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The Creosote Processes
The Creosote Processes. The Ruep Ing And Lowry Processes Have For Their Object The Wide Diffusion Throughout The Wood Of Limited Quantities Of Creosote. In Both Cases Air-seasoned Wood Is Preferred, Although In The Mieping Process Green Woods Can Be And Frequently Are Treated After They Have Been Prepared By ...

The Kyan Process
The Kyan Process. This Was Probably The First Wood Preserving Process Used In The United States, And It Is Yet Among The Best. But Its Usefulness Is Limited, Because The Preservative Employed Is So Expensive. The Timbers Are Placed In Open Non-metallic Troughs Filled With Mercury Bichloride Solution And Held ...

The Large Carpenter Ant
The Large Carpenter Ant (c Amponotus Herculeanns Pennsylvanicus). As Distinct From The Termite This Is A True Ant, And Like Other Ants It Develops With Complete Metamorphosis. It Seldom Attacks Sound Trees, But Does Often Attack Some Of Those That Have Been Wounded Or Are Diseased, And Also, Sometimes, Attacks ...

The Limnoria
The Limnoria (limnoria Lignorum). This Isopod Crusta Cean, Which Has Other Names As The Wood Flea, Sand Flea, Gribble, And Boring Gribble, Is The Prin Cipal One Of Several S Im Il A R Forms That Attack Woods When In Sea-water. The Limnoria Is Much Smaller Than The Shipworm, But ...

The Process
The Process. Many Attempts Have Been Made To Perfect This Process Which Is Designed To Treat Susceptible Timbers Without The Aid Of Cylinders. The Apparatus Required Is Comparatively Simple And The Results Obtained Are More Or Less Satisfactory. The Open-tank Process Is Particularly Convenient When Small Quantities Of Impressionable Woods ...

The Processes
The Processes. ...

The Shipworm
The Shipworm (teredo, Xylotrya, Etc.). This Is A General Name That Applies To Several Species Of Mollusks Of The Genus Teredo, Together With Other Species In Other Genera. The Mol Lusks Known As Shipworms Are Characterized By The Fact That They Bore In Wood, And Are Represented, Along The North-central ...

The Uses Of
The Uses Of Rubber.rubber Is Used In Flooring, Auto Mobile Tires, Belts, And Machine Foundations. In Electrical Science, It Is Used As An Insulating Material; While Its Value As A Waterproofing Agent Is Of Fundamental Importance. It Also Enters Into Hose, Surgical Goods, Sporting Goods, Cements And Other Groups Of ...

The Zinc Creosote Processes
The Zinc Creosote Processes. The Rutgers, Card, And Allardyce Processes Make Use Of Zinc Chloride And Creosote. The First-named Antiseptic Is Used Because It Is Cheap, And The Last Is Used Because, In Addition To Its Intrinsic Value, It Retards The Escape Of The Zinc Chloride. The Two Preservatives Are ...

Uses Of Glue
Uses Of Glue With Woods, Glues Are Used To Wholly Or Partly Replace Nails; And They Are Also Used In Veneered Or "built-up" Work, Such As Is Called For In Cabinet Making, Parquet Floors, And The Bodies Of Fine Carriages. The Latter Field Is So Important As To Warrant Notice. ...

Value Of Forests
Value Of Forests. The Top- Soil Of Forests Is Porous And Loose. The Mixture Of Leaves And Loose Top-soil That Forms Under The Trees Is Known As "humus." The Humus Receives And Pro Tects Young Seeds And Is Also Valuable Because It Assists In Equal Izing The How Of Streams. ...

Varnish
Varnish. Varnish Is Obtained By Dissolving Resins In Oil Or Oil Varnish Differs From Spirit Varnish, In That Oil Takes A Permanent Place As Part Of The Dried Film; Whereas Spirit Simply Dissolves The Varnish Resins And Then Evaporates From Them. The Mixture That Results, When Pigment Is Added To ...

Walnut
Walnut Juglaw The English Or Royal Walnut (jugtans Regia) Is The Principal Species In Europe, While The Black Walnut (juglans Nigra), And The Butternut Or White Walnut (jugtans Cinerea) Grow In The United States. Botanically, Circassian Walnut Is The Same As English, Royal, Or European Walnut. English Walnut Is The ...

Water Seasoning
Water Seasoning. Logs Are Often Stored Under Water. The Tendency To Crack That Exists When They Are Exposed To The Hot Sun, And The Danger From Insects And From Rot, Are Counter Acted As Long As They Remain Thus Submerged. Woods Keep Safely Under Water, And, At The Same Time, ...

Weights And Moduli
Weights And Moduli. It Seems Best Thus Early To Introduce The Two Series Of Weights And Moduli To Be Employed In The Tabu Lar Descriptions Of Species That Form Part Of Succeeding Chapters. Further Descriptions And The Reasons For Preferring These Par Ticular Series Of Figures Will Be Given Later. ...

Whitewood Or Tulip Tree
Whitewood Or Tulip Tree Wood Poplar Or Cotton Wood Cucumber Tree Wood And Basswood. These Unrelated Trees Are Grouped Together Because They Yield Similar, Soft, Clean, Fine-grained Woods That Are All Valued For Indoor Work. The Woods All Last Well When Protected From The Weather, But No One Of Them ...

Willow
Willow Salix The Willows Grow In Many Places On Both Hemispheres. North Americans Value The Fast-growing, Characteristically Shaped Trees; While Europeans Value The Woods. The Principal Experience With The Wood Of The Willow Has Been Gained In Europe. The Wood Is Light, Tough, Easily Worked, And Elastic. It Resists Splintering, ...

Wood Elements
Wood-elements. These Vary In Details, But Are Similar In This Regard That All Partake Of The Nature Of Minute Tubes. The Cavities Within The Tubes Are The "lumina." A Cell-cavity, Or Lumen, May Be Empty, Or It May Contain Water Or Other Com Pounds. Wood-elements Are Of Several Kinds, As ...

Woodborers Failure Of Wood
Failure Of Wood Because Of Animal Life, Woodborers. The Forms Of Animal Life That Attack Woods May Be Divided According To Their Habits Or Environment Into Marine Woodborers' And Terrestrial Woodborers. The Quantity Of Wood Destroyed By Marine Woodborers Is Considerable, But The Proportion Is Much Smaller Than It Was ...

Woods Compared With Stones
Woods Compared With Stones And Metals. Information Relating To The General Properties Of Wood Compares In Importance With Information Relating To The General Properties Of Steel, Stone, And Cement. Engineers Use More Wood Than Any Other Set Of Men, Yet General Facts About Wood, Aside From Those Relating To Its ...

Woods That Are To
Woods That Are To Receive Treatment Some Woods Last Naturally Without Treatment Longer Than Other Woods Will Last After They Have Been Treated. It Is Often Well To Consider The Economy Of Treating Non-durable Woods That Are Tough And Strong And That Respond To Treatment. For Example, Beech Is Desirable ...

Yucca
Yucca Yucca This Genus Includes About Thirty Species And Many Varieties. Of The Species Which Grow In The United States, The Tree Yucca Or Joshua Tree And Eight Others Assume The Habit And Attain The Size Of Small Trees. The Yuccas Are Among The Exceptional Mono Cotyledons That Increase In ...

Zinc Chloride
Zinc Chloride Zinc Chloride, Which Is Obtained By Dissolving Metallic Zinc In Hydrochloric Acid, Is A Cheap And Very Good Wood Preservative, Its Toxic Effects Upon Wood-destroying Fungi Being About Equal To Those Of Creosote; Also It Has An Affinity For Wood Fiber Into Which It Penetrates To A Considerable ...