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Or Land Ditching
Land-ditching, Or Hollow Draining As It Is Sometimes Termed, Is Chiefly Practised In England In The Counties Of Essex And Hertford. It Consists In Digging Both Main And Side Drains, Similar To Those Generally Adopted In Draining Land: The Former Are Usually Made From 22 To 24 Inches, The Latter ...

Or Liverwort Hepatica
Hepatica, Or Liverwort (anemone Hepatica). Miller Mentions Five, Sorts : The Sin Gle Blue (nobilis), The Double Blue (plena), The Single White (alba), The Single Red (vulgaris), And The Double Red (rubra). In England These Beautiful And Early Perennials Produce Their Flowers In February And March, Before Any Leaf Appears. ...

Or Love Apple Tomato
Tomato, Or Love-apple. (solynum Lycopersicum ; Lycopersicuvz Esculatum..) Several Varieties Of This Plant Are Found In Our Gardens And Fields, Some Of Which Are Red And Others Yellow ; Among The Reds Are, 1st, The Common Large; 2d, The Small; 3d, The Pear-shaped; 4th, The Cherry Shaped. Of The Yellow ...

Or Medullin Medulla
Medulla, Or Medullin (lat.) Marrow. In Botany That Tissue Which Constitutes The Pith Of Certain Plants, As The Pith Of The Sun Flower. Medullary Rays Are The Vertical Plates Of Cellular Tissue, Which Radiate From The Centre Of The Stem Of Exogenous Plants, Through The Wood To The Bark. They ...

Or Muscles Mussels
Mussels, Or Muscles (mytilis Edilis). A Species Of Shell-fish Which Abound On The Rocky Shores On The Borders Of The Sea In Many Parts Of The British Islands, Adhering To The Rocks. Mus Cles Are Also Found In Immense Beds, Both In Deep Water And Above The Low Water-mark, In ...

Or Nep Catmint
Catmint, Or Nep (nepeta Cataria, Smith, Vol. Iii. P. 70). This Is A Common Plant, Grow. Ing In Borders Of Fields And In Moist Places, Flowering In June And July. It Grows A Yard High, With Broad Whitish Leaves, And White Flowers, Not Unlike Mint. The Plant Has A Strong ...

Or Peruvian Rice Quinoa
Quinoa, Or Peruvian Rice (chenopo Dium Quinoa). Humboldt Speaks Of This Plant As One Of The Few Cultivated In The Highest And Coldest Regions Of The Andes And The Mexican Cordilleras, Where It Ranks In Utility With The Potato, Indian Corn, And Wheat. Whilst Young, The Leaves Are Used As ...

Or Potassa Potash
Potash, Or Potassa. The Name Of One Of The Alkalies, Composed Of 39.15 Parts Of Pe Culiar Metal Called Potassium, 8 Parts Of Oxy Gen, And 9 Of Water. It Derives Its Common Name From Being First Obtained From The Ashes Of Vegetable Substances Which Had Been Burn Ed In ...

Or Purple Medick Grass
Lucern, Or Purple Medick Grass (medicago Sativa, Pl. 8, H). An Artificial Grass, Called By The French Grand Tree, Which Affords Perhaps A Larger Produce Of Fodder Than Any Other Species Of Artificial Grass. Although Found Growing Wild In Hedges, Pastures, And The Borders Of Fields In Dry, Calcareous Soils, ...

Or Queen Of The
Meadow-sweet, Or Queen Of The Meadows (spireea Ulmaria). In England An Indigenous Perennial Plant, Growing In Moist Meadows, And About The Banks Of Rivers And Ditches ; Flowering In June And July. The Root Is Fibrous, Without Knobs ; The Stems Are Her Baceous, 3 Or 4 Feet High, Leafy, ...

Or Ragwort Groundsel
Groundsel, Or Ragwort (senecio). An Extensive Genus Of Plants, Many Of The Species Of Which Are Very Ornamental. Of This Genus Sir John Smith Includes Ten Species As Indigenous To England, Four Only Of Which, However, Come Properly Under The Head Ground Sel. The Remainder Are Referred To Under The ...

Or Rampion Bellflow Er
Rampions, Or Rampion Bellflow Er (campanula Rapanculus). The Esculent Roots Of This Vegetable Are Far More Delicate Than Turnips Or Radishes. They Are Long, White, And In The Shape Of A Spindle. Like The Radish, It Is Eaten Raw, Having A Nut-like, Pleasant Flavour. The Plant Rises To The Height ...

