Home >> The-farmer's-and-planter's-encyclopaedia-of-rural-affairs >> Population to Scythe And Cradle
Loading

Population
Population. As Very Erroneous Notions With Regard To Over-population Are Often Enter Tained, And As Many Of The Mosrphilanthropic Men In England Have, At Considerable Personal Trouble And Cost, Promoted Emigration, To Avert The Evils Of War, Pestilence, And Famine, From What Mr. Malthus Supposes To Be The Tendency Of ...

Pores
Pores. In Botany, Apertures, More Or Less Visible, In The Cuticle Of Plants, Through Which Transpiration Takes Place. They May Exist On The Cellular Tissue ; And When There They Are The Organs Of Insensible Perspiration Of The 925 Plant : They May Exist As Cortical Pores; Or On The ...

Pork Mutton
Mutton, Pork, Sheep, Swine, &c. "in Whatever Manner Meat Is Cooked," Ob Serves Mr. Donovan, "there Is A Considerable Diminution Of Substance, The Loss Consisting Chiefly Of Water, Juices, Soluble Matter, And Fat. In An Economical Point Of View, A Comparison Of The Loss Incurred In The Two Most Usually ...

Potato Fly Or Beetle
Potato-fly Or Beetle. The Green Cantharides, Or Spanish-flies, As They Are Com Monly Called, Are Found In The South Of Europe, And Particularly In Spain And Italy, Where They Are Collected In Great Quantities For Exporta Tion. In These Countries They Often Appear In Immense Swarms On The Privet, Lilac, ...

Potato Murrain
Potato Murrain. Since The Year 1845, When The Great Destruction Of Potatoes In Great Britain And Ireland Took Place, With The Conse Quent Famine, This Disease Has Been The Subject Of Most Active And Earnest Investigation. It Would Be Vain To Attempt Giving Even An Epitome Of The Various Views ...

Potato
Potato (solomon Tuberosum). A Valuable, Well-known Root, First Imported From America Into England By Sir Walter Raleigh, And First Grown At Youghall, In Ireland. In Many Parts Of England This Tuberose Plant Is Very Exten Sively Cultivated, Both In The Field And In The Garden ; But, In Districts Removed ...

Poultice
Poultice. An External Application Em Ployed For Soothing Pain And Abating Inflamma Tion, And Where This Is Advanced, Promoting Sup Puration In Gatherings, &c. The Best For Animals Are Prepared Of Ground Flax-seed, Or Rye-meal. The Main Object Is To Have The Poultice Large Enough To Continue Long Moist And ...

Poultry
Poultry. A General Term Including Every Kind Of Domestic Fowl, Which Is Reared About The House Or Farm-yard, As Cocks And Hens, Ducks, Geese, Turkeys, &c. Poultry Constitutes A Part Of Every Farmer's Stock, But The Rearing Of It In England Is Not Often Productive Of Any Pecuniary Advantage ; ...

Primrose
Primrose (primula, From Primes, The First; In Allusion To The Early Flowering Of The Plants). This Is An Extensive Genus Of Small, But Very Pretty And Desirable Plants. All The Species Of Primrose Succeed Best In A Mixture Of Loam And Peat, And Increase Readily By Seeds, Or By Dividing ...

Principle Of Plants
Principle Of Plants. "the Cultivated Plants Yield The Greatest Products Near The Northernmost Limit In Which They Will Grow. "i Have Been Forcibly Impressed With This Fact, From Observing The Productions Of The Various Plants, Which Are Caltivated For Food And Cloth Ing In The United States. The Following Instances ...

Privet
Privet (ligustrum, From Ligare, To Tie; In Allusion To The Very Flexible Branches). The Common Privet, Print, Or Prim-print (l. Vulgare), Is A Hardy Shrub, Growing From 6 To 8 Feet In Height, In Its Wild State Tenanting Rather Moist Thickets And Hedges, On A Gravelly Or Chalky Soil: But ...

Propagation Of Plants
Propagation Of Plants. The Greater Number Of Plants Are Propagated Na Turally By Means Of Seeds ; But, In Addition To These, Many Plants Are Extended Over The Sur Face On Which They Take Root By The Production Of Runners, Or Lateral Shoots, Which Spread Along The Surface, And Root ...

Pulse
Pulse. A Term Applied To All Leguminous Plants, As Peas, Beans, Tares, Vetches, Lupins, &c. All The Species Of Pulse Afford Excellent Manure When Turned Into The Soil In A Green State. The Custom Of Ploughing In Green Suc Culent Plants Of This Kind Is Very Ancient. All The Roman ...

