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Scythe
Scythe. This Implement For Mowing Grass Has Been Latterly Much Used For Cutting Grain Crops, And With Great Success, When It Has Been Properly Mounted With A Rake Or Cradle, And Put Into Expert Hands. Drummond's Iron-handled Scythe Is Consi Dered In Scotland Very Effective. A Good Mower•will Cut Down ...

Sea Heath
Heath, Sea (frankenia). Of This Mari Time Decumbent Genus Of Plants There Are Two Species, Natives Of These Islands. 1. The Smooth Sea-heath (f. Levis) Is A Pe Rennial, Flowering In July, Found Common On Muddy Salt-marshes, Chiefly On The Eastern Shores Of England. It Has A Woody Root ; ...

Sea Kale
Kale, Sea (crambe Maritzma), Is Found Wild On The Seashore On The Southwestern Coast Of Great Britain, Where The Common People Have From Time Immemorial Been In The Practice Of Watching When The Shoots And Leaf-stalks Begin To Push Up The Sand And Gravel, In March And April, When They ...

Sea Weed Kelp
Kelp, Sea-weed, Barilla, &c. I Class These Manures Together, When Treating Of Kelp, Since It Is To The Presence Of Various Salts Of Soda That Sea-weed Principally Owes Its Ferti Lizing Qualities, For When They Are Washed Out, The Residuum Is Nearly Inert. Sea-weed Has Been Analyzed By M. Gaultier ...

Sechium
Sechium (sechium Edulis Or Siegos Edulis). A New Vegetable From South America; In Size And Form Resembling A Very Large Bell-pear; The Skin Smooth, Of A Pale-green Colour; The Flesh Solid. For The Table It Is Prepared In A Manner Similar To The Squash, And Is Stated To Be Of ...

Sedge
Sedge (carex, From Careo, To Want, The Upper 983 Spikes Being Without Seeds). This Is A Very Extensive Genus, The Species Of Which Are Un Interesting; Part Of Them Are Natives Of Marshy Situations, While A Few Thrive On Dry, Sandy Eminences; They Seed Freely, By Which They Are Increased. ...

Seed
Seed Is The Reproductive Part Of A Plant, Resulting From A Change Effected In The Ovules By The Process Of Impregnation : It Contains The Embryo Or Rudiment Of A Future Plant. For The Preservation Of The Seed From Insects And Decomposition, And For Food For The Em Bryo, Seeds ...

Service Tree
Service Tree (pyres). There Are In England Two Species Of This Tree, The Wild Ser Vice Tree (p. Torminalis), And The True Service Tree (p. Domestica). Both Are Indigenous Trees, Often Of Considerable Size, Of Extremely Slow Growth, And The Wood Is Very Hard. The Service Tree Is Still Occasionally ...

Shalot Or Escalot
Shalot Or Escalot (4lliu9n Ascalonicum). Having A Stronger Taste Than The Onion, Yet Not Leaving, As It Is Said, The Strong Odour On The Palate Which That Species Of Allium Is Accus Tomed To Do, The Shalot Is Often Preferred, And Employed Instead, Both In Culinary Prepara Tions And For ...

Shamrock
Shamrock. The National Emblem Of Ireland. The Term " Shamrock" Seems A Ge Neral Appellation For The Trefoils, Or Three Leaved Plants. There Has Been Much Dispute As To What Is The True Irish Shamrock ; It Has Generally Been Considered To Be The Clover Or Trifolium Repens. A Writer ...

Shearing Of Sheep
Shearing Of Sheep. The Cperation Of Cutting Off The Fleece Or Coat Of Wool With A Pair Of Shears. This Is Performed In Different Ways, But The Best Mode Is That Of The Circular Or Round The Sheep, Instead Of The Longitudinal, Which Is Now Mostly In Use In Britain. ...

Shears
Shears. A Name Applied To Some Instru Ments Employed In Agriculture. The Shears Used For Sheep-shearing Are Of Very Ancient Origin: They Were Termed Forfex By The Romans; And It Appears That No Improvement Has Been Made On The Instrument. In A Collection Of Antique Gems At Berlin, Called The ...

Sheep Fold
Sheep-fold. A Yard Or Other Contri Vance For The Purpose Of Confining And Keep Ing Sheep The Nights Or In Bad Weather, In Order To Afford Them Protection And Shelter. They Are Sometimes Fixed, Being Constructed Of Any Convenient Sort Of Light Material, So As To Enclose A Space In ...