Or Rose Bug Rose Chafer
Rose-chafer, Or Rose Bug, Is A Diurnal Or Day-flying Beetle Of The Melolonthian Genus. Dr. Harris States That This Insect, Which Is Com Mon In The Vicinity Of Boston, Is, Or Was A Few Years Ago, Unknown In The Northern And West Ern Parts Of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, And Maine. ...

Or Rust Mildew
Mildew, Or Rust. Of All The Many Dis Eases Which Attack Our Cultivated Plants, Not One Is So Destructive As The Mildew. It Is The "plague" Of Our Wheat Crops ; And As That Fatal Distemper Is Always Lurking In Some District Of Climes Warmer Than Our Own, So The ...

Or Sage Clary
Clary, Or Sage (salvia). Smith (eng. Flora, Vol. P. 34) Describes Two Kinds, The .o-meadow Clary (s. Pratensis), And Wild English Clary (s. Verbenaca). The First Is Very Uncom Mon, But Sometimes Met With In Dry Meadows And About Hedges ; Grows Three Feet High, Erect; Not Very Aromatic; Leaves, ...

Or Sloe Black Thorn
Black Thorn, Or Sloe (prunus Api Nose). This Rigid Bushy Shrub Is Well Known, Growing Commonly In Hedges And Thickets. It Is Frequently Used In Making Fences, Especially In Exposed Situations. But It Is Not Reckoned So Good For This Purpose As The White Thorn, Because It Is Apt To ...

Or Spurge Olive Mezereon
Mezereon, Or Spurge Olive Mezerewm). This Is A Pretty Shrub, Indigenous To England, Where It Grows Wild In Woods, But Is Not Common. The Stem Is Bushy, 4 Or 5 Feet High, With Upright, Alternate, Smooth, Tough, And Pliant Branches ; Leafy While Young. The Flowers Are Pale Garnet-coloured, Highly, ...

Or St Johns Wort
John's Wort, Or St. John's Wort (hyperieum). The Generic Name Is Said To Be Derived From Viper, And Eicon, An Image. The Superior Part Of The Flower Represents A Figure. The Common Name Is Derived From Their Com Ing Into Flower About St. John The Baptist's Day. The Most Part ...

Or Starr Bent
Bent, Or Starr. Names Applied In Eng Land To The Common Reed (the Arundo Prag Mites Of Dr. Darlington, And The A. Arenaria Of Some Other Botanists). Sinclair Calls The Upright Sea Lyme Grass, Starr, Or Bent. (see Plate 7, 1.) One Of The Chief Uses This Coarse Grass Is ...

Or Sycamore Buttonwood
Buttonwood, Or Sycamore, The Pla Ten= Occidentalis, Or Western Plane Tree, Of Na Turalists. Among Trees With Deciduous Leaves, None In The Temperate Zones, Either On The Old Or New Continent, Equals The Dimensions Of The Planes. The Species Which Grows In The West Ern World Is Not Less Remarkable ...

Or Teazle Teasel
Teasel, Or Teazle (dipsocus, Supposed To Be Derived From Dipsao, To Thirst; In Conse Quence Of The Leaves Holding Water). It Is A Curious Genus Of Plants : Some Of The Species Are Pretty Flowering Plants, Especially The Small Teasel. They Grow Well In Any Common Soil, And Are Readily ...

Or Threshing Thrashing
Thrashing, Or Threshing. The Act Of Beating Out The Corn From Grain Or Other Crops. The Flail Was The Implement Formerly Used For Thrashing Corn, And Which Separated The Grain From The Straw And Busks Very Effect Ually And Expeditiously; But As It Is Now Be , Come Expensive, And ...

Or Ulcer Canker
Canker, Or Ulcer (lat. Canker; Sax. Cancerm, Or Canere). In The Vegetable Creation, A Disease To Which Our Apple, Pear, Elm, And Other Trees Are Subject. "this Disease," Says Mr. G. W. Johnson, "is Accompanied By Different Symptoms, Accord Ing To The Species Of The Tree Which It Infects In ...

Or Water Soldier Water Aloe
Water-aloe, Or Water Soldier (strdtiotes Abides; From Stratos, An Army, In Allu Sion To Its Long Sword-like Leaves). In England, An Ornamental Native Aquatic, Which Fills The Ditches In Summer With A Close Phalanx Of Sword-like Leaves, And Increases So Fast In The Ponds Where It Is Planted As To ...