Pumpkin
Pumpkin (cucurbita Pepo). The Pumpkin Is Extensively Cultivated In The United States, Where There Are Many Varieties, Some Of Them Attaining The Enormous Size Of 2 Feet Or More In Diameter. But Such Large Ones Are Not So Highly Esteemed. The Better Sorts Are Often Used At Table, Affording The ...

Purgatives
Purgatives. In Farriery, Such Medicines As Tend To Evacuate The Crudities Of The Bowels By Stool, And Which Are Sometimes Called Ca Thartics. See Purging. The Purgatives Most Frequently Employed For Horses And Cows Are Sulphur, Jalap, Aloes, Gamboge, _rhatnnus Catharticus, And Calomel. Saline Purgatives Are Not Often Required ; ...

Purging
Purging Is Necessary In A Variety Of Cases, For Different Sorts Of Animals, Particularly In Diseases Of The Inflammatory Kind, Swellings In The Extreme Parts. Aloes Is The Best Form Of Physic; Bet Epsom Salts, Linseed, And Olive Oil, Are Sometimes Used On Certain Occasions As Laxatives With Great Propriety ...

Purple Marsh Cinque Foil
Cinque-foil, Purple Marsh (coma Hum Palustre). A Perennial, Found In Spongy, Muddy Bogs And Ditches. Root, Creeping Ex Tensively, With Many Long Fibres. Stems, Round, Reddish, A Foot Or More In Height. Flowers, Several, Without Scent, But Handsome, An Inch Broad, All Over Of A Dark Purplish Blood Colour, As ...

Putrefaction
Putrefaction (lat. Putrefactio). The Spontaneous Decomposition Of Animal And Ve Getable Substances, Attended By The Evolution Of Fetid Gases. The Putrefactive Fermentation Of Animal Substances Is Usually Attended By More Fetid And Noxious Exhalations Than Those Arising From Vegetable Products. This Appears Principally Referable To The More Abundant Presence Of ...

Pyroligneous Acid
Pyroligneous Acid. This Term Is Generally Applied To The Acid Liquor Which Passes Over Along With Tar And Gaseous Pro Ducts, When Wood Is Subjected To Destructive Distillation. This Acid Liquor Is An Impure Vinegar, From Which Acetic Acid Is Obtained. It Has In Its Impure State A Powerful Smoky ...

Quaking Grass
Quaking Grass (briza ; Named From Brizo, To Nod, On Account Of The Quaking Cha Racter Of The Spikelets). A Genus Of Grasses Of Which Some Species Are Pretty And Interesting, As B. Minor, B. Rubra, And B. Clusii ; But The Greater Portion Are Mere Weeds. The Whole Are ...

Quince
Quince (cydonia). A Well-known Genus Of Fruit Trees. C. Vulgaris Is The Species Gene Rally Cultivated For Its Fruit. It Is A Native Of Candia; But Cultivated Over Most Parts Of Eu Rope And North America. It Belongs To The Natural Order Pomacece. The Fruit, Or Quince, Is Of A ...

Quitter
Quitter. In Farriery, An Ulcer Formed Between The Hair And Hoof, Usually On The In Side Quarter Of A Horse's Foot ; It Often Arises From Treads And Bruises, Sometimes From Gra Vel, Which, By Working Its Way Upwards, Lodges About The Coronet; If It Is Only Superficial, It May ...

Rabbit
Rabbit. (lepus Owniculus). A Well-known Animal, Resembling The Hare, Smaller In Size, Belonging To The Order Rodentice. The Rabbit Has Shorter Hind-legs Than The Hare, And The Ears, Are More Thinly Covered With Hair. Rabbits I Abound In England, And Are In Many Cases Preserved In Warrens. They Are Very ...

Radish Maggot
Radish-maggot. Radishes, While Grow Ing, Are Very Apt To Be Attacked By Maggots, And Rendered Unfit To Be Eaten. These Maggots Are Finally Transformed To Small, Ash-coloured Flies, With A Silvery-gray Face, Copper-coloured Eyes, And A Brown Spot On The Forehead Of The Females ; They Have Some Faint Brownish ...

Radish
Radish (raphanus Sativus). Short-top Scar Let, Salmon, Red And White Turnip-rooted, May Be Sown In The Spring, As Early As The Ground Can Be Worked. Yellow Turnip-rooted And Summer White Are Best For Summer Use. White And Black Spanish For Winter. Sow These At Close Of Summer, Or Early In ...