Sheep House
Sheep-house. A Slight Wooden Building Constructed For The Purpose Of And Protesting Sheep In Bad Weather, &c Containing Of This Kind Are Usually Made Low For The Sake Of Warmth In The Winter, Being Mostly A Third Part Longer Than Theyhave Breadth : They Should Also Be Sufficiently Large For ...

Sheep Pens
Sheep-pens. The Divisions Made By The Small Movable Gates Or Hurdles Which Are Set Up To Keep Sheep In Some Particular Spot. Tbey Are Usually Formed On A Dry Place About The Corners Where Different Enclosures Of The Pasture Meet, So As To Be Convenient For The Whole. Pens Are ...

Sheep
Sheep (ovis Arses, Nat. Ord. Rwminantia). Of The Original Breed Of This Invaluable Animal, Which Is In Modern English Farming Almost Equally Important For Furnishing The Farmer With A Dressing Of Manure, And The Community At Large With Mutton, Clothing, And Other Almost Necessaries Of Life, Certain Is Known. Several ...

Sheeps Sorrel
Sheep's Sorrel (rumex Acetosella). A Perennial Species Of Dock, Which In England Is Found Growing Abundantly In Dry, Gravelly Fields And Pastures. The Herb Is Acrid, With Some Astringency. The Root Is Creeping. The Stem Wavy, Slender, Often Decumbent. The Flow Ers Are Dicecious, Small, Separate, In Numerous Whorled Leafless ...

Shepherd
Shepherd. The Person Who Has The Care And Management Of A Flock Of Sheep. Mr. Ban Nister Says, That It Is Necessary To Have For This Employment " A Person Who Is Well Skilled In The Nature And Management Of Sheep, And Hath Been Brought Up In That Employment From ...

Shepherds Purse
Shepherd's Purse (thlaspi, From Lhlao, To Compress ; The Seed-vessels Are Compress Ed). In England This Is A Genus Of Worthless Plants, The Principal Species Of Which Is The Common Shepherd's Purse (t. Bursa Pastoris), Which Occurs In Almost Every Part Of The Globe. It Is An Annual Plant, With ...

Sherardia
Sherardia (named By Dillenius In Ho Nour Of His Patron, W. Sherard, Ll.d., Consul At Smyrna). This Is A Genus Of Uninteresting Plants. One Species, The Blue Sherardia, Or Little Field-madder (s. Arvensis), Is Indigenous To England, Where It Grows In Fallow Fields, Or Among Corn, On A Light Or ...

Shrub
Shrub. A Small, Low, Dwarfish, Woody Plant, Resembling A Tree, Which, Instead Of One Single Stem, Frequehtly Puts Forth From The 993 Same Root Several Sets Or Stems. The Most Hardy, Indigenous Shrubs Are The Box And Ivy, Which Resist The Severest Winters. Next, In Point Of Hardiness, Are The ...

Silica
Silica. The Name Of The Earth Which Forms Almost The Entire Substance Of Common Sand Or Silex, And Also Of Quartz And Flint. Potash Ren Ders Silex Soluble In Water, And Capable Of En Tering Into The Sap Of Plants. Hence One Of The Great Advantages Of Potash As A ...

Silk Culture
Silk Culture. The United States Being, Like China, Situated On The Eastern Side Of A Great Continent, Offer Peculiar Advantages For The Production Of Silk. From The General Pre Dominance Of Westerly Winds In Extra-tropical Regions, The Eastern Sides Of Continents In These Possess A Dry And Warm Summer Climate, ...

Skim Coulter
Skim Coulter. See Plough. Sk Un K-c Abb Age ; Swamp-cabbage ; Skunk-weed. Familiar Names Applied To A Plant Common In Low Grounds In The United States. It Is The Symploearpus Fatida Of Some Botanists, And The Pothos Fcetida Of Others. It Has A Perennial Root, And Very Large Leaves, ...

Slate
Slate. A Well-known, Neat, Convenient, And Durable Material For The Covering Of The Roofs Of Buildings. There Are Many Varieties Of Slate, And It Likewise Differs Very Greatly In Its Qualities And Colours. In Some Places It Is Found In Thick Lamina Or Flakes, While In Others It Is Thin ...

Slug
Slug. A Genus Of Molluscous Animals, Or Naked Snails, Comprehending Several Species, Which Differ Only In Colour. Slugs Infest Gardens And Fields, And Are Very Injurious To The Growing Crops; Hence It Becomes Essential To Destroy Tnem. Dry Lime And Slacked Lime Have Been Re Commended, Which, Being Dissolved By ...