Or Wild Apple Tree
Crab Tree, Or Wild Apple Tree (pyres Malus). There Are In England Several Varieties Among The Wild Erah,l, Some Of Which Aie Of Excellent Flavour When Baked With Plenty Of Sugar, Even Surpassing Cultivated Apples. (eng. Flora, Vol. Ii. P. 362.) Crab Apples And Sloes Are The Only Fruits Naturally ...

Or Wild Tansey Silver Weed
Silver-weed, Or Wild Tansey (po. Tentilla Anserina). An Indigenous Perennial Plant, Which, According To Linnaeus, Indicates Clay Under The Surface. Although It Is Found Frequent In Osier Bolts And Spongy Meadows, It Grows Most Commonly Upon Cold, Stiff Land, And Is A Sure Mark Of The Sterility Of The Soil. ...

Or Woody Night Shade
Bitter-sweet, Or Woody Night Shade (solunum Dulcamara). This Wild Plant Loves Moist Places, Therefore Grdws Most Freely In Hedges And Thickets, Near Ditches, Rivers, And Damp Situations. It Flowers In June And July, And Ripens Its Berries In August, Which Are Of A Red Colour, Juicy, Bitter, And Poisonous. Its ...

Or Wort Pulmonariacowslip
Cowslip Of Jerusalem, Or Wort Pulmonaria (pulmonaria Iffici Nalis). This Plant Is Perennial And Flowers In May. It Grows Eight Or Ten Inches High, With Long, Broad, Hairy Leaves, Of A Deep Green, Spotted On The Upper Side With White Spots. The Stalks Are Slender And Hairy, With Small Leaves ...

Or Yellow Bed Straw
Cheese Rennet, Or Yellow Bed Straw (gahm Verum), Is A Perennial Plant, Common In Waste Places And The Borders Of Fields, Flowering In July And August. The Stem, Which Is Woody And Much Branched, Rises Eighteen Inches, And Sends Off, In The Same Plane, Narrow, Deep Green, Deflexed ,:eaves, Rough ...

Orache
Orache (jltriplex; From Atir, Black). A Genus Of Herbaceous Or Shrubby Straggling Plants Of Little Beauty, And The Simplest Culture And Propagation. There Are In England Sever Ral Native Species. The Hortensis Is Cooked And Eaten In The Same Manner As Spinach, To Which It Is Much Preferred By Many ...

Orange Tree
Orange Tree (citrus). The Genus To Which The Orange Tree Belongs Consists Of Or Namental Species Of Fruit Trees, Growing From 3 To 15 Feet High. The Leaves Are On More Or Less Dilated And Winged Footstalks; The Flowers Are Large, White, And Odoriferous, Exist Ing At The Same Time.as ...

Organic Chemistry Salts
Salts, Organic Chemistry, &c., Endeavoured, To The Best Of My Power, To Illustrate Some Of The Many Chemical Facts On Which The Success Ful Practice Of Agriculture Depends ; And To These I Must Refer The Farmer. Most Of The Substances Belonging To Our Globe, Says Davy, (chem. Philosophy, P. ...

Organic Chemistry
Organic Chemistry, Is That Portion Of The Science Of Chemistry Which Relates To Animal And Vegetable Substances. "the Ob Ject Of Organic Chemistry," Says M. Liebig, "is To Discover The Chemical Conditions Which Are Essential To The Life And Perfect Developement Of Animals And Vegetables, And Generally To In Vestigate ...

Osage Orange
Orange, Osage (madura Aurantiaca). This Is An American Deciduous Tree, Which Grows Wild In Arkansas And Louisiana, Where It Attains The Height Of A Tree Of The Second Or Third Class, But In The Middle States It Seldom Grows Higher Than 15 Or 20 Feet. It Is Very Branching; Each ...

Osier
Osier. The Name Given To Various Species Of Willow Or Salix, Chiefly Employed In Basket Making. Although Under The Heads Sarrow And Warrow Are Noticed Most Of The Species Of This Genus, It May Be Well To Describe In This Place, A Few Of Those Which Are More Generally Known ...

Other European
Other European Breeds.—in Some Parts Of Hungary The Breed Of Swine Is Excellent. In Germany Swine Are Common, But The Breed Is Everywhere Indifferent. Of The Other Con Tinegtal Races Only A Very Few Require Particu Lar Notice. The Jutland Swine, Which Are Of A Large Size, And Form An ...

