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Age Failure Of Wood
Failure Of Wood Because Of Use Exposure, Age, And Decay. The Changes That Take Place As A Result Of Use, Exposure, And Age, Are Distinct From Those That Take Place As A Result Of Disease. Changes Due To The Former Causes Are Of A Mechanical Nature; The Wood-elements Remain Healthy ...

Angiosperms
Angiosperms. The Seeds Are Always Enclosed In More Or Less Obvi Ous Seed-vessels Or Fruit. These Plants Greatly Exceed Those In The Pre Ceding Groups In The Number Of Their Species And In The Variety Of Their Habits. All Ordinary Flowering Plants Are Angiosperms. There Are Two Classes, Which, While ...

Application
Application. The Strength And Durability Of A Joint Are Influenced By The Way In Which The Glue Is Applied. The Glue May Be Good And Appropriate, But The Joint Will Fail Unless The Glue Is Applied In The Proper Manner. Several Details Are Important: (1) The Glue Must Be Carefully ...

Ash
Ash Fraxinus These Trees Grow In Many Places In The Temperate Regions Of The Northern Hemisphere. The Wood Resembles Oak In Many Particulars, But Is Coarser, Lighter, Easier To Work, Tougher, More Elastic, And Less Attractive Than Oak. Ash Seasons Well, But Does Not Last Well When Exposed To The ...

Attempts To Prevent Woods
Attempts To Prevent Woods From Burning Many Attempts Have Been Made To Prevent. Woods From Burning. The Ancient Greeks Used Alum For This Purpose; And Later At Tempts Were Associated With Methods Designed To Protect. Woods From Decay. At The Present Time The Most Intelligent Efforts Are Those That Have ...

Bamboo
Bamboo Bambusa These Giant Grasses Grow In China, Japan, And Other Tropical And Semi-tropical Regions, And, In Some Places, Even Extend Over Into The Temperate Zone. In The United States They Have Suc Ceeded As Far North As The Carolinas." 2 Bamboo Stems Often Attain Heights Of Seventy Feet And ...

Banded Trunks And Woods
Banded Trunks And Woods. Coniferous Trees Cover Large Areas In Parts Of Canada And The United States. The Pines, Spruces, Hemlocks, And Other So Called Softwoods Are Of This Group. Coniferous Woods Are Comparatively Light In Weight And The Arrangements Of The Wood-element Is, On The Whole, Simpler Than In ...

Banded Woods
Banded Woods. Needleleaf Woods, Softwoods Broadleaf Woods, Hardwoods (conifers). (dicotyledons). True Vessels Absent. True Vessels Present. Wood Tracheids Present And Form- Tracheids Present Or Absent; Sl Ing Bulk Of Wood. Ways Subordinate. Ray Tracheids Present Or Absent. Ray Tracheids Absent. Wood Fibers Absent. Wood Fibers Present. Wood Parenchyma Present (ex- ...

Beech
Beech Fagus The Beeches Are Represented In The Temperate Regions Of The Northern Hemisphere By A Single Species (fagus Americana). The European Beech (fagus Sylvatica) Is An Important Tree Beech Wood Is Hard, Heavy, Strong, Fine-grained, Not Durable When Exposed, And Somewhat Subject To Attack By Insects. European Beech Is ...

Beetles
Beetles (order Coleoptera) Beettles Form What Is Known To Naturalists As An Order. Almost One Hundred Thousand Species Besides Which, Others Are Frequently Discovered. Beetles Undergo A Complete Metamorphosis. The Larvae Are Sometimes Grubs. Beetles Have Two Horny Sheaths Or Wing Covers That Meet In A Straight Line Down The ...

Birch
Birch Betula Birch Trees Grow In Many Places In North America, Europe, And Asia. The Ranges Of Some Species Extend Far Into The North. Birch Trees Are Noted For Their Bark, Quite As Much As For Their Wood.' The Paper Birch (betula Papyrifera) Is The Species That Is Most Noted ...

Boxwood
Boxwood Buxus, Cornus, Etc. These Trees Yield Small But Very Perfect Pieces Of Wood That Fill Needs For Which No Other Woods Seem Equally Fitted. Holly Trees (ilex Opaca) Grow Along The Coast In The United States From Quincy, Massachusetts, To Louisiana, And In The Interior, In Parts Of Missouri, ...

