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Alkaline Soils
Alkaline Soils. In Many Portions Of The United States, Par Ticularly In The West, Vast Areas Of Soil Are More Or Less Alkaline. Generally Speaking, Two Kinds Of Alkaline Soils Are Recognized, " Black " And " White" Alkali. Black Alkali Is Sodium Carbonate While The White Is Sodium Sulphate ...

Chemical Fire Retardents
Chemical Fire Retardents Sodium Carbonate. Sodium Carbonate Did Not Prove Efficient In Retarding Combustion (fig. 24). It Also Caused A Marked Weakening Of The Wood. Sodium Bicarbonate. Sodium Bicarbonate Did Not Prove Efficient In Retarding Combustion (fig. 24), And Also Caused A Marked Weakening Of The Wood. Oxalic Acid. Oxalic ...

Coke Test
Coke Test In Making The Coke Determination, Hard Glass Bulbs Are To Be Used. The Test Is To Be Carried Out As Follows: Warm The Bulb Slightly To Drive Off All 'moisture, Cool In A Desiccator And Weigh. Again Heat The Bulb By Placing It Momen Tarily In An Open ...

Copper Sulphate And Wood
Copper Sulphate And Wood. This Salt Was First Put To Extensive Use By Margary In England About 1837. It Was Later Used By Boucherie In France, Where It Is Still Commonly Employed In Treating Timber, Particularly Poles. It Is Strongly Toxic Against Wood-destroying Fungi. It Is Readily Soluble In Water ...

Cost Of Treating Ties
Cost Of Treating Ties. The Total Cost Of Treating Ties Can Be Divided Into The Following General Items: (1) Seasoning, (2) Labor, (3) Fuel, (4) Plant Operation And Maintenance, And (5) Chemicals. The Majority Of Ties Now Treated In The United States Are Air Seasoned Prior To Treatment. The Cost ...

Creosotes And Wood
Creosotes And Wood. Owing To Their Ability In Preserving Wood, Creosotes Will Be Discussed In Detail, As They Are The Most Im Portant Preservatives Now Known. Much Misunderstanding Exists As To The Meaning Of The Term " Creosote." It Is Defined By The Standard Dictionary As " A Colorless To ...

Cross Arms
Cross Arms. Selection Of Species. Two Kinds Of Wood, Douglas Fir And Pine (mostly Longleaf), Furnish About 90 Percent Of The 3,500,000 Cross Arms Used Annually In The United States. Other Varieties Such As Oak, Cypress, Spruce, Juniper, Cedar, Chestnut, And Locust Are Also Used, But In Scattering Quantities. Due ...

Crude Oils And Wood
Crude Oils And Wood. Crude Oils Are Not Widely Used In Treating Timber In Our Country. They Rely Upon Their Ability To Preserve Wood On Their Tendency To " Waterproof " It And Thus Keep It Too Dry For Wood-destroying Fungi. The Oils Are All Practically Nontoxic Although Some Of ...

Determination Of Free Carbon
Determination Of Free Carbon Ten Grams Of The Oil Should Be Weighed Into A Small Beaker And Digested With C. P. Toluol On A Steam Bath. A Cylindrical Filter Cup Is Prepared By Folding Two Of The Papers Around A Rod About Five-eights Of An Inch (5/8") In Diameter. The ...

Determination Of Tar Acids
Determination Of Tar Acids One Hundred Cubic Centimeters (100 C.c.) Of The Total Distillate To Three Hundred And Fifteen Degrees (315° C.), To Which Forty Cubic Centimeters (40 C.c.) Of A Solution Of Sodium Hydroxide Having A Specific Gravity Of One And Fifteen Hundredths (1.15) Is Added, Is Warmed Slightly ...

Distillation Of Cresote From
Distillation Of Cresote From The Tars. From Any Or All Of The Foregoing Tars, Either Alone Or In Mixture, Creosote May Be Pro Duced. The General Process Of Manufacture Is Similar In All Cases. The Tar Is Distilled In A Metal Retort Or Still And The Vapors Are Condensed And ...

