring, And Transplanted When Sufficiently B,,-ong. The Herbaceous Kinds May Be ...

Marsh Marigold
Marsh-marigold (caltha, A Synonyme Of Kalathos, A Goblet ; In Allusion To The Likeness Of The Form Of The Corolla To A Golden Cup). The Species Of This Genus Are Showy, And Do Best In A Moist Situation, But Will Grow And Flower In A Common Border. They May Be ...

Marsh Mud
Marsh-mud. This Substance, Which Forms Such An Excellent Manure, Is Not So Well Appre Ciated Or So Generally Employed In The United States As It Deserves To Be. An Intelligent Cor Respondent Of The Farmers' Register (for July, 1834) States, That He Deems It More Valuable Than Barn-yard Manure, And ...

Marsh
Marsh (sax. Meprc, A Fen). A Flat Surface, The Soil Of Which Is So Far Saturated With Water Throughout The Year As To Be Unfit For Culture By The Spade Or Plough ; But Not So Much As To Prevent It From Producing Coarse Grasses, And Other Kinds Of Herbage. ...

Mash
Mash. A Soft Sort Of Diet Occasionally Given To Horses. It Is Prepared By Pouring Boiling Water Upon A Small Quantity Of Ground Malt, Bran, Or Similar Substance, In A Pail, So As Just To Wet It Well. After This Has Been Done, It Should Be Well Stirred About, Till ...

Mastication
Mastication. The Process Of Grinding Or Chewing The Solid Parts Of Food Between The Teeth, By The United Motion Of The Jaws, Tongue, 795 And Lips, In Consequence Of Which It Is Broken Into Small Pieces, Mixed With The Saliva, And Thus Adapted For Deglutition As Well As More Easy ...

Maw Skin
Maw-skin. A Word Used In Some Places To Signify The Stomach Of The Calf Prepared For Cheese-making. See Rennet. May-apple. An American Plant, So Called May-apple. An American Plant, So Called From Its Flowers Being Very Abundant In The Month Of May. Its Botanical Name Is Podophyl Tuon Pelt Atum, ...

May Tree
May Tree. See Hawthorn. May-weed, The Scentless. See Corn Feverfew. May-weed, The Stinking, Or Mathmay-weed, The Stinking, Or Math- Er. Called In Pennsylvania, Stinking Chamo Mile, Dog's Fennel, &c. (pl. 10,) It Is Fre Quent In The Farm-yards, Lanes, &c., In The Middle States, And Is A Disagreeable Foreign Weed, ...

Mead
Mead (dutch, Meede). An Agreeable Vinous Liquor Made From Honey. The Use Of This Sub Stance As One Of The Ingredients In Drink Is Of Very Ancient Date. When Fermented, Honey Water Obtains The Name Of Mead, Which Is, In Fact, Honey-wine : Indeed The Germans Call It By That ...

Meadow
Meadow. A Field Under Grass Cultiva Tion, Generally Situated On The Banks Of A River Or Lake ; But So Far Above The Surface Of The Water As To Be Considerably Drier Than Marsh Land, And, Consequently, Producing Grass And Herbage Of A Superior Quality. The Soil Of Meadow Lands ...

Medick
Medick (medicago). An Extensive Genus Of Herbaceous, Mostly Procumbent, Plants. The Perennial Herbaceous Species Are Sometimes Cultivated For Ornament ; They Will Grow In Any Common Garden Soil, And Are Increased By Di Viding The Roots Of The Plants In Spring. The Shrubby Kinds Grow In A Similar Soil, And ...

Medlar
Medlar (mespilus). A Genus Of Large Growing Fruit Trees, Which Are Very Ornamental, And Therefore Worth A Place In Every Shrub Bery. Any Common Soil Suits Them, And They Are Readily Increased By Budding Or Grafting On The Common Hawthorn, Or They May Be In Creased By Seeds, Which Do ...

Melilotus
Melilotus (lat. Mel, Honey, And Lotus; A Leguminous Plant). The Plants Are Similar To The Lotus, And Are The Favourite Haunt Of Bees. These Are, For The Most Part, Honey-scented Plants, With Upright Stems, And Long Erect Racemes Of Small Yellow Or White Flowers, Re Sembling Those Of Clover, Of ...

Melon Culture
Melon Culture. The Warm Summers Of The Southern And Most Of The Middle States, Are Highly Favourable To The Culture Of Melons Of Every Description, Which In Some Places Constitute A Very Profitable Crop. The Follow Ing Communication Relative To The Culture Of The Musk Melon Or Cantaleup, Addressed To ...

Melon
Melon (cucumis Mero). The Citron, Persian Nutmeg, And Murray's Pine-apple Are Good Va. Rieties Of The Canteleup Or Musk-melon. Plan Hills Of Rich, Light Soil, At The Distance Of T Feet Asunder, In The Latter End Of Spring, Putting 6 -r 8 Seeds Into Each Hill, 2 Inches Distan 688 ...