Camphor Tree
Camphor Tree Cinnamomum The Sassafras Grows In Many Parts Of The Eastern Half Of The United States. It Was One Of The First Of The North American Trees To Be Described In Europe, Where At That Early Date, Many Fictitious Properties Were Credited To The Aromatic Essences By Which It ...

Cattle Glues Adhesives
Adhesives, Cattle Glues, Fish Glues, Application Of Glues Glue Is Prepared From Parts Of Animals. It Is Used To Join Pieces Of Wood Together; And Is Also Used In Printers' Rollers, Emery Wheels, Book Bindings, Artificial Leather, And For Sizing Cloths And Papers. Kalsomine Is A Mixture Of Glue And ...

Cattle Glues
Cattle Glues The Sources Of Cattle Glue May Be Separated Into Three Groups As Follows: Hidestock Includes Scraps And Cuttings From Tanneries, To Gether With Sinews, And Pieces Known As Fleshings That Are Shaved From Inner Surfaces Of Skins. Hidestocks From Horned Cattle, Sheep, Rabbits, And Other Animals, Yield Glues ...

Cedar
Cedar Cedrus, Thuya, Chamiscyparis, Libocedrus, Juniperus The Name Cedar Was First Applied To The True, Foreign, Or Lebanon Cedars (cedrus), But Was Later Applied To Certain Arborvitaes (thuya), Junipers (juniperus), Cypresses (chamce Cyparis), And Other Trees' That Yield The Durable. Fine-grained Characteristically Scented Woods That Are Commonly Known As Cedar ...

Character And Arrangement Of
Character And Arrangement Of Wood-elements. Wood Is The Solid Part Of Trees—the Part Which, When Otherwise Suitable, Is Used In Construction. It Consists Of A Ground-work Of Starch-like Substance Known As Cellulose, Permeated By Materials Collectively Known As Lignin. There Are Also Secretions, Such As Resin, Coloring-matter, And Water. The ...

Chemical Composition Of Woods
Chemical Composition Of Woods From The Standpoint Of Chemistry Also, Woods Are Complex And Variable. Outer Or Living Portions Of A Tree Trunk Contain Nitrogenous Food-materials And Others, Such As Starches And Sugars; While The Inner Parts, In Which Life-processes Have Ceased, Contain Other Substances. The Chemical Composition Of Wood ...

Chinquapin Chestnut
Chestnut, Chinquapin Castanea These Trees Grow In Many Parts Of Eastern North America, Southern Europe, Northern Africa, Western Asia, And Parts Of China And Japan. European Chestnut Wood Was Once Held In High Regard. It Should Be Noted, However, That Some Of The Constructions, In Which This Wood Was Thought ...

Coatings Applied To Surfaces
Coatings Applied To Surfaces Of Wood. Metals Are Sometimes Used To Beautify Woods And To Protect Them From Decay; But They, As Well As Paints, Seal Up Moisture That May Be Present, And Should Not Be Used Save With Woods That Are Quite Dry And Well Seasoned. Wooden Pillars Are ...

Copper Sulphate
Copper Sulphate. This Is The Blue Vitriol Of Commerce. Chapman Experimented With Wood Soaked In Copper Sulphate As Early As 1816. Boucherie, Who Concerned Himself With Methods For Forcing Preservatives Into Woods Rather Than With The Preservatives Themselves, After Employing Various Antiseptics, Finally Pronounced In Favor Of Copper Sulphate; And ...

Cypress
Cypress Cupressua And Taxodium The Name Cypress Has Been Applied To Trees Of The Genera Chameecyparis, Cupressus, And Taxodium. Most Of The Species Of The Genus Chamtecyparis Are Now Classed As Cedars. The Genus Cupressus Includes True Cypresses, And Is Important In Europe, But The Trees Themselves, Rather Than Their ...

Defects
Defects. Defects Are Of Many Kinds. The Cracks Or Separations That Radiate From The Centers Of Trees Are Known As "beart-shakes" And "star-shakes." The Separations Between The Yearly Layers Are Known As "cup-shakes." It Is Assumed That "cup-shakes" Are Influenced By The Winds, Which Roll The Trees To And Fro, ...

Density Rule For Grading
Density Rule For Grading Southern Hard Pine "dense Southern Yellow Pine Shall Show On Either End An Average Of At Least Six Annual Rings Per Inch And At Least One-third Summer Wood, Or Else The Greater Number Of The Rings Shall Show At Least One-third Summer Wood, All As Measured ...