Effect Of Wood Preservation
Effect Of Wood Preservation On Forest Management. Apart From The Problem Of Husbanding Our Forest Resources Is The Effect Of Treating Timber On The Practice Of Managing Our Forests. By Giving Durability To Woods Which Do Not Naturally Possess It, The Practice Of Wood Preservation Will In Many Cases Govern ...

Expansion Of Wood
Expansion Of Wood. Source Of Error In Measuring Ab Sorption Is The Expansion Of The Wood Due To Raising Its Temperature. Assum Ing The Thermal Coefficient Of Linear Ex Pansion Of Wood, 0.00001 Per Degree Centigrade Parallel To The Fiber And 0.00006 Across The Fiber' And That The Wood Is ...

Factors Which Cause The
Factors Which Cause The Deterioration Of Structural Timber Discussion Of Their Relative Importance. Timber Placed In Service Is Subject To Deterioration From Many Causes, And Its Strength Eventually Becomes So Weakened That It Must Be Re Moved And Replaced With Sound Timber Or Some Other Material. The Chief Factors Which ...

Fractional Distellation
Fractional Distellation The Hempel Distilling Flask Of Resistance Glass Is Employed. The Empty Flask Is Tared, 250 Grams Of Melted, Well-shaken Oil Introduced, The Platinum- Wire Plug And The Glass Beads Put In Place, And A Second Weight Taken. The Thermometer Is Then Inserted In The Flask, So That The ...

Gauges And Scales
Gauges And Scales. Many Plants Are Still Careless In Their Methods Of Measuring Absorptions Of Preservative. Of Course, If The Plant Is Doing Its Own Work, As In Most Railroad Plants, Accurate Measurements Of Absorption Are Not As. Essential As In Commercial Plants Treating On Contract. However, In Either Case, ...

Hewed Versus Sawed Ties
Hewed Versus Sawed Ties. Approximately 75 Percent Of All Ties Purchased Are Hewed. In The Tie Industry As A Whole The Methods Of Manufacture Are Undergoing No General Or Perma Nent Changes. The Probable Reasons Are That The Railroads Obtain, Either Directly Or Indirectly Through Tie Companies, A Large Proportion ...

History Of Wood Preservation
History Of Wood Preservation. Egypt. The Earliest Records Of The Artificial Preservation Of Organic Bodies Are Found In Egyp Tian History. I The Skill Shown By The Egyptians In Enbalming Bodies Proves That They Carried The Art To A High State Of Perfec Tion. Apparently The Wooden Coffin.s In Which ...

Impregnation Processes Wood
Wood, Impregnation Processes. All Impregnation Processes Aim Not Only To Protect The Surface Of The Wood From Attack But Also To Force The Preservative Deeply Into The Wood. Thus, Should The Surface Of The Wood Become Broken, The Fibers Beneath The Surface Containing The Preservative Will Still Offer A Strong ...

Insects Forest Preservation
Forest Preservation, Insects. The Deterioration Of Timber Through Insect Attack Is Greatly Underestimated In This Country. This Matter Has Been Made The Subject Of A Special Investigation By The U. S. Bureau Of Entomology And It Is Estimated That The Annual Loss From This Cause Amounts To $100,000,000.2 Round Timber ...

Kind Of Wood And
Kind Of Wood And Treatment In Measuring The Resistance Of Different Woods, The Method Used Was That Of Determining The Resistance Between Two Spikes, As Described Above. The Ties Were Generally Tested In The Yard And Had Been Piled. Some Were Covered And Were No Doubt Less Dry Than Others. ...