Rag
Rag. A Torn Piece Of Cloth Of Any Sort: When Of The Woollen Kind, They Are Used As Manure. Woollen Rags Are Almost Entirely Composed Of Animal Matter: They Are Found To Contain A Very Large Proportion Of Albumen, (a Substance Similar In Appearance To Boiled White Of Egg), Minute ...

Rain Gauge
Rain-gauge. An Instrument For Measur Ing Or Gauging The Quantity Of Rain Which Falls At A Given Place. It Is Also Known Under The Se Qeral Names Of Ombrometer, Udometer, Plu Viameter, And Hytetometer. Its Principles And Construction Are Of The Simplest Nature ; But It Is Made In A ...

Rain Hail
Hail, Rain, Snow, Vapour, &c. A Third Class Of Meteors Or Atmospheric Phenomena Are Caused By The Action Of The Aqueous Particles Dispersed In The Atmosphere, Or The Rays Of Light. These Are Called Luminous Meteors, And Comprise Fata Morgana, Halo, Mirage, Parhelia, The Rainbow, &c. A Fourth Class Are ...

Rain
Rain (ger. Regen). In Meteorology, Water Falling From The Clouds. As The Effects Of Rain Upon Vegetation Are So Highly Important, It Will Be Useful To Ascer Tain The Quantity Or Depth Of Rain That Falls Annually In Various Places, And The Difference 'in The Effects Which Are Produced By ...

Rake
Rake. A Tool Of The Toothed Kind, Of Va Rious Sizes And Forms, Made Use Of In Garden Ing, And For Different Agricultural Purposes. There Are Several Others Used For Field Opera Tions, Some Of Which Are Worked By Horses. The Drag-rake, In Its Simplest Form, Is Merely A Long ...

Ranunculus
Ranunculus (from Rana, A Frog , Several Of The Species Being Found In Moist Places Fro* 4 X 2 941 Quented By That Reptile). Many Of The Plants Belonging To This Extensive Genus Are Well Worth The Cultivator's Care, And They Have Long Been Favourites With Thellorist. The Aquatic Kinds ...

Rape Cake
Rape-cake. The Refuse Or Mare Remain Ing. Alter The Oil Has Been Expressed From The Rape Or Cole-seed. (see Linseed Cake.) The Use Of Rape-cake As A Manure Is Pretty Ex Tensive In Some Parts Of England, And Its Effects Are So Immediate And Powerful, That Its Ex Pense Alone ...

Rape
Rape. A Plant Of The Cole Kind, Greatly Cultivated In Flanders For The Sake Of The Seed, But Extremely Valuable Also As Green Food For Cattle And Sheep In Winter And Spring. "the Plants," Says Mr. Low, "usually Cultivated Under The Name Of Rape, Are The Fusiform Va Rieties Of ...

Rape_2
Rape, Edible-rooted. This Name May Be Ap Plied To A Variety Of The Rape Mentioned By Mr. Dickson, One Of The Vice-presidents Of The Hor Ticultural Society. Its Root Is White, And Car Rot-shaped, About The Size Of The Middle Finger. It Is Much More Delicate In Flavour Than The ...

Raspberry
Raspberry (rubus Idrsus). This Shrub, In Its Wild State, Is Found Growing In Our Moun Tainous Woods And Thickets : Flowering In May And June. The Root Is Creeping. The Stems Are Biennial, Erect, 3 Or 4 Feet High, Branched, Round, Pale Or Purplish, More Or Less Be Sprinkled With ...

Rat
Rat. The Name Of A Large, Destructive, And Very Prolific Species Of The Genus Mus, The Brown, Or Water-rat (mus Decumanus, Introduced Into The British Islands From Asia, Not, As Is Commonly Believed, From Norway. It Has Spread Over All The Country, And Multi Plied At The Expense Of The ...

Reaping Hook
Reaping-hook. An Implement Used To Cut Down Corn. It Is One Of The Oldest Instru Ments Employed In Husbandry. There Are Two Kinds Of Hooks; That Which Is Principally Used By The British Labourer Has A Smooth Blade Of Wrought Iron And Steel, About 25 Inches Long, And Curved Nearly ...

Reaping Machine
Reaping Machine. A Contrivance For The Purpose Of Reaping Grain By Means Of Ani Mal Labour. With This View, And To Facilitate An Operation Of Such Importance To The Farmer, Different Attempts Have Been Made To Construct Machines, So As To Despatch The Work In A Rapid Manner By The ...