Descriptions Of Physical
Descriptions Of Physical Properties.the First Or Qualitative Part Of The Subject Is Not Difficult. Some Important Properties Are Strength, Rigidity, Elasticity, Resilience, Hard Ness, Ability To Hold Fastenings, Weight, Specific Gravity, Density And Porosity, Conductivity And Resonance. Strength.strength Has Two Meanings. There Is The General Meaning And The Meaning As ...

Douglas Fir Douglas Spruce
Douglas Spruce, Douglas Fir, Oregon Pine Pseudouruga. These Trees Form Almost Pure Forests In Washington And Ore Gon. They Grow Sparingly In Mexico, Texas, And At High Alti Tudes In Colorado. Transplanted Specimens Have Survived In New York. It Should Be Noted That The Douglas Spruce Is Neither Spruce, Fir, ...

Elm
Elm Ulmtia The Several Species Of Elm Are Distributed Over The Eastern And Central Portions Of The United States. Elm Trees Are Prized For Their Fine Form And Appearance. Because They Have No Lower Branches, They Are Particularly Good For Planting Along Streets And Near Houses. Elm Trees Attain A ...

Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus Eucalyptus The Eucalypts, Locally Known As Stringybarks, Ironbarks, Mahoganies, Box And Gum Trees, Are Natives Of Australia And The Neighboring Islands.' The Genus Is Now Represented By Culti Vated Specimens On Each Of The Continents, Where, In Some Places, It Has Influenced Topographical And Other Conditions To A Remark ...

External
External Protection.many Attempts Have Been Made To Prevent Or Retard The Burning Of Wood By Means Of Coatings, And At Least One Of These Attempts Has Succeeded Sufficiently To Serve Practically In Construction.' The Properties Of The Materials Employed, The Methods By Which They Are Applied, And The Prepa Ration ...

Failure Of Wood Because
Failure Of Wood Because Of Fire. Protection From Fire. The Fact That Wood Is Inflammable Is Of Far-reaching Impor Tance. The Direct Losses Caused By The Burning Of Finished Pro Ducts And Of Live Woods In The Forests, And The Indirect Losses Caused By The Communication Of Fires From Burning ...

Fillers
Fillers. Woods Are More Or Less Porous, And Should Be Primed Before Ordinary Paints Are Applied To Them, Not Only Be Cause Paints Of Normal Thickness Cannot. Penetrate Sufficiently To Attach Themselves To Woods, But Also Because A Porous Wood Tends To Separate Oil From Pigment. The Materials Or Mixtures ...

Fir
Fir The Silver Fir (abies Grandis), The Red Fir (abies Magnifica), And The Noble Fir (abies Nobilis), Are Valued West Of The Rocky Mountains, While The Balsam Fir (abies Balsamea) Is Of Some Com Mercial Importance In The East. Some Of The Fir Trees In The Western States Are So ...

Fish Glues
Fish Glues The Dry Forms Known As Isinglass Are Prepared From The Swimming Bladders Of Certain Fishes. Dry Fish Glue Or Isinglass Is Seldom Used In Carpentry And Is Mentioned In This Place Only For The Sake Of Completeness. Ordinary Or Liquid Fish Glues Can Be, But Seldom Are, Prepared ...

Forestry
Forestry. Forestry Is A Phase Of Agriculture, Rather Than Of Lumbering. Under This System Forests Are Not Destroyed For Immediate Profit But Are Maintained So As To Secure Recurring Crops Of Desirable, Matured Trees. Besides This, Appropriate Species Are Planted, Top-soil Or Humus Is Preserved, Fire Risks Are Lowered, And ...

Fresh Water Woodborers
Fresh Water Woodborers. The Work Of A Fresh-water Woodborer (sphceroma Destructor Richardson) In Trestles Of The Florida East Coast Railway Resembles The Work Of The Limnoria, Save That The Burrows Of The Fresh-water Borer Are Larger Than Those Of The Limnoria. A Yellow Pine Pile Was Reduced By Them From ...

Fungous Diseases
Fungous Diseases. Failure Due To Decay. Trees In The Forests, And Woods Waiting To Be Used, Or Already In Con Structions, Are Susceptible To Diseases That Cause Losses So Serious As To Constitute One Of The Greatest Drains Upon The Timber Resources Of The World. All Wood, Whether Employed In ...