Smallage Parsley
Parsley, Smallage, Or Wild Ce Lery (alpium Graveolens). This Wild Plant, The Seeds And Herbage Of Which In Its Native Ditches Are Acrid And Dangerous, With A Peculiar Strong Taste And Smell, By Culture Becomes The Mild And Grateful Garden Celery, For Which And Its Name We Are Indebted To ...

Smithfield
Smithfield. The Principal Market For The Sale Of Live Cattle In The United Kingdom. It Is Very Inconveniently Situated In The Heart Of The Metropolis. The Numbers Of Cattle Slaughtered Have Been More Than Double Dur Ing The Last Century. (see Cattle, Ante, P.293.) Although This Increased Consumption Is Scarce ...

Smut Mill
Smut-mill. Of Late Years The Millers In The United States Avail Themselves Of Contri Vances Called Smut-mills, The Passage Of The Wheat Through Which Clears It Very Effectually From The Offensive Dust. Wheat Affected With Smut Was Formerly Much Objected To By The Grain Merchants And Millers, But Since The ...

Smut
Smut. A Disease Affecting Almost Every Species Of Corn, The Grains Of Which Become Filled With A Fetid Black Powder, Instead Of Con Taining Farinaceous Matter. Wet Seasons, Ani Malculm, Organic Weakness, Deficiency Of The Parts Of Generation, And Other Circumstances, Have Been Assigned As The Primary Causes Of This ...

Snails
Snails (helix—helicidee). A Well-known Genus Of Molluscous Animals, Comprising A Great Many Species. They Live Throughout The Winter In A Torpid State, In Cavities In The Earth, Which Are Covered Over With A Calcareous Kind Of Wall, Partly Formed With Its Mucous Secre Tion. The Animal Escapes From Its Cell ...

Snow
Snow. This Well-known Precipitation From The Atmosphere Serves To Defend Winter Grain Crops And All Other Vegetables From The Severity Of Frosts ; For, Being A Very Bad Conductor Of Heat, It Prevents The Internal Warmth Of The Earth From Being Carried Off Through The Surface ' Of The Land, ...

Soil
Soil. The Upper Surface Of The Earth Which Furnishes A Medium Or Basis For The Growth Of Plants. Prof. Johnston, In His Elements Of Che Mistry, Has Remarked, That The Earthy Part Of The Soil Is Not, As Some Have Supposed, A Mere Sub Stratum, In Which The Plant May ...

Soiling
Soiling. The Practice Of Supporting Animals Io The Summer Season, With Green Food, Cut Daily And Given To Them Is Their Houses, Stalls, Or Yards. A Number Of Different Plants And Grasses. Are Resorted To For This Purpose, Particularly Those Which Have A Quick And Luxuriant Growth ; As Lu ...

Soot
Soot Is Very Extensively Employed In The East Of England, As A Powerful Manure, And Pro Duces, When Used At The Rate Of 12 Or 20 Bushels Per Acre, Most Luxuriant Crops Of Wheat And Other Grain. This Valuable Fertilizer Is Composed Of A Mixture Of Charcoal, An Oil, Salts ...

Sorrel Tree
Sorrel Tree (andromeda Arborea). This Is The Only Species Of Andromeda, Which Rises To A Sufficient Height To Be Ranked Among Forest Trees. It Begins To Appear On The Alleghaniec In Virginia, And Is Found To Their Termination In Georgia. In The Fertile Mountainous Regions Of North Carolina, It Attains ...

Sorrel
Sorrel (the Genus Rumex, From The Shape Of The Leaves In Many Of The Species, Resem Bling A Pike Or Spear). There Are In England Several Indigenous Species Of Sorrel, Some Of Which Have Already Been Described. The Common English Sorrel (rwinex Acetosa) Is A Perennial Plant, Met With Almost ...

Southern Apples
Southern Apples. The Following Are Stated To Be Some Of The Most Esteemed Varieties Of Native Apples Of Virginia. Part Are Described From The Autho Rity Of Mr. Core, And The Remainder On The Authority Of A Virginian. 115. Beverley's Red. The Fruit Is Very Large, The Skin Smooth, Of ...