Oven
Oven. A Domestic Furnace Used For Baking Bread, Pies, Tarts, &c. Ovens Are Generally Con Structed Of Brick-work In A Semicircular Form, With A Very Low Roof, And The Bottom Of Which Is Laid With Stone : In The Front Is A Small Aper Ture And Door, By The Shutting ...

Ovipositor
Ovipositor (lat. Ovum, An Egg; And Pono, I Place). In Entomology, Is The Instrument By Which An Insect Conducts Its Eggs To Their Ap Propriate Nidus, And Often Bores A Way To It; The Same Instrument Is In Some Genera Used As A Weapon Of Offence, Whence It Is Called ...

Owls
Owls. A Tube Of Reptorial Birds, Including Those Which Fly By Night, And Have The Eyes Directed Forwards. The Owl, Although Fre Quently Held In Disrepute, Should Never Be De Stroyed By The Farmer, To Whom He Is A Great Friend; For His Diet Consists Chiefly Of Field-mice, Of Which ...

Oxalis Crenata
Oxalis Crenata. A Perennial Orna Mental Plant, Native Of Chili, Lately Discovered By Mr. Douglas. The Flowers Are Beautiful, •of A Yellow Colour, And In Umbels ; The Stalks And Leaves Are Succulent, Of An Acid Taste, And Useful As Salads ; The Roots Or Tubers Are Pro Duced In ...

Oxygen Gas
Oxygen Gas. A Simple Or Undecom Pounded Substance, Discovered In 1774 By Dr. Priestley. It Constitutes 21 Per Cent. Of The At Mosphere, And It Is That Portion Of It Which Supports Animal Life And Combustion. It Is Emitted By Plants Growing In The Light, And Is Absorbed By Them ...

Oyster Shells
Oyster Shells. As A Manure, The Use Of Crushed Oyster Shells Has Never Been So Extensive In England As In Ireland. Though ,consisting Mainly Of Carbonate Of Lime, They Contain A Very Minute Proportion Of Phos Of Lime, Li To 21 Per Cent., With A Proportion Of Magnesia. They Are ...

Palma
Palma Christsee Gerron Oil Plant. The Cake Left After The Expression Of Castor Oil Is Very Advantageously Applied To Land As A Manure For Wheat And Other Crops. In Teresting Communication Upon This Subject May Be Found In The First Volume Of The Farmer's Register, From T. G. Peachy, Esq., ...

Palmetto
Palmetto (chanueops Palmetto). Cabbage Tree. This American Tree Belongs To The Ge Nus Of The Palms, And Is Found Farther North Than Any Other Species In America. From Its Lofty Height It Is Reckoned In The United States As A Tree. It Is First Seen About Cape Hatteras, In The ...

Palms
Palms. A Natural Order Of Arborescent En Dogens, Chiefly Inhabiting The Tropics ; Distin Guished By Their Fleshy, Colourless, Six-parted Flowers, Enclosed Within Spathes ; Their Minute Embryo Lying In The Midst Of Albumen, And Re Mote From The Hilum; And Rigid Plaited Or Pin Nate Inarticulated Leaves, Sometimes Called ...

Palsy
Palsy. In The Horse This Nervous Disease Is Usually Confined To The Hinder Limbs. Old Carriage-horses, And Horses Of Draught Of Every Kind, Although Not Absolutely Paralyzed, Have Often Great Stiffness In Their Gait, And Difficulty Of Turning. These Are Evident Injuries Of The Spine.. Bleeding, Physicking, Antimonial Me Dicines, ...

Papaw
Papaw (anona Triloba). An American Plant, Which, Though Most Frequently Appear Ing In The Form Of A Shrub, Sometimes Attains The Size Of A Tree Of The Third Order. By The French Of Upper Louisiana The Papaw Is Called Assiminier. It Is Not Found North Of The Schuyl Kill River, ...

Papilionaceous Plants
Papilionaceous Plants Include Many Of The Most Common And Valuable Plants Supplying Food To Man And Animals, Such As Pulse, Beans, Peas, Tares, Sainfoin, &c. The Papilionaem Take The Name From The Resem Blance Borne By Their Flowers To The Butterfly, As Is Seen In The Blossom Of The Common ...

Parasitical Plants
Parasitical Plants Are Those Which Grow Into The Tissue Of Other Species, And Feed Upon Their Juices. Of This Kind Are The Mis Seltoe, The Broom-rape (orobanchs), The Lathraa, &c. Such Species Have No Proper Roots. The Term Parasitical Is, However, Often Applied To Mosses, Orchidaceous Plants, Tillandsias And The ...