Glue Properties
Glue Properties. Fish Glues Are Powerful Adhesives, But They Do Not Always Sink Easily Into Close-grained Woods. The Liquid Form Is Convenient Because It Makes It Possible To Use The Glue Without Further Preparation. Fish Glue Is Thick And Often Be Comes Thicker When Cold; And, At Such A Time, ...

Grades Of Indiarubber
Grades Of Indiarubber. Indiarubbers May Be Grouped Or Classified In Several Ways. Some Of These Are As Follows: Geographical Classification. From This Standpoint Rubbers May He Classified According As They Come From Major Areas Such As The Para, Central American, African, And East Indian Districts, And Also As They Come ...

Greenheart
Greenheart Nectandra The Greenheart Tree (nectandra Rodioei), Which Is A Member Of The Laurel Family, Grows In British Guiana And Some Adjacent Parts Of South America, As Well As In The West Indies. The Wood Is Hard, Strong, Tough, And Very Heavy. The Colors Of The Heartwood Vary From Dark ...

Gum
Gum Liquidambar, Nyasa This Name Applies To A Number Of Trees That Lie Within At Least Two Genera. One Genus (liquidambar) Contributes About Four Species, Which Grow In Many Places In The Eastern Part Of The United States And Parts Of Mexico, Central America, And Asia; While The Other Genus ...

Gymnosperms
Gymnosperms. The Seeds Are Naked, That Is, They Are Not Enclosed In Fruit. There Are Three Natural Groups Or Families As Follows: (a) Cycadacece. Practically Confined To Tropical And Sub-tropical Regions. Practically Valueless For Wood. To Be Here Disregarded. (b) Gnetacem. Consists Of Undershrubs, Shrubs, And Small Trees, Most Of ...

Hemlock
Hemlock Tsuga Hemlock Trees Grow In Some Of The Central And Northern States East Of The Rocky Mountains, And Also On The Pacific Coast As Far North As Alaska. They Sometimes Mingle With Other Trees, And Sometimes Form Pure Forests By Themselves. The Wood Of The Eastern Hemlock (tsuga Canadensis) ...

Hickory
Hickory Hicoria The Hickories Grow In The Temperate Regions Of Eastern North America, And Eastern Asia. The Woods, Which Are Noted For Strength, Toughness, Flexibility. And Resilience, Are Used For Handles, Implements, Machinery And Carriage Parts. Axe Handles And Hammer Handles Of This Wood Have No Superiors. The Reputation Of ...

Horse Chestnut Buckeye
Horse Chestnut. Buckeye Aesculus Horse Chestnut Trees (aesculus Hippocastanum), Supposed To Be Natives Of Asia, Have Long Been Among The Most Popular Shade Trees Of Europe And North America. The Buckeyes (aesculus Glabra, Aesculus Octandra, And Aesculus Californica) Grow From Ohio And Southern Iowa, Southward To Northern Georgia And Northern ...

Indiarubber As A Structural
Indiarubber As A Structural And Machine Material. The Fact That Rubber Is Used To Some Extent In Construction, Transportation, And Manufacture, As In Flooring, Automobile Tires, And Belts, Is Sufficient To Warrant Its Rating As A Structural And Machine Material. As Sugar Is Known To Exist In A Variety Of ...

Influence Of Moisture On
Influence Of Moisture On Physical Properties Of Woods. Wood Elements Are Swollen And Pliable When They Are Wet. Seasoning Expels Moisture And Brings More Of Them Within A Given Space. The Woods Are Then Drier And Stronger. Seasoning May Increase Strength As Much As Four Hundred Per Cent.; And Comparatively ...

Internal Protection
Internal Protection. The Attempts Made To Protect Woods From Fire By Injecting Fire-retarding Chemicals Into Them Have Not Yielded Satisfactory Results; Yet The Fact Exists That Such At Tempts Have Been Made And A Statement With Regard To This Form Of Protection Is, Therefore, Necessary) The Subject. Will Be Divided ...

Internal Treatment Preservative Compounds
Internal Treatment Preservative Compounds Applied Within Woods Preservative Compounds Are Applied Within Woods To Produce Results Of Several Kinds. Sometimes, The Object Is To Increase Resistance To Decay; Sometimes, It Is To Repel The Attacks Of Teredos And Other Live Woodborers, And Sometimes, The Object Is To Retard Fires. Preservatives ...

