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WALNUT Juglaw The English or Royal Walnut (Jugtans regia) is the principal species in Europe, while the Black Walnut (Juglans nigra), and the Butternut or White Walnut (Jugtans cinerea) grow in the United States. Botanically, Circassian Walnut is the same as English, Royal, or European Walnut. English Walnut is the name used almost exclusively by those who grow the tree for its nuts, while Circassian Walnut is the name usually applied to the wood.' The English Walnut was introduced from Asia into Greece and Italy, and, through these countries, into others. It is cultivated in the United States, but principally for its nuts. The appear ance and desirability of the wood differ with localities. Pieces cut from English trees are said to be paler and coarser than those cut from Italian and French trees. Ordinary pieces exhibit large open figures, with waves and streaks of gray and yellowish white, while exceptional excrescences known as burrs, which are sometimes two or three feet across, yield figured woods of great beauty. Circassian Walnut is very valuable, and is now used almost exclusively in costly decorations, piano cases, and high grade furniture. No other wood is better for gun-stocks, and, until the battle of Waterlo, othe demand in Europe for this pur pose was so great that as much as six hundred pounds sterling is said to have been paid for a single tree.

At the present time (1917) the supply of Black Walnut for making stocks for military rifles is ample. A manufacturer writes as follows: "At the beginning of the great war (1914) we were under the im pression that we might experience some difficulty in securing sufficient of this wood; but we have had no such trouble, in fact, we have had much more of it offered to us than we require." American or Black Walnut was once very popular, in the United States, as a cabinet wood. The trees are now scarce; lighter colored woods are preferred, and, at present, walnut is seldom seen save in gun-stocks and old furniture. The figures that characterize pieces of Circassian Walnut are absent in the darker, more uniformly tinted American woods. Black Walnut trees seldom form forests by themselves, but are usually found mixed with those of other species. They grow rapidly, but the valuable heartwood does not mature until a number of years after the trees have been planted.

Small pieces of dark, rich brown wood are obtained from the Mexican or Arizona Walnut (Juglans rupestris), which grows in some of the sparsely settled regions of the Southwest, where it is also known as the Western, Dwarf, Little, and California Walnut. The true California Walnut (Juglan californica) is found on the Pacific Coast from the Sacramento River to the San Bernardino Mountains, and sometimes attains diameters of fifteen inches. The blue-brown woods can be, but seldom are, used in cabinet making. The White Walnut or Butternut (Juglans cinerea) yields a rather soft, light, grayish-brown heartwood that is sometimes used in cabinet making.

Walnut treed may be known by their nuts. The husks or pods are not quartered as in the case of the hickories.

wood, trees, english, black and circassian