Paring And Burning
Paring And Burning. This Well Known Operation Of Agriculture, Once Much More Extensively Practised In England Than At Present, Consists In Paring Off The Turf To A Depth Of Two Or Three Inches, Generally With A Breast-plough Worked By A Labourer, Or By A Turf-paring Plough Drawn By A Horse ...

Park
Park. A Considerable Extent Of Pasture And Woodland, Surrounded Or Adjoining The Country Residence Of A Man Of Wealth, Devoted To Pur Poses Of Recreation Or Enjoyment, But Chiefly To The Support Of A Herd Of Deer, Though Some Times To Cattle And Sheep. Parks Were Origi Nally Nothing More ...

Parsnip_2
Parsnip (pastinaca, From Pastiwn, A Dib Ble, In Allusion To The Form Of The Root). The Com Mon Wild Parsnip (p. Sativa) Is The Well-known Culinary Root ; The Other Species Are Unworthy Of Cultivation. The Original Is A Biennial Plant, And Found In England Growing Wild About The Borders ...

Partridge Pea
Pea, Partridge. The Cassia Chana:crista Of Beck; A Native Of The Middle And Southern States, Where It Goes By The Common Names Of Sensitive Pea And Magothybay Bean. The Stem Is 1 To 2 Feet High, Rather Erect, Firm, And Much Branched, Downy, And Often Purplish. Leaflets 8, 10, Or ...

Passion Flower
Passion-flower (passiflora, From Pas. Sio, Passion ; And Floe, A Flower ; In Allusion To 873 The Filamentous Appendages Or Lays Bearing A Resemblance To The Cross; The Emblem Of The Passion Of Christ). The Species Of This Inte Resting And Elegant Genus Are Admirably Adapt Ed For Stove And ...

Pasture
Pasture Grasses.—in Regard To Grasses For Pasturage, The Following Selection Is Given By Loudon, As Best Adapted To Three Main Pur Poses ; Namely : For Early Pasture On All Soils, The Sweet Ver Nal Grass (.dnthoxanthsem Ad,oratwm), The Sweet Scented Soft-grass (holcus Odoratus), The Downy Oat-grass (avena Pubescens), And ...

Pasture_2
Pasture (fr.). Ground On Which Cattle Feed. I Ha,ve, Under The Head Guess, Gone At Some Length Into The Question Of The Grasses Best Adapted For Different Soils. The Pastures Of England And Ireland Exceed In Extend And Productiveness Those Of Any Other Country Of I Similar Extent. "the Excellence ...

Pathology
Pathology. The London Veterinary College Was First Established In The Year 1792, At St. Pancras. Mr. Boardman, In His Dictionary Of The Veteri Nary Art, Remarks, That "the Public Are Indebt Ed For This National Foundation To The Exertions Of The Agricultural Society Of Odiham, In Hampshire. The First Professor ...

Pea Bug Or Beetle
Pea-bug Or Beetle. In The Sprius Of The Year We Often Find, Among Seed-peas, Many That Have Holes In Them ; And, If The Peas Have Not Been Exposed To The Light And Air, We See A Little Insect Peeping Out Of Each Of These Holes, And Waiting Apparently For ...

Pea Fowl
Fowl, Pea (phasianus Lo). Native Of India, Tender In Infancy, But Soon Inured To Our Climate, As They Become Older. From Their Native Wild Habits, They Love To Lay Their Eggs In Woods Or Coppices Far From Home. As The Hen Covers Her Eggs Over With Dead Leaves After Laying ...

Pea
Pea (pisum Sativum). Landreth's Extra Early, And Bishop And Russell's Early Dwarfs Are The Earliest Varieties, And Good Of Their Kind. Dwarf Blue Imperial, And Dwarf Scime Tar Are Much Esteemed. Knight's Dwarf And Tall Marrowfats Are Late Kinds, But Superior To All Others For Flavour And Productiveness. Tall And ...

Peach Tree Borer
Peach Tree Borer. Pl. 16, Fig. 8. The Following Interesting Description Of The Peach Tree Worm, With A Mode Of Protecting Against Its Ravages, Is From Dr. Harris's Treatise On Destructive Insects. The Pernicious Borer, Which, During Many Years Past, Has Proved Very Destructive To Peach Trees Throughout The United ...

Peach_2
Peach (fr. Peche ; Lat. Ilmygdalus, Derived From Amrso, To Lacerate, In Allusion To The Fis Sured Shell). The Tall And Coarse Portion Of The Ornamental, Early Flowering Plants, Of Which The Peach Forms A Species,. May Be Advantage Ously Disposed Of In Large Plantations, And The Dwarf Kinds In ...