Kauri Pine
Kauri Pine Dammara The Kauri Pine Grows In New Zealand And Yields A Strong Light, Durable, And Elastic Wood. The Tough, Leather-like Leaves Suggest Those Of The Box. The Reputation Of The Species Depends Principally Upon A Resin Which Is Much Used In The Manufacture Of High-grade Varnishes. This Resin ...

Kiln Seasoning
Kiln Seasoning. Kiln Seasoning Originated With At Tempts To Prevent Warping And Checking In Special Pieces. In The United States, Nearly All Hardwoods, Save Those In Large Con Struction Pieces, Are Now Cured By This Method. Drying Pro Ceeds Rapidly And Details Can Be Controlled In Kilns As They Cannot ...

Larch Or Tamarack
Larch Or Tamarack Larix The Eastern Larch (larix Americana) Grows In Low, Wet Areas Known As Tamarack Swamps. The Western Species (larix Occidentalis) Grows Where It Is Dry And The European Larch (larix Euraptea) Also Thrives Upon Dry Soil. Many Interesting Records Exist With Regard To The Wood, Which Was ...

Laurel
Laurel Magnolia, Rhododendron, Arbutus, Etc. The Name Laurel Applies Locally Or Botanically To A Number Of American Plants, Several Of Which Attain To The Dignity Of Trees. The Big Laurel Or Magnolia (magnolia Foetida) Grows Naturally Along The Atlantic Coast From North Carolina To Florida, And Thence Through The Gulf ...

Mahogany
Mahogany Swietenia, Khaya, Soymida, Cedrela, Etc. The Many Botanical Sources Of The Woods Known As Mahogany, May Be Grouped Upon A Geographical Basis As They Grow In Central America, The East Indies And Africa. Central American Mahogany Was Originally Obtained From The Mahogany (swietenia Mahagoni), But Is Now Derived From ...

Maple
Maple Acer Maple Trees Grow On All The Northern Continents. Nearly One Half Of The Known Species Are Native To Asia. The Principal European Species (acer Pseudo-platanus) Is Known In Europe As A Sycamore. The Hard Or Sugar Maple (acer Saccharum) Is One Of The Principal Deciduous Trees Of North ...

Materials Used In Paints
Materials Used In Paints And Varnishes Oils. All Oils Used In Constructions May Be Divided Into Three Groups; Solidifying Oils, That Can Be Used In Paints Because They Change, Upon Exposure, Into Tough, Leathery Solids; Non Solidifying Oils, That Are Not Used In Paints And That Are Men Tioned In ...

Measurements Of Physical Properties
Measurements Of Physical Properties. This Second Part Of The Subject Is More Difficult Than The First. It Is Easy To Describe Qualities As Such, But It Is Not As Easy To Measure Such Qualities Serviceably Where The Material Is As Variable As The One In Question. Not Only Do Wood-specimens ...

Mercury Bichloride
Mercury Bichloride The Application Of Mer Cury Bichloride In Wood Preservation Was First Suggested By John Howard Kyan In England In 1833. Mercury Bichloride Is The Most Active Of All Wood Preservatives In Use. Very Small Quantities Are Effective, And Because The Quantities Needed Are So Small The Actual Cost, ...

Mesquite Locust
Locust, Mesquite Robinia, Gleditsia, Prosopis The Name Locust Applies To Species Of Three Distinct Genera Of The Family Leguminosie. The Black Locust (robinia Pseud Acacia), The Honeylocust (gleditsia Triacanthos), And The Mesquite Or Honey Locust (prosopis Juliflora) Grow In The United States.' The Wood Of The Black Locust Is Noted ...

Methods Of Protection
Methods Of Protection Injury From Insects Can Not Be Completely Controlled. Man Has Not Yet Succeeded In Eliminating A Single Species Of Insects. But As Distinct From This, The Enormous Losses That Now Result From This Cause Would Be Greater Than They Are If Man Had Remained In Active. It ...

Methods Used To Apply
Methods Used To Apply Paints. The Methods Employed To Apply Paint To Wood Have A Fundamental Influence Upon The Durability Of The Coatings. The Paint Should Be Thoroughly Mixed Until It Reaches An Even, Creamy Consistency. Portions From The Top And Bottom Of The Same Pail Have Less Tendency To ...