Kyan Process
Kyan Process. This Process Has Been Used Extensively In Europe For Treating Poles And Has Given Very Good Results. The Manner In Which The Process Is Operated Has Been Described In Chapter V. Next To Poles Impregnated By The Full-cell Process, Kyanized Poles Have Given Greatest Durability. The Treatment Is ...

Kyanizing Process
Kyanizing Process. This Process Has Been In Use Since 1832 When It Was Patented In England By John H. Kyan. It Was Employed In The United States As Early As 1840 And Is Claimed To Be The Oldest Method Of Treating Timber Now Practised In Our Country. The Process Consists ...

Marine Borers
Marine Borers. In Many Places Along Both The Atlantic And Pacific Coasts Timber Used For Piles In Wharfs And Other Marine Structures Is Attacked By Marine Wood Borers. There Are Many Kinds Of Such Borers But Those Which Occur In Our Waters Can Be Classed Into Three Genera Of Mollusks, ...

Mechanical Abrasion
Mechanical Abrasion. Wood Placed In Service Is Often De Stroyed Solely From Mechanical Causes, And When These Cannot Be Mitigated Or Eliminated, The Protection Of Such Wood From Decay Is Frequently Inadvisable. Of The Various Forms Of Structural Timbers, Cross-ties Are Most Subject To Serious Mechanical Wear, And The Loss ...

Mercuric Chloride And Wood
Mercuric Chloride And Wood. This Is The Most Toxic Wood Preservative In Use. It Was First Extensively Employed By Kyan In England About 1832. Extremely Small Quantites Of This Salt In Wood Will Absolutely Kill All Wood-destroying Fungi. Its Toxic Limit Is Even Below That Of Such Toxic Salts And ...

Method For Determining The
Method For Determining The Amount Of Moisture In Creosote And Creosoted Wood "the Creosoted Wood, In The Form Of Borings, Turnings, Saw Dust, Or Similar Material, Is Quickly Weighed And Transferred To The 250 C.c. Erlenmeyer Flask, And 75 C.c. Of Water-saturated Added. The Basin In Which The Flask Is ...

Method Of Analyzing Zinc
Method Of Analyzing Zinc Chloride' Sampling. A Fair Average Sample Must Be Taken From One Out Of Every Ten Drums. Quickly Transfer The Sample To A Clean, Dry. Salt-mouthed Bottle, Stopper, Hermetically Seal And Send To The Laboratory For Test. The Sample Should Be Marked With A Number Or Other ...

Method Of Seasoning
Method Of Seasoning. Common Practice Now Pays Little At Tention To Seasoning Poles. (see Plate Xv, Fig. A.) Poles Are Gen Erally Piled One On Top Of The Other In Order To Occupy As Little Space As Possible. If The Poles Are Not To Be Treated And If They Are ...

Methods Of Treating Shingles
Methods Of Treating Shingles Treating Against Decay. The Most Common Method Of Pro Tecting Shingles From Decay Is To Dip Them In A Preservative And After They Have Dried Nail Them On The Roof. There Are Several Preservatives Sold On The Market For This Purpose Under The Name Of "shingle ...

Methods Of Treatment And
Methods Of Treatment And Their Selection Mine Ties. The Methods Of Treating Mine Ties Do Not Differ In Any Essential Way From The Treatment Of Cross-ties Described In Chapter Viii. If The Mines Are Dry, Treatments With Zinc Chloride Or Any Empty-cell Treatment With Creosote Will Prove Very Satisfactory. On ...

Moisture Content In Wood
Moisture Content In Wood. When Ties Are Green The Cell Walls And Many Of The Cell Spaces Are Filled With Water. To Properly Inject A Preservative, At Least A Part Of This Water Must Be Removed, And The Extent To Which It Has Been Removed Governs The Amount Of Preservative ...

Need For Test Tracks
Need For Test Tracks. It Is Apparent From The Above Discus Sion On The Economy Of Treatment That Little Of Definite Value On The Efficiency Of Various Processes Can Be Determined Until Ac Curate Data Is Available. Without Doubt, The Best Way Of Secur Ing Such Data Is To Set ...