Southern Wood
Southern Wood ?bsinthium). The Field Southeruwood (?. Campestris) Is A Rather Rare Species. It Is Perennial In Habit. The Whole Herb Is Without Any Aromatic Or Bitter Flavour. Sterns At First Prostrate, Becoming More Or Less Upright As The Flowers Appear, Branched, Leafy, Straight And Wand-like, Smooth, Often Reddish, Near ...

Sow Thistle
Sow-thistle (sonchus, From Somphus, Hol Low ; The Stems Being Hollow). A Rather Large Genus Of Annual Or Perennial Plants, Rarely Shrubby, Generally Tall. They Have Hollow Stems, And More Or Less Pinnatifid Or Lyrate Leaves, Toothed Or Prickly At Their Edges. The Surface Of The Herbage Is Usually Smooth, ...

Spade Husbandry
Spade Husbandry. There Are Many Situations In Which, From The Small Size Of The Enclosures, Or The Want Of Sufficient Power For The Easy Working Of The Common Or The Subsoil Plough, The Cultivator May Prefer The Employ Ment Of Manual Labour With The Spade ; And It Is Fortunately ...

Span Worms
Span-worms. A Common Appellation Applied To Those Caterpillars Called Also Loopers, And Geometers. In New England They Are Called Canker-worms The Caterpillars Of The Geometrse Of Lin Luaus, Earth-measurers, As The Term Implies, Or Geometers, Span-worms, And Loopers, Have Re Ceived These Several Names From Their Peculiar Manner Of Moving, ...

Spanish Broom
Broom, Spanish (spartium Jwacewm). Pl. 9, C. A Handsome Shrub, With Fragrant Yellow Blossoms, Which Appear In July; Miller Says, That In Cool Seasons It Will Keep Blowing Until September. It Loves A Sheltered Situation. If Raised By Seed, Sow It As Soon As It Is Ripe, In A Shady ...

Speedwell
Speedwell (veronica). An Extensive Genus Of Herbaceous Or Somewhat Shrubby Plants, With Annual Or Perennial Roots. Common Or Male Speedwell (officinal Vero Nica), Called By The French The D'europe, Is A Common Plant In The Middle States, Found On Dry Banks, Woodlands, And Commons, Flowering In June And July, And ...

Spice Wood
Spice Wood (laurus Benzoin). An Ameri Can Shrub Or Small Tree, Called Also In The United States By The Common Names Of Wild Allspice, Fever Bush, And Benjamin Tree. The Stems Grow To The Height Of 8 Or 10 Feet, And Are Branched, The Wood Being Very Brittle, And When ...

Spinach
Spinach (spinacia Oleracea). Round Savoy Leaved, And Prickly Seeded. May Be Grown Either Broadcast Or In Drills. For Spring And Early Summer Use, Sow As Early As The Ground Can Be Tilled, And Afterwards At Short Intervals. For The Autumn Supply, Sow At Close Of Sum Mer. For Winter And ...

Spinach_2
Spinach (spinacea Oleracea. From Spina, On Account Of Its Prickly Seed). There Are Two Varieties, The Round-leaved Or Smooth-seeded, And The Triangular-leaved Or Prickly-seeded. The First Being The Most Succulent, And Conse Quently Less Able To Endure A Low Degree Of Temperature, Is Employed For The Spring And Summer Crops, ...

Spindle Tree
Spindle Tree (euonynius Europseus.) This Shrub Or Small Tree Grows Wild In English Hedges And Thickets. The Very Hard And Fine Grained Wood Is Preferred For Spindles And For Skewers. It Is Fetid In Every Part When Bruised, And Esteemed Poisonous. The Branches Are Smooth And Even Angular When Young ...

Spindle Worm
Spindle-worm. These American Insects Are Fatal To The Plants Attacked, The Greater Part Of Which, However, Are Without Value To The Farmer. Indian Corn M Ust Be Excepted ; For It Often Suffers Severely From The Depredations Of One Of These Nonagrians, Known To Our Farmers By The Name Of ...

Spines
Spines. In Botany, Branches That, Being Im Perfectly Formed, Lose Their Power Of Extension, Become Unusually Hard, And Acquire A Sharp Point. They Are Very Different From Aculei, Or Prickles, Which Are A Kind Of Hardened Hair. In Leaves They Are Processes Formed Either By An Elongation Of The Woody ...

Spotted Cow Bane
Cow-bane, Spotted (cicuta Maculctta). Water Hemlock, A Perennial Rout Frequently Found In Low Grounds And The Margins Of Streams In Pennsylvania And Other Middle States. The Mature: Fruit Of This Plant Is Highly Aromatic,—the Odour Something Be Tween That Of Aniseed And The Kernels Of The Black Walnut. The Root ...