Methods Used To Extinguish
Methods Used To Extinguish Burning Woods. Although The Methods Used To Extinguish All Fires Are The Same, Yet There Is Good Reason For Associating Such Methods With The Burning Of Wood. As Already Stated, In Europe The Policy With Regard To Fire Is To Endeavor To Prevent Them. Less Wood ...

Miscellaneous Materials
Miscellaneous Materials. Several Proprietary Wood Preserving Compounds Are In Existence; These, Although Recom Mended For Ties, Are Principally Used For Small Pieces, Or For Fresh Exposures Where Timbers Are Cut And Framed Upon The Ground. Carbolineum, Woodiline, Spiritine, And Others Are Of This Group. Carbolineum. The Base Of This Mixture ...

Moisture In Wood
Moisture In Wood. ...

Moths And Butterflies
Moths And Butterflies (order Lepidaptera). Moths And Butterflies Undergo Complete Metamorphosis. Both Forms Possess Four Membranous, Scaly Wings, And In Both Cases The Larvae Are Often Known As Caterpillars. Butterflies Fly By Day, While Moths Fly By Night, And There Are Also Differences In The Ways In Which The Wings ...

Natural Seasoning
Natural Seasoning. Just As Certain Fruits Will Either Cure Or Rot, According To The Way In Which They Are Exposed To The Weather, So, Also, Will Certain Woods. When Woods Are Exposed Under Certain Conditions In The Open Air, Water Is Expelled And The Changes That Have Been De Scribed ...

Non Banded Trunks And
Non Banded Trunks And Woods Monocotyledons The Trunks From Which Non-banded Woods Are Obtained Grow In Thickness From The Inside. With Several Exceptions These Trunks Increase Principally By The Expansion Of Cells Already Formed.' There Are No Layers Or Concentric Bands, Such As Characterize The Woods Of The Other Group. ...

Oak
Oak Quercus The Oaks Grow In Many Parts Of The Northern Hemisphere, And At High Altitudes Just South Of The Equator. The Historical Importance Of The Wood Was Founded Upon The Reputation Of The English Oaks (quercus Robur Var. Pedunculata And Quercus Robur Var. Sessiliflora),i Which Once Formed Large Forests ...

Oils Wood Protection As
Wood Protection As Treatment, Oils, Paints, And Varnishes. Outside Coatings Not Only Protect From Outside Conditions, But At The Same Time Seal Up Any Moisture That May Be Present Within The Wood. Moisture Thus Enclosed Makes Rotting Possible. Furthermore, Since Oil And Water Do Not Mix, Paints Will Not Be ...

Paint
Paint. A Paint Is A Mixture Of A Vehicle And A Pigment. Although Oil, Varnish, Glue, Or Any Other Fluid That Will Cement Solid Particles Together In A Satisfactory Manner, May Be Em Ployed As A Vehicle, Linseed Oil Is The Common Vehicle In The Paints That Are Used In ...

Palm
Palm Pal Macece More Than One Thousand Species Of Palms, Grouped In The Family Palmacete, Are Distributed Over The Tropical And Semi Tropical Regions Of The Eastern And Western Hemispheres. The Washington Palm (washingtonia Filifera), And Several Palmettoes (saba! Palmetto, Thriruu Parmfiora, Etc.), Yield Woods That Are Used In The ...

Parts Of A Banded
Parts Of A Banded Truns. A Section Through A Banded Trunk Is Made Up As Follows: A Point Or Pith-cavity Exists At The Center Of The Section: This Pith-cavity Is Surrounded By Con Centric Rings Made Up Of Layers Or Bands Of Heartwood And Sap-wood, Which Together Constitute The Wood, ...

Persimmon Ebony Osage Orange
Persimmon Ebony Osage Orange Cherry Diospyros Toxylon Prunus The Persimmon (diospyros Virginiana) Grows In The Eastern And Southern Parts Of The United States And Is A Member Of The Ebony Family (ebenaxece). The Trees May Be Known By Their Fruit, Which Is Remarkably Astringent When Green, But Sweet And Palatable ...

Physical And Chemical Properties
Physical And Chemical Properties Of Rubber. Crude Rubber Is Tough, Pliable, Impermeable To Water And Gases, And A Very Poor Conductor Of Electricity. Its Most Acteristic Property Is Elasticity; That Is, Its Ability To Return To About Its Original Dimensions After It Has Been Stretched Through A Distance Many Times ...