Paints And Stains
Paints And Stains. Wood Which Has Been Painted With Ordinary Paint (usually A Mixture Of Linseed Oil, Turpentine, And An Inorganic Pigment) Such As Is Used In Decorating Buildings Is Partially Protected From Decay Because It Is Rendered Partially Waterproof. The Spores Of Wood-destroying Fungi Will Not Develop Readily On ...

Peeling Timber
Peeling Timber. Practically All Preservative Processes Require The Complete Removal Of Bark Before The Wood Can Be Successfully Treated. Generally, The Best Time To Remove The Bark Is Im Mediately After The Tree Is Felled. In Sawed Products The Bark Usually Is Removed At The Mill In Slabbing The Log. ...

Pollution Of Streams
Pollution Of Streams. Complaint Has Been Made Against Some Treating Plants Because They Polluted Streams With Waste Oil. This Comes Largely From The Cylinders And Steam Exhausts. Of Course, No Plant Is Going To Deliberately Waste Preservative And It Is Believed That Such Complaints Can Be Entirely Avoided As They ...

Practice Of Spiking
Practice Of Spiking. The Practice Of Spiking Ties To The Rail Has Long Been Recognized As Capable Of Improvement. The Spikes, Especially In Softwood Ties, Do Not Hold Firmly, And Permit The Rail To " Creep " And " Pump," Thus Greatly Shortening The Life Of The Tie. Fur Thermore, ...

Preservatives Used In Protecting
Preservatives Used In Protecting Wood From Decay. Properties Of Efficient Preservatives. Hundreds Of Chemicals And Compounds Have Been Advocated And Tested To Preserve Wood From Decay, But Only A Few Of Them Possess Sufficient Merit To Justify Their Use For This Purpose. As Was Shown In Chapter Ii, Decay In ...

Pressure Plants
Pressure Plants. Considerable Quantities Of Timber Are Most Efficiently Handled In Pressure Plants, Which Fact Accounts For The Large Number Now Operating In This And Foreign Countries. (see Plate Vi, Fig. D And Plate Viii, Fig. A.) The Essential Features In All Plants Operating On This Basis Are Quite Similar, ...

Pressure Processes
Pressure Processes. All Processes So Classed Rely Upon The Use Of Pressures Above Atmospheric In Order To Force The Pre Servative Into The Wood. (see Plate Vi, Fig. D.) In General, Best Results Are Secured By Such Treatment, Although It Is By No Means Possible To Satisfactorily Penetrate All Woods ...

Processes Used In Protecting
Processes Used In Protecting Wood From Decay. Although A Great Many Processes Have Been And Are Practised In Protecting Timber From Decay, They May Be Logically Divided Into Two Rather Distinct Groups, Based Upon The Character Of The Protection Given. These May Be Termed The Superficial And The Impregnation Processes. ...

Prolonging The Life Of
Prolonging The Life Of Cross-ties From Decay And Abrasion Selection Of Species. At The Present Time, Practically Any Kind Of Tree Which Is Large Enough To Make A Cross-tie Is Used For This Purpose. The Result Is A Great Variety Of Ties Differing Widely In Their Properties. It Stands To ...

Prolonging The Life Of_2
Prolonging The Life Of Poles And Cross Arms From Decay And Insects. Selection Of Species. According To Present Usage, In Order To Make A Satisfactory Pole, A Tree Must Have The Following General Properties: Its Wood Must Be Strong, Comparatively Light In Weight And Durable, Its Taper Must Be Gradual ...

Prolonging The Life Of_3
Prolonging The Life Of Fence Posts From Decay. Selection Of Species. Where Trees Abound, Fence Posts Are Generally Made From Timber Easiest To' Cut. For This Reason Practically All Kinds Of Wood Large Enough To Make A Post Are Used And A List Of Them Would Comprise Nearly All Species ...