Pear Tree
Pear Tree (pyres, From Piren, The Celtic Word For Pear). Like Other Species Of Culti Vated Fruits, There Are Now A Very Great Num Ber Of Varieties, More Than 600 Being Enume Rated In The Horticultural Society's Catalogue: A Deep, Rich Loam Is Necessary For Pear Trees. They Are Increased ...

Peas
Peas And Oats. These, In The Eastern And Northern States, Are Often Sown Together Broad-cast, Producing A Mixed Crop Called The Common Proportions Are One Fourth Of Peas To Three-fourths Of Oats. The Pca Commonly Sown Is The Green Pea From -canada, Which Ripens About The Time Of The Oats, ...

Peat Soils
Peat Soils. The Improvement Of Peat Soils Is A Subject Of Very Considerable Agricul Tural Importance In England, Where It Involves Not Only The Permanent Improvement Of Large Estates, But These Peat Soils Include A Very Large Proportion Of Several Counties In The United Kingdom. The Deep Peat Mosses, Or ...

Peat
Peat. A Collection Of Vegetable Remains, Commonly Collected Together In Considerable Masses, Either On The Surface Of The Earth, Or In Strata, At Various Depths. Owing To The Changes Which The Plants Composing It Have Undergone, It Contains Much Tannic Acid, Which Preserves The Vegetable Matter Frdm Further Decomposition. It ...

Pennyroyal
Pennyroyal (mentha Pulegiwra). Eng Lish Pennyroyal. This Well Known Perennial Plant Is Found Growing Wild In England On Wet Commons, And About The Margins Of Small Brooks. It Has A Acid, And Very Pecu Liar Smell, And Is Stimulant And Tonic, But Less Grateful Than Peppermint. The Stems Are Somewhat ...

Pepper
Pepper (capsicum). Grossum Or Bellshaped, Large Sweet, And Squash Or Tomato-shaped, Are Used For Pickling ; The Last Variety Is The Best. The Sweet Has A-delicate Taste, And Is Used As A Salad. Sow In Hotbed In March, And Trans Plant ; Or In The Open Ground, Late In Spring, ...

Peppermint
Peppermint (mentha Piperita). This Species Differs From The Common Spear Or Green Mint Chiefly In The Intensity Of Its Taste And Dark Colour Of Its Foliage. It Is Only Cultivated Env The Essential Oil Or Distilled Third Specimen, From A Naturally Barren Soil, He Could Not Detect Any Phosphoric Acid. ...

Phe Day Lily
Lily, Phe Day (hemerocallis, From ,if/igx, A Day, And K.axos., Beauty; Alluding To The Beauty And Duration Of The Flowers). This Is An Orna Mental Genus Of Exotic Flowering Plants Of The 714 Simplest Culture, Thriving Well In Any Loamy Soil, And Readily Increased By Divisions. The Most Common Species ...

Pier Animal Manures
Animal Manures, Pier, Bones, Gelatin, &c., The Reader Will Find All The Animal Chemistry Bearing Upon Farming And Rural Affairs, With Which I Am Acquainted. The Relative Propor Tions Of The Inorganic Constituents Of Vegetable Substances Forms A Topic Of Great Interest ; And Professor G. F. W. Johnston's Lectures ...

Pine Tree
Pine Tree (finns, From Pines ; P Greek Word Used By Theophrastus, To Designate A Pine Tree ; And Some Authors Derive It From The Celtic Or Pin, A Mountain Or Rock, Alluding To The Of The Tree). This Much-esteemed And Well-known Genus, Belonging To The Gymno Spermous Division Of ...

Pink
Pink (dianthus ; From Dios, Divine ; And Anthos, A Flower, In Reference To The Fragrance Of The Blossoms And The Unrivalled Neatness Of The Flowers). A Truly Beautiful And Ornamental Genus, Containing Some Of The Most Prized Flowers We Possess, On Account Of The Beauty And Fragrance Of Their ...

Pitch
Pitch (ger. Peck). In Commerce, The Resi Duum Which Remains On Inspissating Tar, Or Boiling It Down To Dryness. It Is A Black Solid Substance, With A Shining Fracture, Softens At 90°, And Becomes Liquid In Boiling Water. It Is Extensively Used In Ship-building, And For Other Purposes. Large Quantities ...