Physical Properties Of Woods
Physical Properties Of Woods It Is Necessary To Distinguish Between The Physical Properties Of Woods And The Physical Properties Of Stones And Metals. The Variations Due To Life Processes, Age, And Other Physiological Causes Noticeable In The Properties Of Woods, Are Without Equiva Lents Among The Properties Of The Inorganic ...

Physiology Of Trees
Physiology Of Trees. A Study Of Iron Begins At The Furnace; A Knowledge Of Stone Must Include Some Facts With Regard To The Quarry From Which The Stone Was Taken; In The Same Way A Study Of Wood Must Commence With A Study Of The Tree Within Which The Wood ...

Pigments
Pigments. A Pigment Contributes Thickness, Opacity, Hardness, Solidity, And Color. Oil Binds The Particles Of Pigment Together, As Stones Are Bound In Concrete, And Pigment Thickens The Oil. The Hard Particles Of Pigment Assist The Paint In Resisting Abrasion. Oil Shrinks In Drying; And The Minute Openings That Are Formed ...

Pine
Pine. Pinus These Woods, Which Were Formerly Plentiful In The Districts Where The Demands Of Construction Were The Greatest, Have Been More Used In Carpentry And Construction Than Any Others. They Are To The Coniferous Woods What Oaks Are To The Broadleaf Woods; And, In This Country, They Yet Stand ...

Preparation And Purification Of
Preparation And Purification Of Rubber. The Process Employed To Free Crude Rubber From Mechanical Impuri Ties Is Called Washing. The Rubber Is First Soaked In Very Hot Water And Is Then Passed Again And Again Between Corrugated Rollers Of Special Machines That Tear And Break It. At The Same Time ...

Preservative Materials
Preservative Materials Salt, Formaldehyde, Lime, Sulphate Of Iron, Tannin, Oils, Arsenic, And Many Other Substances Have Been Tried Or Considered For Preserving Woods. Of This Entire Series Copper Sulphate, Zinc Chloride, Mercury Bichloride, And Creosote, Either Separately Or In Combinations, Have Succeeded Best; While Of This Smaller List, Zinc Chloride ...

Pressure Processes
Pressure Processes Pressure Processes Are Usually Employed When Large Quantities Of Wood Are To Be Treated. Not Only Are Such Processes Conven Ient And Economical When Practised Upon A Large Scale, But The Results Obtained From Them Are Commonly More Complete And Satisfactory. In Practically All Cases Pressure Is Applied ...

Processes Used To Introduce
Processes Used To Introduce Preservatives Within Woods The Process Is Quite As Important As The Material. The Im Pregnation Must Be Deep And Well Distributed Through The Outer Parts Of The Pieces, And The Wood Must Not Be Injured By The Proc Esses Used To Secure This Impregnation And Distribution. ...

Protection From Marine Woodborers
Protection From Marine Woodborers Many Of The Attempts Made To Protect Woods From The At Tacks Of Marine Woodborers Have Failed, But Some Have Succeeded. Removal During The Breeding Season. This Method, Which May Be Used To Protect Such Objects As Buoys, Bathing Houses, And Rowboats, Is Applicable Only Where ...

Protection Of Joints
Protection Of Joints. Since Heat And Moisture Are The Common Enemies Of Glue, All Joints In Which Glue Is Used Should Be Protected From These Known Elements Of Failure As Far As This Is Possible. ...

Redwood
Redwood Sequoia These Trees Grow In California. There Are Two Species As Follows: The Common Redwood (sequoia Semperrirewl Grows Near The Coast Line Where It Is Said To "follow The Fop." The Trees Are Large And Very Perfect. The Soft. Light, Clean, Reddish-brown Wood Works Easily And Can Be Obtained ...

Resins And Varnishes Gums
Gums, Resins And Varnishes. True Gums Dissolve In Water, While True Resins Dissolve In Oil Or Spirit. There Are Also Gum-resins, Parts Of Which Dissolve In Oil And Parts In Water; And Yet Other Exceptions, As India Rubber, That Dissolve In Special Solvents, Such As Carbon Bisulphide. The Name Resin ...

Sizes Of
Sizes Of It Is Easier To Select Representative Samples Of Stones And Metals Than To Select Samples Of Woods In Which Conditions With Regard To Age, Grain, Moisture, Imperfections And Proportions Of Heartwood Are All Approximately Similar. ...

Some Miscellaneous Processes
Some Miscellaneous Processes. ...