Prolonging The Life Of_4
Prolonging The Life Of Piling And Boats From Decay And Marine Borers To Satisfactorily Treat Piling And Timber Placed In Salt Water Where Marine Borers Abound Is Exceedingly Difficult Of Accomplish Ment And The Problem Is Quite Different From That Of Protecting Timber From Decay. As Has Been Pointed Out ...

Prolonging The Life Of_5
Prolonging The Life Of Mine Timbers On Account Of The Warm Damp Air Which Exists In Many Mines, Timber Placed In Them Is Very Subject To Attack By Decay And In Sects. As The Methods Which Will Eliminate Decay Will Also Elimi Nate Insects, No Differentiation In Treatment Is Specified. ...

Prolonging The Life Of_6
Prolonging The Life Of Paving Blocks Progress Of Wood Paving." The First Use Of Wood For Paving Is Said To Have Been In Russia, Where Crude Blocks Were Laid Several Centuries Ago. Wood Wa,s Introduced Into New York City In 1835-36, And Into London In 1839. Continental Europe Was Slower ...

Prolonging The Life Of_7
Prolonging The Life Of Shingles Shingles Are Subject To Common Forms Of Destruction, (1) Decay And (2) Fire. If Made From Durable Woods, The Problem Of Protection From Decay Is Not Serious, As Shingle Roofs May Easily Last 25 Years Or More. Protection From Fire Is Of Greater Importance, Especially ...

Prolonging The Life Of_8
Prolonging The Life Of Lumber And Logs Methods Of Treating Lumber For Rough Construction. An Immense Quantity Of Structural Timber Is Used Annually In The United States Under Conditions Which Subject It To Decay. Un Fortunately, Only A Small Percentage Is Treated, So That Our Depreciation Losses Are Both Rapid ...

Proportion Of Sapwood
Proportion Of Sapwood. As Has Been Stated, The Sapwood Of Practically All Woods Native To The United States Readily Absorbs Preservatives. The Heartwood, However, Is Much More Resistant, So Much So In Some Cases That No Effective Treatment Is Possible. Two Hundred Maple Ties Thoroughly Air Seasoned (the Moisture Content ...

Proprietary Patented
Patented, Proprietary, And Minor Wood Tives Used In The Itnited States A Number Of Wood Pre,servatives Which Fall Under This Heading Are Used In The United States, Few Of Them In Any Appreciable Amount. Perhaps The Best Known Are The " Carbolineums," Which Are Used Quite Extensively, Especially For Brush-treating ...

Protection From Abrasion In
Protection From Abrasion In Wood. It Has Been Estimated That From 10 To 75 Percent Of Unprotected Ties Fail By Rail And Spike Cutting; The Former Figure Referring To Hard, Quick-decaying Ties Like Maple, The Latter To Durable, Soft Ties Like Cedar. Since The Number Of Treated Ties Is Increasing ...

Retort House
Retort House. The Retort House Is Built Primarily To Cover And Protect The Treating Cylinders Or Retorts. In Best Con Struction It Is Made Of Steel, Brick, Or Re-enforced Concrete, Al Though A Wooden Structure May Be Used If Minimum Cost Is Desired. To Guard Against Loss Of Preservative Due ...

Sap Stain
Sap Stain. When Freshly Cut Sap Lumber Is Piled In The Open Air To Season It Frequently Becomes Discolored In A Few Days. This Discoloration Is Not Due To Weathering But To The Growth Of Certain Fungi Which Live Upon The Materials In The Sapwood Cells. Wood Thus Attacked Is ...

Seasoning In Superheated Steam
Seasoning In Superheated Steam. It Will Be Noted That Seasoning In Saturated Steam Necessitates A Vacuum In Order To Remove The Water From The Wood. With Superheated Steam This Is Not Necessary, As It Is Capable Of Absorbing The Water Vapor Driven Off From The Wood As Fast As It ...