Spud
Spud. An Implement Used Advantageously In Cutting Up Weeds. It Consists Of A Chisel Formed Tool, About 2 Inches Wide On The Cutting Edge, Inserted Into A Handle Of Some 4 Or 6 Feet In Length ; It Is Often Made Use Of By The Far Mer As A Useful ...

Spurge Laurel
Spurge-laurel (daphne 'aureola.) A British Evergreen Shrub, Growing In Woods, Thickets, And Hedges, Flowering In March. The Stem Is 2 Or 3 Feet High, With Round, Pale, Smooth, Brown, Upright, Tough, And Pliant Branches, Crowned With Tufts Of Evergreen Leaves, Elegantly Drooping In All Directions, And About 2 Or 3 ...

Spurge
Spurge (euphorbia ; Linnaeus Named This Genus After Euphorbus, A Physician To Juba, King Of Mauritania). This Is An Exceedingly Variable And A Very Extensive Genus Of Plants, Comprising A Number That Are Entirely Unworthy Of Cultivation. The Hardy Perennial Species Thrive In Any Common Garden Soil, And In., Crease ...

Spurrey
Spurrey (spergula, From Span-go, To Scatter, Because It Expels Its Seeds.) A Genus Of Herba Ceous, Annual, Or Perennial Plants, With Slen Der Linear Leaves And White Flowers. There Are In England Four Indigenous Species, The Most Common Of Which Is The Rough-seeded Corn Spurrey (s. Arvensis), An Annual Plant, ...

Squash Bug
Squash-bug. The Common American Squash-bug (coreus Tristis), So Well Known For The Injurious Effects Of Its Punctures On The Leaves Of Squashes, Is One Of The Most Remarka Ble Insects Belonging To The Natural Division, Which Includes Bed-bugs, Fruit-bugs, And Vari Ous Other Fetid Bugs (hemiptera). It Was First Described ...

Squill
Squill (scilla, From Skylla, To Injure, The Bulbs Being Poisonous). An Extensive Genus Of Interesting Bulbous Plants. A Light Soil Is Most Suitable For Them ; And They Are Readily Increased By Offsets From The Bulbs. The Leaves Are Radical, Linear. The Flowers In Clusters, Blue, Purplish, Or White. There ...

Stack
Stack. Corn In The Sheaf, Piled Up In A Circular Or Rectangular Figure, Brought To A Point Or Ridge At The Top, And Afterwards Thatched To Protect It From The Influence Of The Weather, And More Especially From Rains. The Term Is Also Sometimes Applied To Hay Piled Up In ...

Stall Feeding
Stall-feeding. The Process Of Fatten Ing Cattle In The Stall. The Best Practice In This Mode Of Fattening Is Probably That Of Wholly Confining Them •to The Stalls, As By This Means They Are Kept Quiet, And Free From Inter Ruption, And Of Course Feed More Quickly And With Greater ...

Standard Weights Of Grain
Grain, Standard Weights Of. In England The Standard And Common Weights Of The Most Important Grains, Are As Follows :— The Same Standard Weights Are Established In New York, And To A Greater Or Less Extent In Dther States. It Is Observed That The Weights If The Different Kinds Of ...

Star Of Bethlehem
Bethlehem, Star Of (ornithogalum). Smith Points Out Four Varieties Of This Flower The Yellow Star Of Bethlehem, 0. Luteurn ; The Common Star Of Bethlehem, 0. Umbellatum, (commonly Called Ten O'clock) ; The Tall Star Of Bethlehem, 0. Pyrenaieurn ; And The Drooping Star Of Bethlehem, 0. Nutans. The First ...

Star Thistle
Star Thistle. 1. Brown Radiant Knapweed (c. .tacea). This Grows In Meadows Where The Soil Is Tenacious And Moist. It Is A Perennial, Flowering In Au Gust And September. The Root Is Rather Woody, With Many Long Fibres. Stem Solid,erect; A Foot High, Branched, Angular, Furrowed And Roughish, Leafy. Leaves, ...

Starch
Starch (germ. Stdrke). One Of The Com Mon Proximate Principles Of Vegetables. It Is Characterized By Its Insipidity, And By Insolu Bility In Cold Water, In Alcohol, And In Ether. The Term " Starch" Is Commercially Applied To That Obtained From Wheat, Which For This Manu• Facture Is Ground And ...