Reaping
Reaping Cutting Down Wheat Or Other Corn, Grain, Or Pulse With A Sickle, Hook, Or Scythe, Or By A Reaping-machine. These Ope Are More Advantageously Performed 944 When The Corn Or Pulse Is Tint Quite Epe, Than When It Is Thoroughly Ripe; Because, In The Latter Case, The Seeds Are ...

Red Cedar
Cedar, Red (jseniperus Virginians). This North American Tree Belonging To The Junipers, Is The Most Common Species Of Its Genus In The United States, And The Only One Which Attains A Size Adapting It To The Useful Arts. Next To That Found In Bermuda, It Is The Largest Of The ...

Red Root
Red-root (lithospermwm Arvense). Stone Weed. A Worthless Plant Which Has Been N. Troduced Into The United States, Where It Has Spread Itself Extensively, Especially In Some Parts Of New York, Where It Is Considered Even A Worse Pest Of The Fields Than The Canada Thistle. Dr. Darlington Describes The Plant ...

Red Water
Red-water, In Britain, A Well-known Dis Ease In Catcle " The Disease Commonly Called Q4g Red-water, Brown-water, Black-water, Moor-ill, &c.," Says Mr. R. Thompson, Of Auchterarder "is Most Prevalent In Old, Foggy Pastures. It Is Seldom Seen In Hill Pastures, Or In New-sown Pastures, In Which There Is Abundance Of ...

Reed Grass
Reed-grass. See Csarear-gness. Rennet, Or Runnet. The Prepared Inner Membrane Of The Calf's Stomach, Which Has The Property Of Coagulating The Albumen Of Milk, And Converting It Into Nerd And Whey. The Maw Is Cleaned, Salted, And Suspended In Paper Bags. Previously To Its Use, The Salt Is Extracted By ...

Reed
Reed (arwado). A Genus Of Aquatic Plants, In Most Instances Mere Weeds, Infesting Boggy Low Lands Or Meadows On The Sides Of Rivers. The Best Method Of Destroying Reeds, Is By Draining The Land ; For If The Drains Be Cut Deeper Than Their Roots, It Will Take Away Their ...

Rent
Rent (bedditus ; From Redeundo). The Sum Of Money Or Other Consideration Issuing Yearly Out Of Lands And Tenements Paid By The Oc Cupier To The Owner. This, In Britain, Has Gradually Taken The Present Form Of Payment In Money, From A Very Different Original Tenure ; For, In Former ...

Reservoir
Reservoir. A Conservatory Of Water. The Husbanding Of Water Is Now Becoming A Subject Of Peculiar Interest To The English Ag Riculturist. This Arises From Its Scarcity In Many Districts, In Consequence Of The Improved Drainage Of The Land, And From The Many Uses To Which Machinery May Be Applied ...

Resins
Resins. Peculiar Vegetable Substances Of Allied Properties, Eomposed Of Carbon, Hydro, Gen, And Oxygen ; The Most Common Of Which Is The Rosin Of Commerce, Or Residue After The Distillation Of Turpentines, In Order To Obtain The Volatile Oil. When Do Water Is Used In This Process, An Empyreumatic, Brownish-yellow, ...

Rest Harrow
Rest-harrow (ononis, From Onos, An Ass, And Onemi To Delight; Some Of The Species Are Said To Be Grateful To Asses). All The Plants Belonging To This Genus Are Of Easy Cultivation, And Several Of Them Are Rather Handsome When In Flower. The Common Rest-harrow Or Cam Mock (0. Arvensis), ...

Rhododendron
Rhododendron (from Rhodo, A Rose, And Dendron, A Tree, Because Of The Appearance Of The Terminal Bunches Of Flowers). The Rhodo Dendron Is Decidedly One Of The Finest Of All Known Genera, Containing Some Of The Most Handsome, Elegant, And Showy Shrubs ; All Of Which Are Admirably Adapted Either ...

Rhubarb
Rhubarb (rheum): Tobolisk, Mammoth, And Giant, Are The Best Varieties, And May Be Raised By Dividing The Roots Early In Spring, And Planting Them In Rich, Deep Soil, In Rows 4 Feet Asunder And 3 Feet Distant In The Rows To Raise From Seed, Sow Late In Autumn Or Early ...