Seasoning Timber
Seasoning Timber. Wood In All Living Trees Contains Water. The Amount Of Water Thus Contained Varies With The Kind Of Wood, The Conditions Under Which It Grew, And The Season. It Fre Quently Happens That In The Sapwood, And Sometimes In The Heart Wood, The Weight Of The Water Is ...

Sodium Fluoride And Wood
Sodium Fluoride And Wood. The Commercial Application Of Sodium Fluoride To The Preservative Treatment Of Timber Is Comparatively Recent. It Has Been Tested By Malenkovic In Austia For The Past 8 Years With Apparently Excellent Results. It Is More Toxic Than Zinc Chloride (see Table 4) And Is Not So ...

Specific Gravity Of The
Specific Gravity Of The Whole Oil "the Perfectiy Liquefied Oil Is Poured Into A Hydrometer Cylinder, And, At A Temperature Of 60°, The Specific Gravity Is Read With Hydrometer Standardized Against Water At 60°. The Somewhat Prevalent Method Of Determining Specific Gravity With A Hydrometer Standardized At 15° And Then ...

The Construction And Operation
The Construction And Operation Of Wood Preserving Plants In Chapter V We Described The Relative Merits Of The Open Tank And Pressure Plants And The General Features Of Their Opera Tion Dependent Upon The Particular Process Selected. In This Chapter We Will Describe The Construction Of The Plants, The Effect ...

The Durability Of American
The Durability Of American Timbers The Durability Of Timber Is So Exceedingly Variable That Any General Table Is Of Value Solely In Securing An Approximate Idea Of The Durability Of One Wood As Compared With Another—and Not As An Index Of What The Wood Will Actually Do Under All Con ...

The Effect Of Pressure
The Effect Of Pressure On The Preservative. In Applying Pressure To A Preservative In A Treating Cylinder Three Factors Are Of Importance: The Intensity Of The Pressure, The Duration Of The Pressure, And The Rate At Which The Pressure Is Applied. In General, The Higher The Pressure The Greater And ...

The Effect Of Pressure_2
The Effect Of Pressure On The Strength Of Wood Pressures Used In Treating Timber Are All Far Too Low To Cause Any Weakening Of The Wood. A Pressure Of 200 Pounds Per Square Inch Is About As High As Is Ever Held And Even This Is Much Beloiv The Crushing ...

The Effect Of Rasin
The Effect Of Rasin Ducts On The Treatment Of Wood. As Mentioned Above, Conifers Do Not Possess Vessels Or Pores. Some Of Them Do, However, Have A Structure Which, So Far As A Penetra Tion With Preservatives Is Concerned, Functions Like Pores. This Structure Is Called A "resin Duct," And ...

The Effect Of Sapwood
The Effect Of Sapwood And Heartwood Upon Injection. The Sapwood Is Commonly Defined As That Portion Of The Tree In Which The Wood Cells Are Alive And Perform Vital Functions. It Always Occurs Immediately Under The Bark And Can Usually Be Distinguished From The Heartwood By The Lighter Color. The ...

The Effect Of Summerwood
The Effect Of Summerwood And Springwood Upon Injection. All Of The Commercially Important American Woods Grow By Adding A Successive Layer Of Wood With Each Successive Year Of Life. These Layers Are Concentric And Are Called " Annual Rings." Normally, One Such Annual Ring Or Layer Is Produced Each Year, ...

The Effect Of The
The Effect Of The Structure Of Wood Upon Its Injection With Preservatives. The Effect Of Density Upon Absorption. It Is Well Known That The Structure Of Wood Has A Very Pronounced Effect Upon The Manner In Which Preservatives Can Be Injected Into It, So That All Kinds Of Wood Cannot ...