Steam
Steam. Vvater Converted Into An Elastic Fluid By The Application Of Heat. It Would Be Foreign To Our Subject To Go Into Any Detail N' The Various Mechanical Uses And Improve Menu To Which Steam Has Been Applied With 4 Ct 2 1013 So Much Success. Latterly, However, A Spirit ...

Steaming Food
Steaming Food. The Advantages To Be Derived From Boiling Or Preparing The Food Of Live-stock Are Now Very Generally Understood And Appreciated ;,although It Is Still A Question Whether It Always Compensates For The Extra Labour And Time Consumed. We Have Already Gone Into This Subject Under The Head Foon, ...

Stomata
Stomata. In Botany, Orifices Through The Epidermis Of Plants, Chiefly Of The Leaves, Hav Ing The Appearance Of An Areola, In The Centre Of Which Is A Slit Of Various Form And Size, That Opens Or Closes, According To Circum Stances, And Lies Over A Cavity In The Subjacent Tissue. ...

Stonecrop
Stonecrop (sedum). A Genus Of Herbs, With Alternate, Very Succulent, Either Flat, Cy Lindrical, Or Tumid Leaves. Root Mostly Peren Nial. Flowers Yellow, White, Or Reddish, Usu Ally Cymose, .rarely Axillary. There Are, In England, Ten Indigenous Species, Which Inhabit, For The Most Part, Old Walls, Roofs, And Dry Sandy ...

Stool
Stool. The Root Of A Timber Tree, Which Throws Up Shoots. Coppice Wood Consists Chiefly Of The Shoots Sent Up By The Roots Of Stools, Or Trees Or Shrubs Which Have Been Cut Over By The Surface. In General, All Dicotyle Donous Trees Are Endowed By Nature With The Property ...

Strangles
Strangles. In Farriery, A Disease Which Is Principally Incident To Young Horses ; Usually Appearing Between The Fourth And Fifth Year, And Oftener In The Spring Than At Any Other Sea Son. It Is Preceded By Cough, And Is A Disease To Which All Horses Are Subject, But It Never ...

Straw Yard
Straw-yard. The Yard Into Which Straw Is Thrown In Thrashing. Also The Enclosure In Which Cattle Are Confined In Winter; For The Pur Pose Of Being Foddered On Straw. There Ought To Be Open Sheds For Shelter In The Straw-yard; For Though Pure Air Is Essential To The Health Of ...

Straw
Straw. The Stalks Or Culms On Which Corn And Other Grasses Grow, And From Which The Grain Has Been Separated' By Thrashing. When Chopped Or Cut Small, It Affords A Whole Some Provender For Horses And Oxen, Especially If It Be Mixed With Green Food. (see Chaff And Chaff Engines.) ...

Strawberry
Strawberry (fragaria, From Fragrans, Fragrant ; The Perfumed Fruit Of The Strawberry Is Well Known). The Strawberry Is Our Ear Liest Fruit, And As The Harbinger Of The Fructus Horcei, Its Appearance Is As Welcome As Its Fla Vour Agreeable. The Cultivation And Propaga Tion Of This Plant Is So ...

Strength Meter
Meter, Strength, Thermometer, &c. By Measure, In An Absolute Sense, Is Under Stood The Unit, Or Standard, By Which We Mea Sure Extension. We Have, Therefore, Measures Of Length, Of Superficies, And Of Volume Or Ca Pacity; But, As The Two Latter May Be Deduced In All Cases From The ...

Strength
Strength, In Mechanics, Is Used In The Same Sense As Force Or Power. Thus, Strength Of Animals Is The Muscular Force Or Energy Which Animals Are Capable Of Exerting ; Strength Of Materials Is The Resistance Which Bodies Oppose To A Force Acting Upon Them. It Is Obviously A Matter ...

Stubble
Stubble. The Root Ends Of The Culms Of Corn Left In The Field, Standing As They Grew, After The Corn Has Been Reaped By The Sickle Or Scythe. In Some Parts Of England Only A Small Portion Of The Straw Is Cut Off With The Ears Of Corn, And The ...

Subsoil Ploughing
Subsoil-ploughing. In Farming, The Operation Of Breaking The Substratum By Means Of A Plough Constructed Especially For That Pur Pose. Considerable Discussion Has Taken Place With Regard To The Advantages Of Subsoil-plough Ing; Adifference Of Opinion Which Appears Toh Ave Been Principally Caused By An Inattention To The Chemical Effects ...