Rhubarb_2
Rhubarb (rheum Rhaponticum, From Pre, To Spread, And Rheum Hybridum). A Hardy Peren Nial Gant, A Native Of Asia. The Leaves Are 48 Very Broad, And 2 Feet Long. Their Petioles Or Stalks Are Large, And These Only Are Used. They Are Agreeably Acid And Vinous, Very Wholesome, And Much ...

Rhus
Rhus (derived From Rous, In Greek, Which Is From Rhudd, A Celtic Word, Signifying Red ; Alluding To The Colour Of The Fruit And Leaves Of Some Species In Autumn). The Hardy Kinds Are Rather Ornamental, And Well Fitted For Shrub Beries ; Some Are Propagated By Cuttings Of The ...

Ribbon Grass
Ribbon-grass (phalaris). The Vaii...tv Of The Genus Phalaris Called Pieta, From Its Striped Leaves, Is Found In Gardens And Yards As An Ornamental Plant. From Its Tendency To Strike Deep Roots And Spread, It Often Becomes Troublesome To Eradicate. The Species Called Reed-like Or American Phalaris, Is Common In Swampy ...

Rice
Rice (oryza, From The Arabic Word Eruz, The Greeks Coined Their Word Og4a, And The Va Rious Modern Nations Of Europe Their Rice, Riz, &c.). 0. Sativa, The Common Rice, Has The Culm From 1 To 6 Feet In Length, Annual, Erect, Simple, Round, Jointed. Leaves Subulate-linear, Reflex, Embracing, Not ...

Robert Colling
Colling, Robert And Charles. Two Celebrated Farmers Of The County Of Durham, Who, By Their Skill, Enterprise, And Public Spirit, Not Only Secured For Themselves The Plaudits Of After Generations Of Farmers, But Did Honour To Their Country By The Improvement Which They Effected In The Durham Breed Of Short-horns, ...

Rollers
Rollers. An Implement Of Simple Con Struction,like The Roller, The Main Object Of Which Is To Render Smooth The Surface Of Arable Lands. Would Not Seem To Admit Apparently Of Much Va Riety In Its Construction. Nevertheless, It Is An Implement In Which Greater Diversity Of Form Is Found To ...

Rolling
Rolling. In Agriculture, The Action Or Operation Of Drawing A Roller Over The Surface Of The Ground, With The View Of Breaking Down The Clods, Rendering It More Compact, And Bringing It Even And Level ; Or For Only Level Ling The Surface, As In Grass Lands. This Is A ...

Root
Root., In Botany, That Part Of The Central Axis Of A Plant Which Is Formed By The Descend Ing Fibres, And Whose Function Is To Attract Liquid Food From The Soil In Which It Is Mingled. It Differs From The Stem In Not Having Leaves Or Buds Upon Its Surface, ...

Rose
Rose (lat. _rosa, From The Celtic Rhod, Red, In Reference To The Prevailing Colour Of The 1 Vers). In Botany, The English Name For The Well-known And Universally Cultivated Flower Of The Genus Rosa. It Is An Extensive Family, But All Of The Species Love A Stiff Soil. No Roses ...

Rot Rot
Rot. Rot. .o Administer This Medicine To The Living Sheep, And What Probability There Is Of Its Disturbing An Animal Inhabiting The Liver.. With Regard To The First Exception, There Can Arise No Diffi Culty. The Spirit Of Turpentine Is Borne Rea Dily By Children, And Has Been Given To ...

Rot
Rot. In Farriery, A Disease In Sheep And Other Animals, In Which Both The Liver And Lungs Are Affected, And There Is Commonly Dropsical Tendency. Its Ravages Are Chiefly, However, Confined To Sheep, And It Is Most Com Monly Closely Connected With Excess Of Moist Food, Or Placing These Animals ...

Rotation Of Crops Rotation
Rotation Of Crops, Rotation Of Crops. Replant Old Orchards With The Same Trees, Or To Replace Old Quick-hedges With Young Quick Plants, Yet An Old Orchard Or The Site Of An Old Hedge-row Are Proverbial For Their Fertility, When Planted With Other Crops. There Is Con Siderable Importance I Think ...

Rotation Of Crops Rotation_2
Rotation Of Crops. Rotation Of Crops. Matter Analogous To Albumen (hard White Of Egg) ; But It Seems That The Nitrogen Which Forms A Constituent Part Of This Matter Is De Rived From The Atmosphere. The Dry Bean -leaf, When Burnt, Yields A Smell Approaching To That Of Decomposing Animal ...