The Effect Of Vessels
The Effect Of Vessels Or Pores On The Treatment Of Wood. All Varieties Of American "hardwoods" Possess Elongated Cells Called "vessels" Or "pores." These Are Characteristic Of Hard Woods And Form A Reliable Means Of Distinguishing Such Woods From The "conifers" In Which The Vessels Are Entirely Absent. These Pores ...

The Phola
The Phola. A Marine Stone Borer But Certain Species Will Attack Wood. In Form It Resembles A Long Clam. In Boring It Braces Its Open Shell Against The Sides Of Its Excavation, While Its Long Sucking Foot Emerges And Rubs The Surface Of The Stone Or Wood. Particles Of Sand ...

The Preparation Of Timber
The Preparation Of Timber For Its Treatment The Cutting Season. There Has Been Much Discussion Con Cerning The Effect Of Cutting Timber In Various Seasons Upon Its Durability. The Consensus Of Opinion Gives Preference To Winter. This Is Undoubtedly Correct In That Timber Cut At This Period Is More Liable ...

The Preservation Of Structural
The Preservation Of Structural Timber Definition Of Wood Preservation. Wood Preservation May Be Defined As The Art Of Protecting Structural Timber From Decay. This Is The Common Acceptance Of The Term. When Considered In Its Broadest Aspect, However, It Includes Much More Than This, Since Decay Is But One Factor ...

The Protection Of Timber
The Protection Of Timber From Fire The Use Of Wood As A Construction Material, Especially In Con Gested Centers As In Cities, Has A Serious Objection Due To The Comparative Ease With Which It Can Be Ignited And With Which It Burns. The Objection To Its Use Because Of This ...

The Protection Of Wood
The Protection Of Wood From Minor Destructive Agents A Description Of The Manner In Which These Minor Destructive Agents Attack Wood Has Been Given In Chapter Ii. We Will Now Consider Methods Of Protection. Alkaline Soils. While It Is Well Known That Certain Alkalies Will Attack Wood And Eventually Disintegrate ...

The Strength And Electrolysis
The Strength And Electrolysis Of Treated Timber The Effect Of Air Seasoning On The Strength Of Wood. It Has Been Stated In Chapter Iv That A Considerable Amount Of Water Can Be Removed From Green Wood, Without Affecting Its Strength. As Soon, However, As The Water Begins To Leave The ...

The Use Of Substitutes
The Use Of Substitutes For Treated Timber By The Term " Substitute " Is Here Meant A Matei Ial Which Is Offered In Place Of Wood, Wood Having Been The Standard. Thus, Although Wood And Asphalt Are Both Used Extensively For Street Pavements, A.sphalt Is Not Considered A Substitue For ...

Waste Of Material And
Waste Of Material And Wood. To Hew A Tie Necessarily Entails An Enor Mous Waste Of Material. Based On Actual Field Data The Waste By Hewing Varies From 25 To 75 Percent' (fig. 17). Logs 15 Inches In Diameter Furnish, As A Rule, Only One Hewed Tie, But If Sawed ...

Wellhouse Process
Wellhouse Process. Experienee With The Wellhouse Or Zinc-tan Nin Process Began About 1881, When Some Ties Were Treated In St. Louis, Mo. In The Early 80's And 90's This Method Of Treatment Was Extensively Used In The United States But At The Present Time The Amount Of Timber Treated By ...

Wood And Fire
Wood And Fire. The Action Of Intense Heat On Wood Is So Well Understood That Little Or No Comment Is Necessary. Combustion, Of Course, Occurs, The Wood Being Decomposed Into Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, And Ash, So That Its Original Properties Are Completely Changed. Wood Which Is Wet Or Is ...

Zinc Chloride And Wood
Zinc Chloride And Wood. About 20,000,000 Pounds Of Zinc Chloride Are Now Used Annually In The United States In Treating Timber—an Amount Which Makes It By Far The Most Extensively Used Water Soluble Salt. It Was First Employed On An Extensive Scale By Sir William Burnett In England About 1838 ...