Suet
Suet. The Fat Situated About The Loins And Kidneys, Which Is Harder And Less Fusible Than That From Other Parts Of The Same Animal. That Of The Ox And Sheep Is Chiefly Used; And, When Melted Out Of Its Containing Membranes, It Forms Tallow, And Is Largely Used In The ...

Sugar
Sugar (fr. Sum ; Germ. Tucker). The Great Commercial Demand For Sugar Is Almost Exclusively Supplied From The Sugar-cane Saccharifera), Which Contains It In Great Er Quantity And Purity Than Any Other Plant, And Consequently Affords The Greatest Facilities For Its Extraction. Cane Sugar Is Combined, In The Juice Of ...

Sulphates
Sulphates. A Class Of Concentrated Fer Tilizers, In Which Sulphuric Acid Is Combined With Different Substances, As With Lime To Form Gyp Sum; See Plaster Of Paris. Ammonia, To Form Sulphate Of Ammonia, A New Fertilizer Of Great Power, Enjoying High Repute In England, Costing About $5 Per 100 Lbs., ...

Sulphuret Of Antimony
Antimony, Sulphuret Of. In Far Riery, A Mineral Substance, Of A Shining, Stri Ated Appearance, Hard, Brittle, And Very Heavy. It Is Employed As A Remedy In Many Diseases Of Horses And Other Animals, And Is Said To Have Been Given To Fattening Cattle And Hogs With Advantage. An Ounce ...

Summed Apples
Summed. Apples. 3. Benoni, A Medium-sized, Red, And Goad Early Apple..--july. 4. Early Sweet Bough. Size From Medium To Large, Form Oblong, Skin Yellow, Juicy, And Fla Vour Excellent.—early In August. 8. Maiden's Blush, Or Hawthornden Of The Eng Lish. A Large And Beautiful Fruit, Shape Flat Tened, Colour Yellowish-white, ...

Sunflower
Sunflower (helianthus, From Helios, Sun, And Anthos, A Flower; On Account Of The Bril Liant Colour Of The Flowers, And From The Erro Neous Idea That The Flowers Always Turned Towards The Sun). A Highly Ornamental And Extensive Genus Of Plants; And From Their Tall Growth They Are Particularly Adapted ...

Swamp
Swamp. Ground Habitually So Moist And Soft As Not To Admit Of Being Trod By Cattle, But At The Same Time Producing Particular Kinds Of Trees, Bushes, And Plants. A Swamp •differs From A Bog And A Marsh In Producing Trees And Shrubs, While The Latter Produce Only Herb Age, ...

Swan
Swan (cygnus). Of The Noble Web-footed Birds So Called There Are Three British Species: The Hopper, Or Bewick's ; The Wild, And The Tame Swan. The Wild Swan And Hooper Ought, Perhaps, To Be Regarded As The Only True Native Species. The Tame Swan (c. Olor) Is Superior In Bulk ...

Sweet Basil
Basil, Sweet (ocymum. Probably From .ses And Peva', On Account Of Its Lasting Fra• Grance). A Culinary Aromatic Exotic Used In Salads And Soups ; The Peculiar Flavour Of Mock-turtle Soups Is Chiefly Derived From This Valuable Pot-herb. There Are Two Species Coin• Monly Cultivated, Both Annuals, And Originally Coming ...

Sweet Cyperus
Cyperus, Sweet, Or English Ga Lingale (cyperus Longus). This Is A Wild Perennial Plant, Growing, But Not Common, In Marshes And Moist Places, Two Or Three Feet High. Its Stalk Is Green And Leafless, Except Two Or Three Small Leaves At The Top From Which The Tufts Of Flowers Rise. ...

Sweet Fennel
Fennel, Sweet (famiculum Dulce). This Species Of Fennel Is An Annual Plant, A Native Of Italy And Portugal, Where It Is Cultivated As A Pot-herb, As Well As For The Seeds And The Oils Which These Afford. It Is A Smaller Plant Than The Common Fennel. The Stem Is Somewhat ...

Sweet Grass
Sweet-grass (glyceria, From Gtalceros, Sweet, Alluding To The Herbage; Whence Also The Common Name). A Genus Of Of Which Some Of The Species Are Aquatics.' Dr. Smith Emumerates 6 Species Indigenous To 1023 England: Viz. The Reedy Sweet-grass (g. Aqua Tice), The Floating Sweet-grass (g. Fiuitans), The Reflexed Sweet-grass (g. ...