Rotation Of Crops Rotation_3
Rotation Of Crops. Rotation Of Crops. Vents Increase, Or Even Their Continuance; Which Otherwise, As Is The Case, For Instance, With The Wire-worm, Might For 4 Or 5 Years Be A Pest To The Soil. See Beetle. The Ordinary Course Or Rotation Of Crops Under Which The Light Lands Of ...

Rotation Of Crops Rotation_4
Rotation Of Crops. Rotation Of Crops. Unused, In Order That The, Soil Might Thus Have Its Strength Renovated. It Has, However, Been Found That With Judicious Management Land Need Never Be Suffered To Lie Idle, But Cultivated Every Year In One Or More Crops With Profit, And Even With Improvement ...

Rotation Of Crops Rotation_5
Rotation Of Crops. Rotation Of Crops. Cross-ploughings Through The Summer, Is Also Sown With Wheat In The Fall. The Field On Which Rye Is Sown, Is That From Which A Crop Of Wheat Had Been Taken The Same Year, And Which Had Yielded Three Crops Of Wheat, Alternating With Crops ...

Rotation Of Crops Rotation_6
Rotation Of Crops. Rotation Of Crops. Ing (or More Improving, If Much Attention Is. Paid To Manuring) Than The Ordinary Three-shift Rotation. Except In The Chance-made Addition Of The Spontaneous Bean Crop, This Rotation Offends Against Every Principle And Rule Which Ought To Govern. The Three-shift Rotation Was The Next ...

Rotation Of Crops Rubbing Post
Rotation Of Crops. Rubbing-post. Widely From That Of Col. Taylor. This Has Been, And I Believe Still Is Pursued With Great Success By Hill Carter, Of Shirley, John A. Sel Den, Of Westover, And Has Been On Some Other Of The Best Lands On James River, Where It Has Since, ...

Rots
Rots. In Farriery, A Kind :f Worms Very Troublesome To Horses. Bots Are The Larvm Or Maggots Of A Species Of Gad-fly (the Cestrus Equi), Which Deposits Its Eggs On The Legs, Mane, Or Those Parts Of The Horse That The • Animal Is Most Apt To Lick. The Egg ...

Rowan Tree
Rowan Tree (pyrite Aucuparia). The Quicken Tree, Or Mountain Ash, As It Is Some Times Called, Is A Handsome Tree, Of Slow Growth, With A Tough, Cross-grained, Not Very Hard Wood, Indigenous To Our Mountains, Woods, And Hedges. The Leaves Are Pinnate Scarcely A Span Long, Composed Of Leaflets, Uni ...

Rue
Rue (ruta Graveolens). Rue Thrives Best In A Poor Brick Earth, In Which A Portion Of Cal Careous Rubbish Has Been Mixed. It Will Not Endure The Application Of Dung Or A Rich Soil, For Although This Causes A Luxuriant Growth In Summer, Death Is As Certainly Produced By Severe ...

Rush
Rush (awes; Linnmus Derived The Name From Jungo, To Join; In Allusion To The First Ropes Being Made From Rushes). This Is An Extensive Genus Of Coarse Plants, Many Of Them Aquatics, Which Are Common On Most Wet Lands. Rushes Always Intimate A Deep, Rich Soil, And Thrive Best In ...

Russian System Of Managing
Russian System Of Managing Bees And Constructing Hives. In Russia And Other Northern Parts Of Eu Rope, Honey And Wax Constitute Great Sources Of Private Wealth And General Trade. A Large Amount Of This Honey Is Obtained From Trees In The Wild Forests, Which, When Not Hollowed By Nature, Are ...

Rye Grass Or Ray Grass
Rye-grass Or Ray-grass (loliwrn Pe Rewde), Pl. 5, O. There Has Been Much Differ Ence Of Opinion Respecting The Merits And Com Parative Value Of Rye-grass. It Produces An Abundance Of Seed, Which Is Easily Collected And Readily Vegetates On Most Kinds Of Soil Under Circumstances Of Different Management; It ...

Rye
Rye (secale Cereale ; Germ. Roggen Dut Rog). This Species Of Grain Is Much More Hardy, But Incalculably Less Valuable In Every Respect Than Wheat. It Has Been Cultivated From Time Im• Memorial, And Is Supposed To Be A Native Of The Caspian Caucasian Desert. In England It Is Very ...