Planer Tree
Planer Tree (planera Ulmifolia). "ken Tucky, Tennessee, The Banks Of The Mississippi, And The Southern States, Are, Says Michaux, The Only Parts Of The American Republic Where My Father And Myself Have Found The Planer Tree. "i Have More Particularly Observed The Planer Tree In The Large Swamps On The ...

Planks
Planks (ger. Planken ; Dan. Planker ; Fr. Planches). Thick Strong Boards Cut From Vari Ous Kinds Of Woed, Especially Oak And Pine Planks Are Usually Of The Thickness Of From One Inch To Four. They Are Imported In Large Quantities From The Northern Ports Of Europe, And From Several ...

Plantain
Plantain (plantago; Derived From Plants, The Sole Of The Foot ; Resemblance In The Leaves). A Genus Of Plants, The Greater Number Of The Species Of Which Are Mere Weeds : They Are Generally Almost Stemless, And For The Most Part Perennial. There Are In England Five Na Tive Species ...

Plantation
Plantation.) In Former Times The Greater Part Of Every Country In The Temperate Parts Of Europe Was Undoubtedly Covered With Forests ; And These, By Harbouring And Nourishing Wild Animals Of Every Description, Particularly Wild Swine, Afforded A Principal Part Of The Food Of Man. With Civilization, However, They Grad ...

Plantation_2
Plantation. In England This Term Is Applied To A Piece Of Ground Planted With Trees For The Purpose Of Producing Timber Or Cop Pice Wood; And The Term Is Also Applied To A Collection Of Trees Or Shrubs Placed In The Ground For Their Beauty Or Usefulness. For The Correct ...

Planting
Planting. In Arboriculture, The Art Of Forming Plantations Of Trees. Also The Art Of Inserting Plants In The Soil By The Spade, Dibble, Trowel, Or By Other Means In Use In Agricoure And Gardening. As In The Preceding Article I Have Gone Very Fully Into The Particulars Of Planting Trees, ...

Plants In Closely Glazed
Plants In Closely Glazed Cases. By The Recent Discovery Of Mr. Ward, Of London, That Certain Plants Will Grow When Enclosed In Glazed Cases, The Most Forbidding Local Circum Stances May Be Overcome, And Any Person, Whether Inhabiting The Most Humble Or The Most Splendid Dwelling, Provided They Are Ex ...

Plashing
Plashing. A Mode Of Repairing Or Modi Fying A Hedge By Bending Down A Portion Of The Shoots, Cutting Them Half Through Near The Ground, To Render Them More Pliable, And Twist Ing Them Among The Upright Stems, So As To Render The Whole Effective As A Fence, And At ...

Plaster Of Paris
Plaster Of Paris Or Girvitme, As A Mi, Nunz. It Is Useless To Search In The Works Of The Early Agricultural Writers For Any Notice Of The Employment Of Gypsum As A Manure. It Is True That Virgil Speaks Of The Value Of A Very Impure Variety Of It, When ...

Pleasure Ground
Pleasure-ground. That Portion, Of Ground Adjoining A Dwelling-house In The Country ; And Which Is Exclusively Devoted To Ornamental And Recreative Purposes. In The Ancient Style Of Gardening, The Pleasure-ground Was Laid Out In Straight Walks, And Regular Or Symmetrical Forms, Commonly Borrowed From Architecture ; But In The Modern ...

Plough
Plough. To The Frame Of The Plough Is Attached A Pointed Share, Which Serves As A Hoe For The Centre Of The Furrow : A Movable Frame Is At Tached To The Beam, Which Is Readily Adjusted To Any Given Width : To This Is Attached, When It Is Intended ...

Ploughing
Ploughing. The Art Of Turning Over The Soil By Means Of The Plough. There Are‘va, Rious Kinds Of Ploughing. Trench Ploughing Is Effected By The Plough Passing Twice Along The Same Furrow: The First Time For The Purpose Of Throwing The Surface Soil Into The Bottom Of The Furrow, And ...

Ploughmans Spikenard
Spikenard, Ploughman's (conyza, From Konis,dust ; Because It Was Supposed To Have The Power Of Driving Away Flies ; Whence Also One Of The Common Names, Flea (fly) Bane. The Genus Erigeros Is, However, The Real Fly-bane ; Some Of Its Viscid Species, Dipped In Milk, Being Used In The ...