Some Principles Of Fire
Some Principles Of Fire Protection For Completeness Some Space Is Given To The General Field Of Fire Protection. It Was Stated That The Policy In Europe Is To Prevent Fires, But That In This Country, Until Recently, The Principal Demand Has Been For Means To Extinguish Them, And That This ...

Special Properties Of Woods
Special Properties Of Woods Due To Their Organic Origin Cellular Structure, Inflammability At Ordinary Temperatures, And The Qualities That Attract And Nourish Micro-organisms Have No Counterparts Among The Inorganic Materials. For Example, Wood And Other Organic Materials As A Class Take Fire Readily Under Ordinary Conditions And Often Liberate Volumes ...

Spruce
Spruce Picea Spruce Trees Form Forests In North America And In Europe. The Norway Spruce, Or " White Fir" (picea Excelsa), Is The Prin Cipal Species In Europe, While The Black Spruce (picea Nigra), The White Spruce (picea Alba), And The Red Spruce (picea Rubens) Are Notable In Some Parts ...

Superficial Processes
Superficial Processes Many Attempts Have Been Made To Introduce Preservatives Into Woods Without The Assistance Of Pressure, And Several Of These Attempts Have Yielded More Or Less Final And Satisfactory Results. Brush Applications Cost More For Labor Than Do Dipping And Soaking, But The Large Receptacles Necessary For Dipping And ...

Sycamore
Sycamore Platanus The Name Sycamore Applies To A Maple (ater Pseudo-platanus) In Europe, To A Fig Tree (ficus Sycomorus) In The Orient, And To The Buttonball Or Plane Trees (platanus) In North America. Of The Sycamore Or Plane Trees, The Common Or Oriental Plane (platanus Orientalis) Is A Native Of ...

Teak
Teak Tectona, Oldfieldia The Indian Teak (tectona Grandis) Grows In India, Burmah, The Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, And Ceylon, And Is A Very Important Tree That Is Sometimes Referred To As The "oak Of The East Indian Forests." The Less Plentiful African Teak (old Fieldia Africana) Is A Native Of ...

Termites
Termites (order Isoptera). Ter Mites Are Called "white Ants" Because They Are Of A Dingy, White Color, And Be Cause They Live In Communities As True Ants Do. Termites Have Thick Waists And Develop With Incomplete Metamorphosis, Whereas True Ants Have Slender Waists And Develop With Complete Metamorphosis. The Mouths ...

Terrestrial Woodborers
Terrestrial Woodborers The Total Losses Caused By Terrestrial Woodborers Are Enor Mous. Many Trees Are Completely Destroyed By Them. But, As Distinct From Trees, Woods In Construction Do Not Suffer Unduly From These Pests. The Losses In This Direction Are Less Than From Fire Or From Rot. If Plant Products, ...

The Application Of
The Application Of Varnish.varnish May Be Used As Paint Is Used, Or It May Serve In Connection With The More Complicated Surfacing Included Within The Meaning Of The Word Polish. Although Varnish Is Used In Polishing Wood, A Varnished Surface Is To Be Distinguished From A Polished Surface. Many Of ...

The Boiling Process
The Boiling Process. This Process Is Largely Used For The Treatment Of Douglas Fir. Either Green Or Seasoned Woods Can Be Treated. The Boiling Process Is Described By Sherfesee As Follows "this Process Is Used Principally On The Pacific Coast, And For Douglas Fir, An Exceedingly Difficult Wood To Treat. ...

The Burning Of Wood
The Burning Of Wood. Wood Consists Of A Definite Chemical Compound Known As Cellulose, Permeated By Materials Collectively Known As Lignin, And Secretions Such As Resins, Color Ing Matter, And Water. Or, In Terms Of Inorganic Chemistry, It Consists Of Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, And Small Amounts Of Mineral Salts ...

The Chelura
The Chelura (chelura Terebrans). It Is Often Stated That The Chelura Is Among The Active Enemies Of Woods; But Efforts Made To Discover Work Actually By It Have Proved Un Fruitful, And It Is Not Known Where This Form Exists As A Specimen And Where It Exists As A Real ...

The Creoresinate Process
The Creoresinate Process. As First Detailed, Wood Was Subjected To Dry Heat, After Which A Vacuum Was Drawn. Creosote, Resin And Formaldehyde Were Then Applied While Mixed Together. It Is Said That Woods Were Hardened As Well As Pre Served By This Process, Which Has Been Extensively Employed In The ...