Sweet Potato
Sweet Potato (convokulus Battatus). Carolina Potato. The Fine, Esculent, Tuberous Root Of This Species Of Low-creeping Vine Or Convolvulus, Is Perennial. It Flourishes In The Middle And Southern States—to Which Last It Is Native—wherever The Soil Is Light And Sandy, Refusing To Grow And Perfect Itself On Clay Or Stiff ...

Sweet Scented Shrub
Sweet Scented Shrub (calycanthus Fioridus),carolina Allspice. An American Spicy Shrub, The Flowers Of Which Are Extremely Odo Riferous, The Perfume Resembling That Of The Strawberry. The Wood And Especially The Root Are Strongly Camphorated, And May, Mr. Nuttall Thinks, Probably Produce This Drug As Abundantly As The Laurus Camphors. By ...

Swine_2
Swine (genus Sus). The Hog Has Been Generally Described As A Creature Of Gross Ha Bits And Unclean Tastes, As Having The Senses Of Touch And Taste Obtuse, And Even As Being So Insensible That Mice May Burrow In His Skin Without His Seeming To Feel. But These Opi Nions ...

Tall Hat Grasses
Tall Hat Grasses Of Permanent Duration.— " No Permanent Grass," Says Loudon, "has Been Found Equal To The Rye-grass For The Pur Poses Of Convertible Husbandry, But Others Have Been Selected, Which Are Considered Su Perior For Hay Meadows. The Principal Of These Are The Fescue, Fox-tail, And Meadow Grass." ...

Tall Red Top
Red Top, Tall (tricuspis Seslerioides). A Perennial Grass, Found In The Middle States, On Dry Banks And Sterile Fields, Flowering In August And Seeding In September. It Has An Erect, Jointed Culm Or Stem, 3 Or 4 Feet High And Very Smooth. Pursh Calls It "a Most Ex Cellent Grass," ...

Tallow
Tallow (germ. Talg). The Fat Obtained By Melting The Suet Of The Ox And Sheep, And Straining It So As To Free It From Membrane. When Pure, It Is White, Tasteless, And Nearly Insipid ; But The Tallow Of Commerce Has Usually A Yellow Tinge, And Is Divided, Accord Ing ...

Tamarisk
Tamarisk (tamarix). This Is A Genus Of Very Elegant Shrubs. The Hardy Indigenous Species, Or French Tamarisk (s. Gallica.), Is Well Suited For Ornamenting Shrubberies : It Will Grow In Any Soil Or Situation, And Is Freely In Creased By Cuttings Planted In The Open Ground, In Spring Or Autumn. ...

Tank
Tank. In Gardening, A Cistern Or Reservoir Made Of Stone, Timber, Or Some Other Material. Tanks Are Used For Collecting And Preserving Water During A Scarcity Or Drought. They Are Sometimes Built In The Ground, And Lined With Lead Or Cement. Where Wells Cannot Be Sunk, And Water Is Scarce ...

Tanners Bark
Tanner's Bark. The Bark Of Oak, Chestnut, Willow, Larch, And Other Trees, Which Abounds In Tannic Acid, And Is Used By Tanners For Preparing Leather. After Being Exhausted Of The Tanning Principle By Being Chopped Into Small Pieces, Or Bruised And Steeped In Water, It Is Laid Up In Heaps ...

Tannin
Tannin. A Word Synonymous With Tannic Acid, The Pure Astringent Principle Upon Which Their Power Of Converting Skin Into Leather Depends. Its Leading Character Is Its Property Of Producing A Dense Whitish Precipitate In A Strong Solution Of Animal Jelly, Such, For In Stance, As Isinglass ; And On This ...

Tansy
Tansy (tanacetwm). The Species Of Tansy Are Not Possessed Of Much Beauty. The Hardy Kinds Succeed In Any Common Soil, And Are Readily Increased By Rooted Slips Of The Fibrous Creeping Root. They Increase Freely By Cut Tings. Withering Asserts That If Meat Be Rubbed With The Leaves Of Tansy, ...

Tar
Tar. A Dark Brown, Viscid Liquor, Obtained By Charring The Wood Of The Fir Tree; It Consists Of Resin, Empyreumatic Oil, And Acetic Acid. When Inspissated By Boiling, It Is Converted Into Pitch. The Manufacture, Which Is Carried On In The Pine Forests Of Northern Europe, Is Simple. A Conical ...