Saffron
Saffron (crocus Sativus). The Stigmata Of This Purple Crocus Are Of A Deep Orange Colour, And When In Quantity Have A Peculiar And Very Characteristic Odour; They Are Used In Medicine, Chiefly As A Rich Yellow Or Orange Col-caring Matter. Saffron Is Now Chiefly Im Ported From The South Of ...

Sago
Sago (malay And Jay. Saga). A Of Fecula Or Starch Obtained From The Cellular Substance Of A Palm Tree—the Sagas Farinifera, Gwyn; Sagas Rwmphii, Wild. In The Early Writers It Is Called Saga, Saga, And Zaga. In Java The Word Signifies Bread. The Sago Which Is Procured From The Above ...

Sainfoin Or Saintfoin
Sainfoin Or Saintfoin (hedysarum Onobrychis). The Bourgogne Or Esparette Of The French. Pl. 8, G. Having Been First Intro Duced To The Farmer From France, This Plant Brought Its French Name Of Saint-foin Along With It ; And Cock's-head,. By Which It Was Be Fore Known As A Native Of ...

Salad Burnet
Burnet, Salad, Small Or Upland (poteriwm Sanguisorba, From The Greek Avropior, A Cup, Used In Cool Tankards). The Stem, Which Is Angular, Smooth, And Leafy, Rises One To Two Feet High, Furnished With Glaucous-green, Smooth, Pinnated Leaves, With Sharply Cut Stipules, In Pairs At The Base Of The Footstalk. The ...

Sallow Thorn
Sallow-thorn (hippophde, From Hippos, A Horse, And. Phao, To Destroy , In Reference To The Supposed Poisonous Qualities Of The Seeds). The Species Arc Mostly Ornamental Trees Or Shrubs, Growing In Any Common Soil, And Ma Y Be Readily Increased By Layers Or Cuttings Of The Roots. The Common Sallow-thorn ...

Sallow
Sallow. The Common Name Of Several Species Of Salix, Which, Unlike Those Known Under The Name Of Osiers, Are Not Flexible, But Form Large Trees Or Rough Bushes, Which Grow In Moist, Marshy Woods And Hedges, In Various Parts Of England. Sallows Generally Yield The Best Kind Of Charcoal For ...

Salt
Salt. In My Own Experiments With Potatoes In A Light Gravelly Soil, I Found That When The Soil Simply Produced 120 Bushels Per Acre, That Manured With 20 Tons Of Stable Dung It Yielded 219 Bushels; And With 20 Bushels Of Salt Only 192i Bushels. (my Essay On Salt, P. ...

Salts
Salts, Their Uses To Vegetation. That Peculiar Saline Substances Exist In Almost All Vegetables, Was An Early Observation Made By The Natural Philosopher. The Saline And Alkaline Taste Perceivable In The Ashes Obtained By The Com Bustion Of These Substances, Very Plainly Indi Cated The Fact. And Although The Skill ...

Sample
Sample. A Small Quantity Of A Commodity Exhibited At Public Or Private Sales, As A Speci Men. Wool, Wine, Corn, Seeds, And Indeed Most Species Of Agricultural Produce And Mer Chandise That Can Be Conveyed In Small Bulk, Are Sold By Sample. If An Article Be Not At An Average ...

Sandwort
Sandwort. See Chickweed. (arenario, From Arena. Sand ; Referring To The Sandy Situa Tion In Which Most Of The Species Are Found.) This Is An Extensive Genus Of Herbs, Of Humble Growth, With Numerous Slender Stems, Opposite, Mostly Narrow, Entire, Undivided Leaves, And Small, White Or Reddish, Inodorous Flowers, With ...

Sanicle
Sanicle (sanicula; From Sano, To Heal.) The Wood Sanicle (s. Europea) Is A Mere Pe Ronnial Weed, Growing In Woods And Groves Abundantly, About A Foot High, Flowering In May. The Root Is Tufted, With Fleshy Fibres. The Leaves Are Chiefly Radical, Simple, With Deeply Cleft Lobes, Veiny, And Of ...

Sap
Sap. In Botany, The Fluid Which Is Absorbed By The Roots From The Earth, And Undergoes The First Action Of The Vital Chemistry Of The Plant, Is Called The Sap. It Is Formed As The Absorbed Fluid Ascends Upwards Into The Stem. It Is Afterwards Conveyed To The Leayes, Where ...