Plough_2
Plough. (sax. Rau ; Dan. Ploegh.) A Well-known, Perhaps The Most Ancient, Cer Tainly The Most Valuable Of All Agricultural Im Plements. There Are Traces Of It In Even The Earliest Of All Written Authorities, And, Judging Of Its Importance In Agriculture, We Can Hardly Imagine It Possible To Carry ...

Plum Tree Weevil
Plum Tree Weevil. It Is Now Well Known That The Falling Of Unripe Plums, Apri Cots, Peaches, And Cherries, Is Caused By Little Whitish Grubs, Which Bore Into These Fruits. The Loss Of Fruit, Occasioned By Insects Of 'this Kind, Is Frequently Very Great ; And, In Some Of Our ...

Plum
Plum (prunus, From Prune, Its Greek Name) A Genus Of Trees And Shrubs, Several Of Which Are Indigenous To Britain. Having Already Noticed The Bird Cherry (p. Padus), The Wild Cherry Tree (p. Cerasus), The Wild Bullace Tree (p. Insititia), The Black Thorn Or Sloe ( B. Spinosa), Under Their ...

Plume Thistle
Thistle, Plume (cnicus). This Is A Separation From The Genus Cardwus Made By Sir J. E. Smith. They Are Prickly, Herbaceous Plants, And Differ Chiefly In The Down Being Evidently Feathery, Not Merely Rough. The Biennial Species May Be Readily Destroyed By Mowing Before The Flowers Form Seed. There Are ...

Poa
Poa (from Poa, Signifying Grass Or Her Bage). The Meadow-grass. A Genus Of Grasses Of Considerable Extent, And Very Abundant In The Pasturages Of Europe. This Genus Con Tains Some Valuable Hay And Pasture Grasses, Succeeding Well In Rich Loamy Soil ; Some Of The Species• Are Aquatic, Growing Only ...

Pod
Pod. A Term Used To Express The Siliqua And Silicula Of Botanists. A Seed-vessel Of Some Plants, Consisting Of Two Valves, Sepa Rated By A Linear Receptacle, Along Each Of The Edges Of Which The Seeds Are Alternately Ranged. The Wall-flower Affbrds An Example Of The Sili Qua, Which Differs ...

Poison
Poison (fr.). Any 'substance Which In Small Quantity Disturbs, Suspends, Or Destroys One Or More Of The Vital Functions. Poisons Are Classified By Orfila Under The Four Heads Of Irri Tants, Narcotics, Narcotico-acrids, And Putrefi Ants, Or Septics, And, We May Add, Sedatives. The Same Poisons Which Affect Men Usually ...

Pollard
Pollard. A Name Given To A Tree That Has Been Frequently Polled Or Lopped, And Its Top Taken Off, Or Headed Down To The Stem, For The Purpose Of Fire-wood Or Small Poles For Hurdle-wood And Other Similar Uses, As Well As For Hop-poles, &c. The Term Is Most Com ...

Pollen
Pollen. In Botany, The Pulverulent Sub Stance Which Fills The Cells Of The Anthers Of A Plant, Consisting Of A Multitude Of Little Hollow Cases, Filled With A Fluid Holding Very Minute Molecular Matter In Suspension. The Latter Is Eventually Discharged By The Grains Of Pollen Through Their Hollow Tubes, ...

Polypody
Polypody. (polypodium, From Poly, Many And Pods, A Foot; Having Numerous Rootlike Feet. This Is An Extensive Genus Of Very Orna Mental Ferns. The Hardy Kinds Are Well Adapted For Ornamenting Rock-work, Or They May Be Grown In Pots, In Light Loamy Soil. All The Species May Be Readily Increased ...

Pomegranate
Pomegranate (punica, From Pwnicus Of " Carthage," Near Which City It Is Said To Have Been First Found ; Or From Pwniceus, Scarlet ; Alluding To The Colour Of The Flowers). A Beau Tiful, Hardy, Deciduous Shrub, Growing From 12 To 15 Feet High. There Is No Tree More Showy ...

Poplar
Poplar (populus ; Some Derive The Word From Paipallo, To Vibrate Or Shake ; Others Sup Pose It Obtained Its Name From Being Used In Ancient Times To Decorate The Public Places In Rome, Where It Was Called Arbor Populi, Or The Tree Of The People). Most Of The Species ...

Poppy
Poppy (papaver, From Papa, Pap, Or Thick Milk ; The Juice Of The Poppy Was Formerly Used In Children's Food To Make Them Sleep). These Plants Succeed Best In A Light, Rich Soil. The Perennial Kinds Are Increased By Dividing At The Roots. All The Species Are Narcotic. In England ...