Sassafras
Sassafras (laurus Sassafras). This, On Account Of Its Sensible Qualities, And Real Or Supposed Active Medical Virtues, Was Among The First American Trees Which Became Known To Europeans. In The United States, The Neighbourhood Of Portsmouth, New Hamp Shire, In Latitude 43°, May Be Assumed As One Of The Extreme ...

Saw Dust
Saw-dust. The Refuse Or Waste Powder Obtained-from Saw-pits, After Any Wood Or Tim Ber Has Been Separated Or Cut Asunder By The Saw. If Fresh Oak Saw-dust Be Scattered On Gravel Walks It Effectually Prevents The Growth Of Weeds, And When Mixed With Blood And Quicklime It Forms An Excellent ...

Saw Flies
Saw-flies. The Names Of Above 60 Species Of Saw-flies, Natives Of The United States, And Found In Massachusetts, Are Given In Dr. Harris's Catalogue. Some Of These Are Very Interesting In Their Caterpillar State. One Of The Largest Flies Is Called Cimbex Ulmi, Be Cause It Inhabits The Elm. The ...

Saw Flies_2
Saw-flies. Ing In The Ground In Their Cocoons Through The Winter. "for Some Years Previous To The Pub Lication Of My Discourse," Says Dr. Harris, "i Observed That These Insects Annually Increased In Number, And, In The Year 1832, They Had Be Come So Numerous And Destructive That Many Vines ...

Saxifrage
Saxifrage (saxifrage ; From Saxwm, A Stone, And Frango, To Break ; In Allusion To Its Reputed Medical Qualities In That Disease). This Is A Very Extensive Genus Of Beautiful Alpine Plants, The Greater Part Of Which Are Par Ticularly Suitable For Ornamenting Rock-work, Or Growing On The Sides Of ...

Scab
Scab. A Contagious Disease Incident To Sheep, Which, Like The Mange In Cattle, Horses, And Dogs, And The Itch In The Human Subject, Is The Effect Of Certain Minute Insects Belonging To The Class Semi ; At Least These Insects Al Ways Are Present In This Disease. In The Human ...

Scabious
Scabious (scabiosa, From Scabies, The Itch ; The Common Kind Is Said To Cure That Disorder). Some Of These Plants Are Well Adapted For Oi Namenting The Flower-border. The Herbaceout Species Are Readily Increased By Division At The Root, Or By Seed. The Seeds Of The Annual Kinds Merely Require ...

Scarifier
Scarifier. A Tillage Implement For Stir Ring And Loosening The Soil, Without Bringing Up A Fresh Surface. Under The Same Head May Be Included The Grubber, The Cultivator, And The Scuffier, All Of Which Act On The Combined Principles Of Plough And Harrow At The Same Time. Some Of These ...

Scarlet Cardinal
Cardinal, Scarlet (lobelia Cardinalis). An Herbaceous Hardy Plant, A Native Of Virgi Nia. It Blows Its Scarlet Flowers In July, And Again In October. It Loves Bog Earth And Shade, And The Root Should Be Parted Every Spring. Ripen The Flower Intended For Seed Under A Glass Hung Over It, ...

Scorpion Grass
Scorpion-grass (myosotis, From Myos, A Mouse, And Otos, An Ear ; Fancied Resemblance In The Leaves.) All The Perennial Species Of This Genus Are Very Beautiful, Especially The Well-known Forget-me-not (m. Palustris). They Grow Best In Moist Places, Or By The Edges Of Ponds Or Ditches ; They May Also ...

Scull Cap
Scull-cap (scutellaria). There Are Seve Ral Species Of This Plant Found In The United States. The Common Hairy Scull-cap (s. Pilosa) Has A Perennial Root, And Stem 12 Or 18 Inches High, More Or Less Hairy, And Often Purplish. The Flower Is A Purple-blue Colour, And Opens From June To ...

Scurvy Grass
Scurvy-grass (cochlearia). A Genus Of Plants Of Little Interest, With The Exception Of Horse-radish (c. Armoracea), And The Common Scurvy-grass (c. Officinalis). Besides These There Are Three Other Indigenous Species : The Greenland Scurvy-grass, The English Scurvy Grass, And The Danish Scurvy-grass. They Are Either Annual Or Biennial Herbs, And ...

Scythe And Cradle
Scythe And Cradle. The Well-known American Implement Called The Scythe And Cra Dle Used In The United States For Harvesting Wheat And All Other Kinds Of Small Grain, Is Much Preferable To The Hainault Scythe. The Cradle Is Made .with 5 Long Teeth Extending The Full Length Of The Scythe, ...